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哲学 – 斯多葛学派 – 译学馆
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哲学 - 斯多葛学派

PHILOSOPHY - The Stoics

这部电影是关于斯多葛学派(公元前300年创于希腊,唯心主义)和为什么·生活中你需要它
This is a film about Stoicism and why you need more of it in your life – because, as
因为这个学派会静静地告诉你常人所不言的事情
people seldom tell you, but we will, quietly…
斯多葛学派是一个哲学学派,它在古希腊和古罗马兴盛了480年
Stoicism was a philosophy that flourished for 480 years in Ancient Greece and Rome,
无论是奴隶阶级还是贵族:因为 不像其他许多哲学
and was popular with everyone from slaves to the aristocracy: because – unlike so much
因为它会帮助你的内心,当你惊慌,无助,绝望,愤怒时
philosophy, it was helpful, helpful when we panic, want to give up, despair and rage at existence.
我们依旧尊重这个学派,当我们认为某人勇敢时——可能
We still honour this philosophy whenever we think of someone as brave and – without perhaps
并不知道为什么——叫他们“斯多葛学派哲学家”
quite knowing why – call them ‘stoic’
斯多葛学派有两位大师。第一位是罗马的作者,尼禄的导师塞涅卡
There are two great philosophers of Stoicism. The first is the Roman writer and tutor to
他生于公元4年,于公元65年去世。
Nero, Seneca. He lived between AD 4 and AD 65
是的,你没听错,“尼禄的家教”。就是那个睡了他自己的母亲,
That’s right, ‘tutor to Nero’. The infamous dictator who slept with his own mother, raped
肆意强奸幼童,臭名昭著的独裁者尼禄,他还仅仅因为自己喜欢就逼迫他的老家教—塞涅卡
young boys and, just because he felt like it, asked his old tutor – Seneca – to commit
当着家人的面认罪自杀。然后另一位斯多葛学派的导师
suicide in front of his own family. And our other guide to Stoicism is
是一位仁厚的罗马皇帝,马可.奥里利乌斯(公元前121-180)
the kind and magnanimous Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius [AD 121 to 180], who was forced to
在其统治的大部分时间被迫待在帝国的边疆 与不可战胜的日耳曼游民战斗
spend most of his reign on the edges of the Empire, fighting off invincible Germanic hordes,
但是得空撰写了哲学史上最伟大的著作之一 《沉思录》
but found time to write one of the greatest works of philosophy, the Meditations
晚上在他的帐篷
in his tent at night.
有两个斯多葛学派尤其能回答的问题
There are two problems stoicism can help us with in particular.
第一个是焦虑
The first is Anxiety.
当你对某事感到焦虑时 大多数人会变得疯狂
When you’re feeling anxious about something, most people are maddening. They believe it
他们认为“鼓励你”是他们的义务 然而不管他们有没有能力 他们会这么说:
is their duty to ‘cheer you up’. However intelligent they might otherwise be, they say things like:
会好的 别担心
IT’LL BE OK, DON’T WORRY
只要乐观起来
even CHEER UP
斯多葛学派哲学家被吓坏了 他们厌恶任何旨在给予听者希望的
The stoics were appalled. They hated any kind of consolation that aims to give the listener
鼓励
HOPE.
希望是情感的鸦片 为了一个人能忍受内心平静的任何机会
Hope is the opium of the emotions and must be stamped out conclusively for a person to
必须被扑灭
stand any chance of inner peace.
因为希望只能让一个人在最终的坠落前升得更高
Because hope only lifts one higher for the eventual fall.
斯多葛派哲学家建议我们走另一条路 为了变得平静
The Stoics advised us to take a different path. To be calm, one has to tell oneself
一个人必须告诉他自己某些非常黑暗的事情:它会很可怕的!
something very dark: It will be terrible!
我可能进监狱 那个肿瘤真的可能是恶性的
I might have to go to prison. The lump really could be malign.
我很有可能受火刑并被羞辱 我的朋友几乎一定会胜利
I probably will be fired and humiliated. My friends almost certainly will succeed.
但是 一个伟大的可安慰的斯多葛派但是 人必须牢记 然而
BUT, a huge consoling Stoic BUT, one must keep in mind that one will, nevertheless,
一个人会没事的
be OK.
没事 因为最后 就像马克·奥勒留说的:“我们都比我们想象的更伟大”
OK because in the end, as Marcus Aurelius said: ‘We are each of us stronger than we think’
监狱不会有趣 也不会让某人丢了工作
Prison won’t be fun, nor will losing one’s job
或被变成笑傻子 但是人会经受它
or being made a laughing stock… but one will get through it. Stoicism emboldens
斯多葛学派让我们勇敢面对能够降临的最坏的命运
us against the worst fate can throw at us.
而如果你真的真的不能对抗 自杀也是个选择
And if you really really can’t take it, suicide is always an option.
斯多葛派反复提到这一点
The Stoics mentioned this repeatedly.
这是塞内卡说的:“你再也不能见到一条通向自由的道路了吗?
Here is Seneca: ‘Can you no longer see a road to freedom?
它就在你的前方 你只需转动你的手腕”
It’s right in front of you. You need only turn over your wrists’.
为了建立一个人自己的恢复力的印象 斯多葛派建议人们有规律地演习
To build up an impression of one’s own resilience, the Stoics suggested one regularly rehearse
糟糕状况的情节
worst-case scenarios.
例如 一年两次 人们应该脱掉他们最漂亮的衣服 穿上脏布
For example, twice a year, one should take off one’s smart clothes, get into some dirty rags,
睡在厨房地板的小地毯上 吃旧面包
sleep on a rug in the kitchen floor and eat only stale bread and rainwater from
从动物的碗里喝雨水——从而发现令人惊讶的事情
an animal’s bowl – and thereby make an amazing discovery.
就像马克·奥勒留说的:幸福的生活几乎不需要任何物质
As Marcus Aurelius put it: ALMOST NOTHING MATERIAL IS NEEDED FOR A HAPPY LIFE
对理解存在的人来说
FOR HE WHO HAS UNDERSTOOD EXISTENCE
另一个斯多葛学派研究的课题是愤怒
Another subject of interest to the Stoics was ANGER
罗马人都有很糟糕的脾气
Romans were a bad tempered lot.
斯多葛派希望让他们平静下来 但他们不走平常路:通过智力争论
The Stoics wanted to calm them down but they did so by an unusual route: by intellectual argument.
他们认为愤怒不是天生的
They proposed that getting angry isn’t something you do by nature, because
因为你有罗马人的脾气或某种热血天性
you have a Latin temper or are somehow inherently hot blooded.
这是愚蠢的结果 对生活拥有最糟糕的观点
It’s the result of being stupid, of having the wrong ideas about life.
愤怒源于错置的希望冲碎了不可预见的现实
Anger stems when misplaced hope smashes into unforeseen reality. We don’t shout every
我们不是每次糟糕的事情降临都嚎叫 只有当其糟糕而未料到时
time something bad happens to us, only when it is bad and UNEXPECTED
举个例子来说,你绝不会因为下雨而喊叫,即使雨水
For example, you’d never shout just because it started raining – even though rain can
很大,因为你知道雨水的到来。
be horrible, because you’ve learnt to expect rain.
诸事同理 不要只是预测雨水,而是预测背叛,恶行,
The same should apply to everything. Don’t only expect rain, expect betrayal, infamy,
虐待,偷窃,羞耻,淫欲,贪婪,怨恨…
sadism, theft, humiliation, lust, greed, spite…
当一个人领悟了生活苦难的真谛后便会停止发怒。
One will stop being so angry when one learns the true facts of the misery of life.
智慧的人应该去追寻那个没有什么事可以轻易打搅他们内心平静的国度。
The wise person should aim to reach a state where simply nothing could suddenly disturb their peace of mind.
每个悲剧都应被计算在内
Every tragedy should already be priced in.
我们将会给你塞内卡做出的最美丽的评价 正在尼禄的卫兵
We’re going to leave you with the most beautiful remark that Seneca made just as Nero’s guards
抓出了他并将他送进浴室在那里他必须用一把锋利的刀结束自己的性命
were grabbing him and shoving him to a bathroom where he was meant to take a sharp knife and kill himself.
他的妻子宝琳娜和两个孩子恐惧、哭泣、紧抓住他的斗篷
His wife Paulina and two children were panicking, weeping, clinging to his cloaks.
但他转向她们 给她们一个疲惫的微笑 只是说:
But he turned to them, pulled a weary smile at them, and simply said:
何须为生活的一部分流泪?整个生活都呼唤着眼泪
WHAT NEED IS THERE TO WEEP OVER PARTS OF LIFE? THE WHOLE OF IT CALLS FOR TEARS.
我们有许多需要向斯多葛学派学习的
We have much to learn from the Stoics.

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视频概述

斯多葛哲学学派,(或称斯多亚学派,也被译为斯多阿学派)是塞浦路斯岛人芝诺(Zeno)(约公元前336~约前264年)于公元前300年左右在雅典创立的学派;因在雅典集会广场的画廊(古希腊语转写:Stoa Poikile)聚众讲学而得名。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yu7n0XzqtfA

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