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皮亚杰的认知发展阶段理论 – 译学馆
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皮亚杰的认知发展阶段理论

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

皮亚杰理论指出 人的认知发展需要经过四个阶段
Piaget’s theory argues that we have to conquer four stages of cognitive development.
第一个阶段 感觉运动阶段
First, the sensori-motor stage.
第二个阶段 前运算阶段
Second, the pre-operational stage.
第三个阶段 具体运算阶段
Third the concrete operational stage
第四个阶段 形式运算阶段
and fourth the formal operational stage.
只有随着年龄的增长
Only once we have gone through all the stages,
我们也经历了所有阶段后
at what age can vary, we are
才能拥有真正的人类智慧
able to reach full human intelligence.
第一 从出生到两岁的感觉运算阶段
One, the sensori-motor stage, ages birth to two.
在这个阶段
In the sensori-motor stage,
我们通过体验和运动来开发五种感官
we develop through experiences and movement our five senses.
我们希望通过看 听 闻 尝 摸
Our brain wants to see, hear, smell,
去尽可能地感知世界
taste and touch as much as possible.
我们先从简单反射开始
First we start with simple reflexes
之后再发展第一个习惯
and soon after we develop our first habits.
从四个月大起
From four months old,
我们渐渐开始注意自身以外的事物
we become aware of things beyond our own body
等再大些时 我们开始能够有意识地学习
and then as we get older we learn to do things intentionally.
而记忆的发展是一个关键的里程碑
A key milestone is the development of working memory
依照皮亚杰的说法
or in Piaget terms’Our realization of object
这叫做“客体永久性”
permanence’.
未形成“客体永久性”概念前
Before that,
当妈妈拿出一只玩具熊 然后再把它藏起来
our mom can show and then hide a teddy
我们会认为它不见了
and we would think is gone.
在这个阶段 我们认识到就算这个东西不在眼前
After we understand that objects continue to exist
但它依然存在
even when we can’t see them.
我们开始关心世间万物
We start becoming curious about everything.
我们想要去闻闻花香 去品尝食物
We want to smell flowers, taste food,
去听音乐 去和陌生人交流
listen to sounds and talk to strangers.
为了经历更丰富的人生 我们采取行动
To explore more, we move, we learn to sit,
学习坐 爬行 站立 行走 以及奔跑
crawl, stand, walk and even to run.
这些循序渐进的体能活动发展了我们的认知
This increased physical mobility consequently leads to increased cognitive development,
但这时的我们以自我为中心
but we remain egocentric
这意味着我们只从自身出发
– meaning we can perceive the world only
去看待世界
from our own point of view.
第二 从两岁到七岁的前运算阶段
Two: The pre-operational stage, Ages 2 to 7.
我们的思维主要是依靠具体的符号和直觉
Our thinking is mainly categorized for symbolic functions and intuitive thoughts.
我们有很多浪漫的想法 并且相信任何事物都是有生命的
We have lots of fantasies and believe objects are alive.
这时我们还不具备具体的认知能力
As we are not able to apply specific cognitive operations,
皮亚杰将称之为“前运算阶段”
Piaget calls this stage ‘pre-operational’.
我们学习说话 理解文字 图片
We learn to speak and understand that words, images,
以及别人动作的意义
and gestures are symbols for something else.
当我们画全家福时
When we draw our family,
并不会在意画出来的人物和现实中的那个人是不是一模一样
we are not concerned about drawing each person to scale
而是只要能够突出人物的典型特征即可
but rather with their symbolic meanings.
我们喜欢玩过家家的游戏
We love to play pretend,
因为它能让我们从中获得新的体验 受益匪浅
which allows us to experience something new and learn a lot.
在第四阶段
At the round stage four,
我们中的大多数会开始对这个世界感到好奇并常常问为什么
most of us become very curious and ask many questions.
我们想知道所有事情
we want to know everything.
我们称之为推理能力初诞生
We can call it the birth of primitive reasoning.
皮亚杰称之为“直觉阶段”
Piaget calls it ‘the intuitive age’
因为在这个阶段 我们能意识到自己拥有大量的知识
because while we realize that we have a vast amount of knowledge,
却不知道是它们是如何获得的
we have no idea how we acquired it.
在这个阶段 我们思维依然以自我为中心
Our thinking in this stage is still pretty egocentric.
认为别人看到的世界和我们是一样的
We think others see the world like we do
不理解不同人之间对事物的认识存在差别
and still don’t understand that they see it differently.
第三 从七岁到十一岁的具体运算阶段
Three: The concrete operational stage -age is 7 to 11.
我们掌握了一定的逻辑 并开始将其运用于具体事物
We finally discover logic and we develop concrete cognitive operations,
比如 给事物进行明确分类
such as sorting objects in a certain order.
其中一个例子是归纳推理
One example of this is inductive reasoning,
好比 如果我们看到有人在吃饼干
which means that if we see someone eating a cookie
我们可以得出一个结论 然后进行概括
we can draw a conclusion and then make a generalization
归纳出一个概念
and we now get the concept of conservation.
我们开始理解守恒的概念
We understand that if we pour
也就是说我们把橙汁从普通杯子倒进高杯子
orange juice from a normal glass to a
橙汁的总量是保持不变的
taller one the amount stays the same.
但年纪小的妹妹就会觉得选高杯子里的橙汁会比较多
Our younger sister will pick the taller glass thinking she gets more.
同理
By the same logic,
我们现在能理解 如果3加5等于8
we only now can understand that if 3 plus 5 equals 8,
那么8减3一定等于5
then 8 minus 3 must equal 5.
我们开始学会重组自己的思维
Our brain learns to rearrange our thoughts
建立起了对具体事物进行运算的认知结构
to classify and build concrete operational mental structures.
打个比方
For example,
我们现在学会了用逆向思维的方式做事
we now know that we can reverse an action by doing the opposite.
我们为形成新的思维能力而兴奋
Excited by our new mental abilities,
于是当我们在学校学习写作时
we apply them in conversations, activities,
我们把它运用到对话交流 活动之中
when we learn to write, and in school.
于是我们越来越了解自己
As a result, we get to know ourselves better.
我们开始理解
We begin to understand
自己这些与其他人无关的独特的感受
that our thoughts and feelings are unique and not necessarily whose of others
这意味着我们学着换位思考
That means that we learn to put ourselves in someone else’s shoes.
第四:从十二岁开始的形式运算阶段
Four: The formal operational stage – Age 12 plus.
一旦我们步入青少年时期 我们开始就具备形式运算能力
Once we become teenagers, we become formally operational.
我们现在拥有
We now have the ability to
抽象思维和假设猜想的能力
think more rationally about abstract concepts and hypothetical events.
这些高级的认知能力让我们理解抽象概念
Our advanced cognitive abilities allow us to understand abstract concepts
比如成功和失败 喜欢和厌恶等
such as success and failure, love and hate.
我们对自己的个性特征和道德品质有了更深的认识
We form a deeper understanding of our own identity and our morality.
并且会思考别人行为的动机
We now also think that we understand why people behave the way they behave
这样的结果就是变得更能与别人共情
and as a result can become more compassionate.
在这个阶段 我们具备了演绎推理能力
Our brain can now do deductive reasoning,
这意味着我们能够对两个概念做出比较并作出合理概括
which means we can compare two statements and reach a logical generalization.
我们新的认知能力
Our new mental skills
让我们可以系统地规划人生 并划定目标的轻重缓急
allow us to plan our life systematically and prioritize
我们可以做一些假设
and we can make assumptions
做一些与现实无关的猜想
about events that have no necessary relation to reality.
还可以进行理性的思考
We can now also philosophize
甚至仅仅就思考“思考本身”这种哲学问题
and just think about thinking itself.
新的认知能力
Our new sense for our identity now also
同样还是以自我为中心
creates egocentric thoughts and some start to see an imaginary audience
认为他们一直被别人关注 虽然其实都是他们假想的观众
watching them all the time.
皮亚杰信奉终身学习
Piaget believed in lifelong learning,
但是也坚称形式运算阶段
but insisted that the formal operational stage
是我们认知发展的最后一个阶段
is the final stage of our cognitive development.
皮亚杰最初的兴趣是动物研究
Jean Piaget’s first interests were animals and he
并在1807年发表了一篇关于麻雀的科学论文
published his first scientific paper on albino sparrows in 1907,
那时他只有11岁
when he was just 11 years old.
1920年
In 1920,
他开始着手从事标准化智力测试的工作
he began working with standardized intelligence tests.
在工作中 他意识到
He realized that younger children
小孩子常常会犯一些年纪稍长的孩子不会犯的错
consistently make types of mistakes that older children do not.
最后他得出结论 年龄不同的孩子考虑问题是有差异的
He concluded that they must think differently
并在往后余生 都致力于儿童智力发展的研究
and spent the rest of his life studying the intellectual development of children.

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视频概述

皮亚杰将儿童认知发展过程分为四个阶段,感觉运算阶段、前运算阶段、具体运算阶段和形式运算阶段。每个阶段儿童的认知方式都有其不同的特性。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhcgYgx7aAA

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