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托马斯·阿奎那 – 译学馆
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托马斯·阿奎那

PHILOSOPHY - Thomas Aquinas

It seems at first weird that we might learn from Thomas Aquinas.
乍一看 向托马斯·阿奎那学习感觉有点奇怪
He was a medieval saint, who was reputed to have levitated
他是中世纪的圣人 据说能够漂浮在空中
and had visions of the Virgin Mary.
见过圣母玛利亚
He was much concerned with explaining how angels speak and move.
对解释天使的言行很感兴趣
And yet, he continues to matter because
但是阿奎那名垂青史的原因在于
he helps us with the problem
有一个问题长期困扰着我们
which continues to bedevil us:
而他为解决这个问题提供了些思路:
how we can reconcile religion with science,
即如何调和宗教与科学
and faith with reason.
信仰与理性
Aquinas was both a philosopher and a saint.
阿奎那是哲学家兼圣人
Refusing either to lose his faith or mindlessly believe,
他拒绝丢失信仰 也拒绝盲目信仰
he developed a new understanding of the place of reason in human life.
他对理性在人类生活中的地位有新的解释
Aquinas’s monumental contribution was to teach Western Europeans civilisation
阿奎那的巨大贡献是教给西欧社会
that any human being, not just a Christian, could have access to great truths,
上帝赋予人类最强天赋——理性
whenever they made use of God’s greatest
不仅仅是基督徒 任何理性的人
gift to human beings: reason.
都能接近伟大的真理
Aquinas broke a logjam in Christian thinking –
阿奎那打破了基督徒思想中的僵局——
the question of how non-Christians could have both wisdom
就算对耶稣不感兴趣或不了解
and at the same time, no interest in or even knowledge of Jesus.
非基督徒依然能拥有智慧
Aquinas universalised intelligence.
阿奎那让所有人都能拥有智慧
He opened the Christian minds to the insights of all of humanity
让基督教思想接受所有人的思考
from across the ages and the continents.
无论年龄 不限地域
The modern world, insofar as it insists that good ideas can come from any quarter,
多亏阿奎那 现代世界才坚信
regardless of creed or background, remains hugely in Aquinas’ debt.
伟大的想法能来自任何地方 无关信仰 无关背景
Thomas Aquinas was born to a noble family in Italy in 1225.
1225年托马斯·阿奎那出生于意大利的一个贵族家庭
As a young man, he went to study at the University of Naples
青年时就读于那不勒斯大学
and there came into contact with a source of knowledge which had just then been rediscovered –
并且接触到了一个刚刚被重新发现的知识源泉——
the texts of ancient Greek and Roman authors.
古希腊古罗马作家的文本
Aquinas then became an academic at the University of Paris
后来阿奎那成为了巴黎大学的教员
and an exceptionally prolific writer,
他还是一位极其高产的作家
producing nearly 200 pieces about Christian theology
不到三十年里 他出版了200篇
in less than three decades.
有关基督教神学的文章
His books bear beautiful and strange titles,
他的书名都很好听 但也很奇怪
like the Summa Theologica,
比如《神学大全》
and Summa Contra Gentiles.
《反异教大全》
Such was his devotion to knowledge
他对知识的热爱
even at the moment of his death at the age of 49,
一直延续到49岁寿终时
Aquinas was reputed to have been in the middle of writing
据说他去世前正写着
an extended commentary on the Song of Songs.
一篇关于《诗经》的长评
After he died, he was canonised in the Catholic church
他去世后 在天主教堂被封为圣徒
and he is now the “patron saint of teachers”.
现在是“教师的守护神”
Aquinas’s starting point was that some of the world’s greatest thinkers
阿奎那的启蒙者是一些伟大的思想家
have not been Christian,
他们不是基督徒
but this didn’t bar them from having huge insights,
但这并没有妨碍他们拥有伟大的思想
because, as Aquinas proposed, the world can be usefully explored
因为阿奎那认为 要想有效地探索世界
through reasons and not just through faith.
靠的是理性 而非信仰
To explain how this could work,
原因在于
Aquinas brilliantly proposed that universe and all its dynamics
颇具慧眼的阿奎纳认为
operate according to two kinds of law.
宇宙及其动态运作靠的是两种法则
(现世的)自然法则
(宗教的)永恒法则
For Aquinas, a lot of the world follows natural laws.
阿奎那认为 大多数人遵循的是自然法则
We can find out for ourselves how to smelt iron,
我们可以自己探索如何冶炼铁
build an aqueduct, or organise an economy.
建造水渠 或规划经济
And none of these relies on believing in God.
这些都不是靠信上帝习得的
Aquinas discussed Jesus‘s injunction to
阿奎那谈到耶稣的戒令
己所不欲 勿施于人
Jesus may have given this idea
阿奎那认为 这一思想
a particularly memorable formulation, considered Aquinas,
或许在经过耶稣的系统阐述后 很容易记住
but it’s in fact been a cornerstone of moral principles
但事实上 这个思想在很多时候
in most societies at most times.
都是各个社会道德原则的基础(非基督教独有)
How could this be possible?
怎么会这样呢?
Well, the reason, Aquinas argued,
阿奎那说是因为
is that it’s an idea that belongs to natural and not eternal law.
这一思想属于自然法则 而非永恒法则
Aquinas considered that in a few situations
阿奎那认为 在某些情况下
God does works simply through eternal law,
上帝只采用永恒法则
outside of human reason.
不在人类理性的理解范围内
And he cited prophetic revelations and the visits of angels as examples.
他举了预言性的启示和天使的来访这些例子
However, he reassured us
然而 他向我们保证
the most useful knowledge can be found by atheists
无神论者和世俗之人
and secular-minded people within the realm of natural law.
都能通过自然法则 找到最有用的知识
Aquinas’s ideas unfolded at
就如何调和理性与信仰来说
a time when Islamic culture was going through very similar dilemmas
在伊斯兰文化和基督教一样陷入困境时
as Christianity in terms of how one can reconcile reason and faith.
阿奎那的思想出现了
For a long time,
在很长一段时间内
the Islamic caliphates in Spain, Morocco and Egypt had flourished
西班牙 摩洛哥和埃及的伊斯兰哈里发辖区
by being open to knowledge from all over the world,
汲取世界各地的知识 蓬勃发展
generating a wealth of new scientific ideas and philosophy.
产生了丰富的新科学思想与哲学
However, due to the increasing influence of fanatical religious leaders,
然而 由于狂热宗教领袖的影响力越来越大
Islam had become more dogmatic and oppressive
到阿奎那出生的时候
by the time Aquinas was born.
伊斯兰教变得更教条更压迫
It had, for example, reacted violently against the Muslim philosopher Averroes.
例如 他们对穆斯林哲学家阿弗罗斯没有一丝宽容
Like Aquinas, Averroes’s been deeply influenced by Aristotle,
和阿奎那一样 阿维罗斯深受亚里士多德的影响
and had argued that reason and religion could be compatible.
他认为理性和宗教可以相容
However, the caliphates, anxious never to depart from the literal words of God,
然而 这些哈里发汲汲于永不偏离上帝的字面意思
made sure that Averroes’s ideas would be banned and his books burned.
他们禁了阿维罗斯的思想 烧了他的书
Aquinas knew that the Muslim world’s increasingly radical rejection of reason
阿奎纳明白 穆斯林世界日益激进地排斥理性
was harming what had once been its thriving intellectual culture.
这对其曾经繁荣的精神文化毫无益处
And it was overwhelmingly thanks to Aquinas’s ideas that
多亏了阿奎那的思想
Christianity did not suffer the same process of stultification.
基督教才没有像他们那样沉沦
Though Aquinas was a man of deep faith,
阿奎那是一个对信仰深信不疑的人
he provided a philosophical framework for open scientific inquiry.
但他为开放的科学探究提供了哲学框架
He reminds us that knowledge can and should come from multiple sources,
他提醒我们 知识可以而且应该有多种来源
from intuition but also from rationality,
来自直觉 但也来自理性
from science but also from revelation,
来自科学 但也来自启示
from pagans but also from monks,
来自异教徒 但也来自僧侣
that sounds obvious,
这似乎是显而易见的
until we notice just how often
但我们应该注意到
civilisation has been and is still being harmed
这个观念很好 但一直有人拒绝接受
by people’s refusal to take this brilliant idea on board.
使得文明社会的发展受到损害

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视频概述

如何平衡信仰和科学?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJvoFf2wCBU

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