未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

先驱者10号:首次观测系外行星

Pioneer 10: Our First View into Outer Planets

[♪ INTRO]
[前奏]
During the 1960s,
二十世纪六十年代
humans started exploring our neck of the solar system neighborhood:
人类开始探索我们在太阳系一带的邻居
The Moon, Mars, Venus.
月球 水星 金星
But to get to the more distant and more massive worlds,
但要想到达更遥远更庞大的星体
crafts would need to clear one of space’s boss levels,
航天器需要清除太空的主关卡之一
a cosmic fence of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter.
即火星和木星间小行星带形成的宇宙屏障
The contender for this level would be the appropriately named Pioneer 10.
这一关的竞争者被恰当称为先驱者10号
NASA’s Pioneer 10 was one in a long line of missions
美国宇航局的先驱者10号航天探测器
seeking to explore the greater cosmos,
肩负着探索更广阔宇宙的漫长任务
but unlike its predecessors,
但不同于以往先驱系列的探测器
it was headed out into the great frontier:
它飞向了更广阔的宇宙
The outer solar system.
那就是外太阳系
To prepare for the long journey,
为了准备这次长途旅行
Pioneer 10 was designed to run exclusively on nuclear fuel,
先驱者10号只依靠核燃料运行
no solar panels involved, a first for space crafts.
取消太阳能电池板 此设计史无前例
The generator used pellets of Plutonium
发电机使用的是钚小球
that released heat as some of the atoms decayed.
当部分原子衰变时 这些小球会释放热量
That heat not only kept the electronics from freezing while it was so far from the Sun,
这些热量不仅使设备在远离太阳时不被低温损毁
but was also directly converted into electricity without any moving parts.
而且无需驱动便可直接转化为电能
And as with every journey, you don’t know who you might find,
每次旅行 你不知道沿途会遇见谁
so Pioneer carried some bling with it:
因此先驱者号加上了些金光闪闪的东西:
a gold-plated plaque with diagrams
一块绘有示意图的镀金铝板
for any extraterrestrials to decipher.
可供任何一个外星人破译解读
It was a predecessor to the Voyager golden record.
这是旅行者号金唱片上图形的最初版本
Now that the craft’s tank was full,
现在探测器的油箱已满
Pioneer launched on March 2nd, 1972,
先驱者10号于1972年3月2日发射升空
using a fancy new three-stage rocket to give it the extra oomph it needed
发射用到了一种新型三级运载火箭
to get all the way across the asteroid belt and to Jupiter.
为其提供穿过小行星带到达木星所需的额外推力
Zooming off at 52,000 kilometers an hour,
发射速度达到了每小时5.2万公里
it was the fastest object ever to leave earth at the time
它是当时发射速度最快的探测器
reaching Mars’s orbit in just 12 weeks!
仅仅12周就抵达了火星轨道
For reference, today’s Martian robots take about half a year
作个参考 如今的火星探测机器人需要
or more to make that same journey.
大约半年或更久才能完成同样的旅程
After waving Mars goodbye,
在和火星挥手告别后
Pioneer faced one of its biggest challenges-
先驱者10号迎来了它最大的挑战之一
a seven-month voyage through the dreaded asteroid belt to reach Jupiter.
穿过可怕小行星带 到达木星历时七个月的航行
The treacherous trek is peppered
这段危险的旅程中
with hundreds of thousands of space rocks,
布满了成千上万个太空岩石
varying in size from pebbles to boulders as large as some dwarf planets.
大小不一 小石如鹅卵 巨石如矮行星
If a stray rock with enough momentum collided with Pioneer,
如果有颗足够动量的散落岩石与探测器相撞
well, the mission would be kaput.
那么这个任务就泡汤了
And experts estimated there was a 1 in 10 chance
专家估计先驱者10号有十分之一的几率
Pioneer would suffer serious damage.
会遭受到严重损害
During the journey, the spacecraft did encounter some asteroid hits,
尽管比预期的要少 飞船在飞行过程中
although fewer than expected.
的确也遇到了一些小行星的撞击
All in all, it was pretty smooth sailing,
总而言之 这是一次相当顺利的航行
hinting to researchers that it wouldn’t be too difficult
这也提示了研究人员 向太空派遣更多飞行任务
to send more missions through.
并不会太困难
While traveling through that bumpy road,
在穿越这条崎岖不平的道路时
Pioneer took some pictures of the landscape,
先驱者号拍摄了一些风景照片
capturing Zodiacal light,
捕捉到了黄道光
that’s the light from the Sun that reflected off of
黄道光是由漂浮在星际空间中的
tiny dust particles floating in interplanetary space.
微小尘埃颗粒反射的太阳光
This made it the first spacecraft to observe it while pointing away from the Sun,
这使它成为首个飞离太阳系时观测到黄道光的飞船
confirming that light wasn’t related to Earth.
证实了黄道光与地球无关
After slipping through the asteroid fence,
在先驱者10号穿过小行星屏障后
Pioneer reached its first flyby of our biggest planet, Jupiter, in December of 1973.
1973年12月 它首次接近太阳系最大的行星 木星
In addition to snapping some pretty pictures that would go on to win an Emmy,
除了拍摄到一些将获得艾美奖的精美照片
Pioneer collected data on Jupiter’s magnetic field
先驱者号还收集了木星磁场以及
and the massive belts of radiation enveloping the planet.
覆盖这颗行星的大量辐射带的数据
In fact, the radiation was so strong that scientists blamed it
事实上辐射非常强 使得科学家们将
for the only failed bit of data collection during the flyby.
近飞探测中唯一的数据收集失败归咎于它
And there was serious concern that the radiation would kill a lot of Pioneer’s instruments.
人们很担心辐射会毁坏先驱者10号的很多仪器
Approximately 78 minutes after the closest approach,
大约在先驱者10号接近后的78分钟里
Pioneer 10 passed behind Jupiter’s limb for a radio occultation experiment.
经过木星的边缘进行了无线电掩星实验
But Pioneer left unscathed.
但是先驱者10号毫发无损
This paved the way for all future missions to Jupiter,
这为今后所有的木星探测任务 比如伽利略号和朱诺号
like Galileo and Juno,
铺平了道路
in knowing how much shielding they actually needed.
这让我们知道它们到底需要多少防护
Their success was built on this first solar system road trip.
它们的成功建立在首次太阳系自驾游的基础上
Other data demonstrated that Jupiter, despite being called a gas giant,
其他数据表明 尽管木星被称为气态巨星
is actually mostly liquid
但其实际上主要是液态的
and also more massive than scientists originally thought.
而且比科学家最初认为的还要大
But a flyby is just that, and Pioneer just kept zooming along.
但近飞就是这样 先驱者号只能继续快速前进
Jupiter’s gravity adjusted Pioneer’s course,
木星的引力调整了先驱者号的轨道
aiming it away from the rest of the gas giants,
让它远离其他气态巨行星目标
and vaguely in the direction of the star Aldebaran in the constellation of Taurus.
大体飞向金牛座毕宿五的方向
Later missions would have to continue building up the solar system’s family portrait,
之后的任务将继续构建太阳系的全家福
like its younger sibling, Pioneer 11,
比如它首次访问土星的
which visited Saturn for the first time,
双胞胎弟弟先驱者11号
and Voyager 2, which is the only spacecraft to visit
以及唯一造访过小行星带以外
all four planets beyond the asteroid belt.
所有四颗行星的旅行者2号
But it wasn’t time to relax just yet.
但现在还不是放松的时候
Pioneer’s science mission continued,
先驱者号的科学任务还在继续进行
studying the particles streaming through the otherwise empty vacuum of space.
研究粒子在真空中的流动
It examined particles being belched out by the Sun
它检测到了太阳喷发出的粒子以及
and extrasolar cosmic rays creeping into our neck of the galactic woods.
潜入我们银河系深处的太阳系外宇宙射线
Pioneer’s main scientific mission was officially over in 1997,
1997年先驱者10号的主要科学任务正式结束
but NASA kept contact with the spacecraft
但美国宇航局仍与该航天器保持联系
to refine how they could track future interstellar missions.
以跟进改良他们未来的星际任务技术
And it just kept going, and going, and going…
先驱者10号还在继续飞行 一直飞啊飞……
Until 1998, Pioneer 10 was the farthest spacecraft from Earth.
先驱者10号曾是距离地球最远的飞行器
But Voyager 1 was traveling out of the solar system faster,
但直到1998年旅行者1号飞离太阳系速度更快
so it now holds the record.
所以现在由旅行者1号保持这一记录
In April of 2002, Pioneer 10 returned its last bit of telemetry data.
2002年4月 先驱者10号传回了最后一点遥测数据
Its nuclear-powered battery was dying,
它的核动力电池即将耗尽
but the craft had enough juice to send
但飞船有足够电量对地球发出联络信号
a very faint digital response to Earth’s wave hello.
发出非常微弱的数字信号响应
The following January, it waved back for the last time.
第二年1月 它最后一次挥手告别
A mission that was only supposed to last for 21 months
一项原本只计划持续21个月的任务
ended up living for over three decades.
最终却持续了30多年
And hey, in two million years,
嘿 在200万年后
it’ll make its next flyby as a space-based ghost ship
它将作为一艘太空幽灵飞船
saying a silent hello to the star Aldebaran.
向毕宿五无声地打招呼
Maybe then, that plaque will finally find some readers.
也许到那时 那块铝板最终会找到一些读者
Until then, you can bring Pioneer 10 along on your own journeys
在那之前 你可以带着先驱者10号
with March’s pin of the month!
三月的徽章踏上你自己的旅程
This month’s pin features this space pioneer
这个徽章展示了这位太空先驱的特色
and it’s available all month at DFTBA.com/SciShow.
整个月都可以在DFTBA官网上买到
It’s only available in March, so make sure to order yours soon.
它只在3月份有售 快来订购你的徽章吧
In April, we’ll have a whole new pin for you.
四月份我们会为你们推出一个全新的徽章
[♪ OUTRO]
[终曲]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

从地球到太阳系外的宇宙:先驱者10号的故事

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Norah

审核员

审核员GURU

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apuQh1Vve3I

相关推荐