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毕加索《格尔尼卡》

Picasso’s Guernica: Great Art Explained

in 1937 Picasso was the most famous artist in the world.
1937年毕加索是世界上最负盛名的艺术家
A prolific innovator of art forms,
是一位多产的艺术创新者
he had already pioneered cubism, invented collage,
他曾开创立体派 发明剪贴画艺术
and made major contributions to symbolism and surrealism.
并为象征主义和超现实主义作出主要贡献
And he was just about to create the most powerful anti-war painting in history.
他创作了历史上最有力的反战作品
《维纳斯的诞生》
《蒙娜丽莎》
《格尔尼卡》
《星月夜》
《阿尔诺菲尼夫妇像》
《1808年5月3日》
《佛利贝尔杰酒吧》
《无标题》
名作赏析
战争时期的艺术品
Monday April the 26th 1937,
1937年4月26日星期一
German warplanes began appearing in the sky above the small Basque village of Guernica.
德国的战斗机出现在格尔尼卡的小镇巴斯克上空
It was 4:30 p.m.
当天下午4点半
and the planes were here on behalf of general Franco’s fascist regime.
这些飞机代表弗朗哥将军的法西斯政权盘旋于此
and as a macabre rehearsal for the blitzkrieg tactics of World War II.
为二战的闪电式战术做准备
The attack was timed to maximise civilian casualties.
此次袭击意在造成最大的伤亡
For over three hours, 25 bombers dropped
整整三个小时 25架轰炸机在小镇投放
100,000 pounds of explosive and incendiary bombs on the village,
100000磅空爆弹和燃烧弹
reducing it to rubble and killing 1/3 of the population.
小镇几乎被夷为平地 死伤人数近三分之一
This brutal and unprovoked attack shocked the world,
这次残忍的突袭震惊了全世界
it also inspired Picasso to produce a political painting,
同时也激发了毕加索创作一幅政治画的灵感
which is as relevant today
这幅画对于今天的价值
as it was when he produced it over 80 years ago.
和八十多年前它刚被创作出来时一样
委任
in 1936 a group of right-wing generals launched a military coup
1936年 一群右翼分子在西班牙共和国的合法选举中
on the legally elected Spanish Republic
发起一场军事政变
and started the Spanish Civil War.
西班牙从此开始内战
The war had been going on for six months
这场战争持续了六个月
when Picasso was given a commission
当时毕加索受西班牙共和国政府的委托
to produce a large-scale mural for the Spanish Republic’s Pavilion
创作一幅大型壁画
at the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris,
用于1937年在巴黎世界博览会上展示
where Picasso was living.
当时他就住在巴黎
Picasso was famously apolitical
毕加索是出了名的不关心政治
and told the Republicans “I don’t do politics”,
他告诉共和党人:“我的作品不涉及政治”
but after months of staring as a blank canvas
但在那之后的数月 他一直盯着空白的画布
he was still struggling to come up with ideas.
却仍然找不到新作品的灵感
History intervened and Picasso found his subject.
历史事件的爆发 让他找到了题材
Like the rest of the world,
和世界其他地方一样
he opened his newspaper on April the 27th
他打开4月27日的报纸
to find devastating images of the bombing of Guernica.
看到了格尔尼卡遭遇毁灭性轰炸的照片
Picasso was horrified
他震惊了
and frantically started work on new sketches for the Commission.
并发狂似的开始为受托的画绘制稿图
He would complete the enormous painting in only three weeks.
他仅用三周就完成了这幅巨作
Perhaps Picasso’s greatest skill was reinvention?
也许毕加索最厉害的技能就是重塑?
In the Demoiselles d’Avignon
在《亚威农少女》中
he played with idealized female beauty.
他采用的技巧是理想化女性之美
and in Guernica,
在《格尔尼卡》中
he would reinvigorate the genre of historical painting.
他让历史画的流派重新振兴
材料
The first thing you notice is the gigantic size. It is four meters by eight meters
首先能注意到的是它巨大的尺寸 它大小有4*8 米
or 11 feet by 26 feet,
也可以说是11*26尺
and is one piece of material
是一幅完整的画
rather than several canvases sewn together.
而不是由小幅画拼接而成
After Paris it was to be sent around the world to raise money for Spain.
巴黎展之后 它被送去世界各处为西班牙筹款
Because of the size,
由于它的尺寸过大
each time it travelled the canvas had to be removed from the stretcher,
每一次转移都必须经过一次又一次的延展
rolled up, packed, and shipped again and again.
卷起 包装 以及运输
In that sense we can compare Guernica
从某种意义上我们可以将《格尔尼卡》
to portable tapestries known in Spain as “Sagas”.
比作便携式挂毯 西班牙语叫做“传奇”
They were used in Spain and other countries, from the fifteenth century –
从十五世纪开始 西班牙和其他国家就将这些挂毯用作
as temporary curtains banners and wall hangings during Lent
“大斋节”期间的窗帘横幅和壁挂
like Guernica, it was propaganda – but of a religious kind.
比如《格尔尼卡》 它也是一种宣传 但是是宗教性质的
He primed the canvas with several layers of reflective lead white,
他在画布上涂了好几层反光的的铅白色
an antiquated paint base used by Leonardo da Vinci.
这是列奥纳多·达·芬奇常用的一种旧颜料
Picasso wanted a reflective surface to paint on.
毕加索想在一个反光面上涂色
The ground layer was important, as it was to form part of the composition.
底层基色是很重要的 因为它也是作品的一部分
He used normal household paint with a minimum amount of gloss,
他用带有少量光泽的普通家用油漆
so the white parts of the painting are luminous, whereas the blacks are matt black.
这样白色的部分就会很明亮 黑色的部分就显得亚黑
The speed at which he paints, leave splashes such as here
他上色的速度很快 导致有喷溅痕迹 例如这里
and mistakes – adding to the urgency of the painting.
以及失误——说明了绘画的紧迫性
The other thing you notice straight away is the absence of colour,
另一个能直观注意到的是这幅画色彩的匮乏
but in 1937 people only experience current events in black and white,
但是1937年人们经历的那些时事都是黑白的
and Guernica was as current as you could get.
《格尔尼卡》也正如你所看到的一样
Picasso himself saw the Spanish Civil War
当时毕加索在报纸上看到的
play out in black and white in newspapers,
西班牙内战新闻就是黑白的
and he even gives us a suggestion of torn newsprint in the horse’s chainmail.
他甚至通过马链甲里面撕破的报纸来提示我们
Picasso was the magpie of the art world,
毕加索有收集零碎艺术品的爱好
with an encyclopaedic knowledge of art history.
对艺术历史也有很渊博的知识
With Guernica, it is these visual references that anchor the work.
《格尔尼卡》的视觉效果正是参考这些收集的作品
Peter PaulRubens, was an artist Picasso loved,
彼得·保罗·鲁本斯是毕加索喜欢的艺术家
and Rubens painting “An Allegory Showing the Effects of War” from 1638,
他1638年的作品《展示战争影响的寓言》
is the work the most inspired Picasso’s Guernica.
给毕加索的《格尔尼卡》带来最大的灵感
If we flip Rubens painting,
如果我们翻阅鲁本斯的作品
we can see the similarities in composition.
能看到作品间有相似之处
From left to right we get a weeping woman with a child in her arms.
从左往右 我们能看到一位哭泣的母亲抱着孩子
A flying fury of war, holding out a torch,
战争的恐惧肆意蔓延 有人举着火炬
and a woman facing the heavens with outstretched arms.
还有高举双手面向天空的女人
We can also compare the weeping woman to Michelangelo’s”La Pieta”
我们可以对照画中哭泣的女人和米开朗琪罗的《圣殇》
and the flying fury to Prud’hons “Allegory of Justice”
还有举着火炬的人与蒲鲁东·昂斯的《正义的寓言》
Goya, an artist Picasso admired is another inspiration.
戈雅是毕加索的另一位启发者
3rd of May 1808 also depicts a nighttime massacre.
《1808年5月3日》也是一幅夜间大屠杀的画
The central figures pose is reminiscent of the screaming woman
画中关键人物的姿势让人联想到尖叫的女人
and inevitably both figures can be compared to a crucifixion,
两幅画受刑的姿势都极其相似
and in both paintings we find the sign of the stigmata.
而且在这两幅画中 我们都能找到圣痕
There are also comparisons to be made with his own earlier work.
这幅画和他的早期作品也有相似之处
But there is more than just iconographic inspiration here.
但这幅画上不仅仅是肖像相似
Surprisingly
令人意外的是
Picasso’s Guernica has no specific references
毕加索的《格尔尼卡》没有直接引用
to the actual bombing of the Basque village.
巴斯克小镇的爆炸画面
He has created a fictitious scene
他创造了一个虚构的场面
whose intensity evokes the suffering of all wars.
强烈的视觉冲击呈现了所有战争的痛苦
Guernica is an allegorical painting
《格尔尼卡》是一幅寓意画
in the same way Ruben‘s work
和鲁本斯的作品一样
is an allegorical response to the 30 Years’ war.
通过寓言反映当时30年的战争
构图
The scene is intentionally chaotic
画中的场景故意画得很杂乱
to evoke the horror and confusion of war.
以此来唤起人们对战争的恐惧和困惑
We are thrown into apocalyptic action where characters overlap and intersect.
我们陷入了画面人物交叉重叠的大混乱中
Destruction, violent death and mutilation are everywhere.
破坏 惨死 以及残尸都随处可见
Despite Picasso’s avant-garde qualities. he trained as a classical artist
尽管毕加索的思想很前卫 但他始终是一名古典艺术家
and Guernica uses classical language.
《格尔尼卡》运用的也是古典语言
Despite the chaos, there is in fact a clear visual order.
虽然看着杂乱 但视觉上仍有着严整的统一
Picasso balances the composition by organizing the figures
毕加索将人物从左往右分成三组
into three vertical groupings, moving left to right,
使作品的左右两端形成相互平衡
while the central figures are stabilized within a large triangle of light.
而中心部分则由一个大三角的光来平衡
To the far left we see a wide-eyed bull
最左边有一只公牛瞪着眼睛
with a dark body and white head.
它的身体是暗色的 头是白色的
The horse and bull are images Picasso used his entire career.
毕加索的整个艺术生涯 都有马和公牛的图像
Part of the life and death ritual of Spanish bullfights.
这是西班牙斗牛中生死仪式一部分
The bull is the only figure that is looking at us, the viewer.
画中只有公牛凝视着观画者
Picasso himself thought of the bull as representing brutality and darkness.
毕加索认为公牛是残忍与邪恶的象征
Its gaze is cold and detached.
它的凝视很冷漠
It has come to be seen as representing Fascism or Franco himself.
仿佛自己是法西斯或佛朗哥的代表
Its tail smoulders like the smoking remains of Guernica.
它燃烧的尾巴就像格尔尼卡残余的战火
Underneath the bull,
在公牛的下方
a woman is holding a dead child, screaming towards the heavens,
一个女人抱着死去的孩子仰天惨叫
her bare breasts that once fed her child are exposed,
曾经用于哺乳的胸部正裸露在空气中
and her eyes are in the shape of tears.
她的眼睛呈泪水的形状
She is a secular virgin and child tainted by war.
她是未经世事的少女 孩子被战争所污染
Further down lies a dead soldier representing both futility and hope.
再往下是一位战士的尸体 他代表着徒劳和希望
His disjointed parts are strewn about the floor.
他的残肢散落各处
One severed arm carries a Broken Sword of failure
其中一只手握着一把断了的失败之剑
from which grows a white poppy – the symbol of remembrance and hope.
剑旁长出了一朵白色的罂粟花——纪念和希望的象征
In his other hand the signs of the stigmata, represent the ultimate sacrifice.
另一只手上的圣痕意味着最终的牺牲
Between the bull and the horse we can just about see a dove,
在公牛和马之间我们能看到一只鸽子
normally a representation of peace.
通常鸽子代表着和平
Picasso‘s version, with his pained expression and broken body
但毕加索这幅画上的表情以及残缺的身体
suggests that peace is all but destroyed.
暗示和平已经被摧毁了
The light bulb is the single image of 20th century technology
电灯泡是20世纪科技的产物
and has multiple meanings.
它还有多种解释
Perhaps it is the eye of God overlooking the madness of war?
比如上帝之眼 俯瞰着战争的疯狂?
The more accepted interpretation
更说得通的说法是
is that it represents the technology that destroyed Guernica.
它代表着摧毁格尔尼卡的高科技
In Spanish the word for lights bulb is “bombilla”,
西班牙语的电灯泡读作“bombilla”
which brings to mind the word “bomb”.
其中的“bomb”意思是爆炸
The screaming horse at the center is collapsing from his gaping wound
中间尖叫的马因为伤口的撕裂正逐渐倒下
but its head remains upward as it struggles to live.
但它的头仍保持向上的姿势 仿佛想要努力活下来
You can almost hear those ear piercing screams.
你似乎能听到刺耳的尖叫声
Picasso himself saw the terrorised horse as the people of Guernica.
这些受惊的马对毕加索而言就像格尔尼卡的平民一样
The burning woman is perhaps the strongest representation
这个燃烧的女人也许是这幅画中
of the paintings anti-war feeling.
最具有反战争意义的了
A woman is trapped in a burning building, pleading at the sky
她被关在一个燃烧的房子中 向天祈求
perhaps to God?
也许是向上帝?
Perhaps to the German planes to stop the destruction?
也许是想让德国轰炸机停止破坏?
As she does so, the building continues to burn and
即便她这么做了 房子仍持续燃烧着
crumble around her. Death is inevitable.
她崩溃了 死亡已无可避免
Another terrified woman with an injured leg
另一个受惊的女人腿受了伤
bleeding from the knee and trying to stop the blood with her hand.
她在用手止着从膝盖中流出的血
She is looking longingly towards the oil lamp
她渴望地向着油灯的方向看
It is actually the oil lamp, which is the source of the light in the scene.
那盏油灯 是画面中的光源所在
and not the electric light bulb.
不是通电的电灯
The tiny flame is hope.
这微小的火焰是希望
And it is strong enough to shed light upon the entire scene.
它足以散发足够的光芒照亮整个背景
It is the only sliver of Hope in the painting
这是画中唯一的一缕希望
and is thought to represent the spirit of the Spanish Republic.
也代表着西班牙共和国精神
Guernica is not supposed to have a singular interpretation.
《格尔尼卡》不应该只有单一的理解
As Picasso said: “We all know that art is not truth.
正如毕加索说过:“我们都知道艺术并非事实
Art is a lie that makes us realise truth”
艺术是谎言 但它让我们意识到事实”
Guernica’s ambiguityand lack of specific historical detail
《格尔尼卡》没有具体的历史细节
make the painting timeless.
这也导致它的影响不受时间限制
接纳
巴黎艺术展开幕
Picasso worked on the painting for 35 days
毕加索的这幅巨作历时35天
and finished it on the 4th of June1937.
于1937年6月4日完成
When it was unveiled at the Paris Expo,
当它在巴黎展中首次揭幕的时候
the public reaction was mixed.
公众反应不一
It was too avant-garde for the Spanish officials,
对西班牙政府而言它过于前卫
who preferred another more traditional painting
他们更喜欢委托欧拉帝沃·费瑞尔
that they’d also commissioned By Horacio Ferrer.
作的另一幅偏传统的画
However – after Paris, Guernica’s reputation started to grow steadily,
然而 巴黎展之后 《格尔尼卡》
as it travelled the world to raise money for the Republican cause.
随着它环游全球为共和国筹资而声名大噪
The start of the Second World War
二战的开始
made its imagery more recognisable – and painfully familiar.
使它的画面感更加具象 以及痛苦的似曾相识
News announcer: “A most eventful year – Spain’s three-year-old civil war ends,
新闻播音员:“今年真是多事之秋——西班牙的三年内战结束了
and Generalissimo Franco enters Barcelona”
大元帅佛朗哥进入巴塞罗那”
Picasso refused to allow the painting to be seen inSpain while Franco ruled.
毕加索拒绝让这幅画在弗朗哥统治期间出现在西班牙
And Guernica was senton another tour.
因此《格尔尼卡》再次开始环游
This time to the United States,
这一次是去美国
to raise money for Spanish refugees fleeing Fascism.
为逃离法西斯的西班牙难民筹资
By 1940, it was at the Museum of Modern Art in New York,
1940年 它被送到纽约现代艺术博物馆
where it stayed on semi-permanent display for the next forty years.
并在此展示了长达40年之久
Picasso continued livingin Nazi occupied Paris.
毕加索则继续住在被纳粹占领的巴黎
It is said that when a German officer visited him,
据说一位德国官员拜访他时
he saw a photograph of Guernica on Picasso’s wall.
在墙上看到《格尔尼卡》的照片
He asked Picasso:”Did you do that?”
他问毕加索:“这(作品)是你做的吗?”
Picasso replied: “No YOU did”
毕加索回答道:“不 是你做的”
In NewYork, Guernica’s fame grew,
在纽约 《格尔尼卡》的名声大增
and during the Vietnam War it became a powerful anti-war symbol.
越南战争期间它成为反战争强有力的象征
In 1974 aprotester defaced the painting, with the words “KILL LIES ALL”.
1974年 一位抗议者在画上写道“KILL LIES ALL”
It created international headlines.
这在当时成为头条新闻
Guernica was covered in heavy varnish
由于《格尔尼卡》表面有厚重的漆
and the graffiti did no real damage at all.
所以那些文字并没有对画造成任何损坏
The fact thatGuernica inspired such passions
《格尔尼卡》能激发这样的盛怒
was a testament toits enduring power
正是它不朽力量的有力证明
Picasso died in 1973 at the age of 91.
毕加索死于1973年 享年91岁
He had produced 50,000 works of art,
他创作了5万幅艺术作品
including 1,885 paintings.
其中包括1885幅画作
While numerous works by Picasso are masterpieces,
毕加索的众多作品都是杰作
Guernica stands alone.
但《格尔尼卡》是独一无二的
Franco died in 1975,
佛朗哥死于1975年
and with democracy restored, the paintings long exile was over.
随着民主政治的恢复 这幅画的他乡之旅也结束了
归国
Even in the 21st century, Guernica was causing controversy.
即便是在21世纪 《格尔尼卡》依然能引起争议
A tapestry of Guernica was put on display at the United Nations.
联合国总部大厦挂着一条《格尔尼卡》的挂毯
In 2003 the, then Secretary of State Colin Powell.
2003年 美国当时的国务卿科林·鲍威尔
delivered a televised speech at the UN – arguing for war on Iraq.
于联合国发表支持伊拉克战争的电视演讲之后
In a form of blatant censorship the Bush administration,
布什政府以公然审查的形式
requested that the tapestry was covered up.
要求掩盖这条挂毯
It is extraordinary that over 60 years AFTER its completion
即便《格尔尼卡》已经完成了六十多年
Guernica’s message worried even the most powerful nation on earth.
它的寓意还能让世界上最强大的国家忌惮 这是不寻常的
No work of art in the 20th century has left its mark,
20世纪没有任何一幅艺术作品能有这样的影响
in quite the way Guernica has.
《格尔尼卡》做到了
It has become the universal symbol of indiscriminate slaughter,
它成为肆意屠杀的象征
and it has helped to shape a century.
并塑造了一个世纪
The lessons of Guernica, of universal suffering have still not beenlearned.
我们仍未从悲惨的《格尔尼卡》中吸取教训
And that is why Guernica is just as important today as it was in 1937
这就是为什么《格尔尼卡》不管在1937年还是现在都一样重要
Guernica is not just “contemporary art”,
《格尔尼卡》不仅仅是“当代艺术”
It is history.
它更是历史

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《格尔尼卡》是西班牙立体主义画家帕勃洛·鲁伊斯·毕加索于20世纪30年创作的一幅巨型油画,长7.76米,高3.49米,现收藏于马德里国家索菲亚王妃美术馆。该画是以法西斯纳粹轰炸西班牙北部巴斯克的重镇格尔尼卡、杀害无辜的事件创作的一幅画,采用了写实的象征性手法和单纯的黑、白、灰三色营造出低沉悲凉的氛围,渲染了悲剧性色彩,表现了法西斯战争给人类的灾难。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Rhine

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJLH7JAsBHA

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