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叔本华思想简介 – 译学馆
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叔本华思想简介

PHILOSOPHY - Schopenhauer

哲学
亚瑟·叔本华
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German 19th century philosopher,
亚瑟·叔本华是十九世纪德国哲学家
who deserves to be remembered today
他的伟大作品《作为意志和表象的世界》
for the insights contained in his great work
充满了智慧
The World as Will and Representation.
值得今天的人铭记
Schopenhauer was the first serious Western philosopher
叔本华是首位严格意义上
to get interested in Buddhism.
对佛教感兴趣的西方哲学家
And his thought can best be read
他的思想可以理解为
as a Western reinterpretation and response
对佛教思想中的智慧悲观主义
to the enlightened pessimism found in Buddhist thought.
西式的回应和重新解读
“In my 17th year,” he wrote in an autobiographical text,
“17岁那年” 他在一段自传中写道
“I was gripped by the misery of life,
“我被人生的苦难深深震撼
as the Buddha had been in his youth
正如佛陀年轻时
when he saw sickness, old age, pain and death everywhere.
看到生老病死无处不在所感受到的一样
The truth was that this world could not
事实上 这个世界不可能是
have been the work of an all loving Being,
一个充满爱的造物主的成果
but rather that of a devil,
却更像是魔鬼的杰作
who had brought creatures into existence
它赋予万物生命
in order to delight in their sufferings.”
只为从他们的痛苦中作乐”
And like the Buddha,
和佛陀一样
it was Schopenhauer’s goal to dissect
叔本华的目标就是剖析这些痛苦
and then come up with a solution to this suffering.
并找出解决方法
It’s simply the fault of universities
大学总是以枯燥的学术研究的方法
that Schopenhauer has always been taught in such a dry academic way
教授叔本华思想 这显然是错的
that it has stopped him from being widely known,
这使得他鲜为人知
read and followed.
也没多少人读他的作品 追随他
And yet in truth,
然而事实上
this is a man who no less than the Buddha
他并不亚于佛陀
deserves disciples, schools, artworks and monasteries
应该为他建立学校 寺院 制作艺术品 收门徒
to put his ideas into practice.
来实践他的思想
It’s not too late.
现在也不算太晚
Schopenhauer’s philosophy starts
叔本华的哲学体系一开始
by giving a name to a primary force within us
先给我们内心一种基本力量进行命名
which he says is more powerful than anything else,
他说这股力量远胜于一切
our reason, logic or moral sense,
包括我们的理智 逻辑或道德意识
and which Schopenhauer terms the Will-to-Life,
叔本华将之命名为“生存意志”
in German der Wille Zum Leben.
德语叫做der Wille Zum Leben
The Will-to-Life is a constant force
“生存意志”是一种永恒的力量
which makes us thrust ourselves forward,
它驱使我们不断前进
cling to existence,
执着于存在
and look always to our own advantage.
并总是着眼于一己私利
It’s blind, dumb and very insistent.
它盲目 愚蠢且十分顽固
What the Will-to-Life makes us focus on
生存意志驱使我们关注的
most of all is sex.
绝大部分都是性
From adolescence onwards,
从青少年开始
this will thrums within us,
它就在我们身体里躁动不安
turns our heads constantly to erotic scenarios
经常把我们的大脑变成情欲场所
and makes us do very weird things,
导致我们做一些非常奇怪的事
the most weird of which
其中最奇怪的莫过于
is fall in love all the time.
时时刻刻都在坠入爱河
Schopenhauer was very respectful of love,
叔本华非常尊重爱情
as one might be towards a hurricane or a tiger.
就像敬畏飓风和老虎一般
He deeply resented the disruption caused to intelligent people
他十分憎恨迷恋 或者叫做爱慕的东西
by infatuations or what we’d call crushes.
给智慧人带来的干扰
But he refused to conceive of these
但他不觉得这是
as either disproportionate or accidental.
失常或者偶然
In his eyes, love is connected
在他看来 爱与生存意志
to the most important underlying project of the Will-to-Life,
最重要的潜在目的息息相关
and hence of all our lives—
也是我们人生的重要目标——
having children.
那就是生儿育女
“Why all this noise and fuss about love?” he asked,
“爱情里所有那些吵吵闹闹大惊小怪究竟是为了什么?” 他问道
“Why all the urgency, uproar, anguish and exertion?
“所有那些急躁 喧嚣 痛苦和努力又是为了什么?
Because the ultimate aim of all love affairs…
因为爱情的终极目标……
is actually more important than all other aims in anyone’s life;
其实远比生命里所有其他目标都更重要
and therefore it is quite worthy of the profound seriousness
因此它非常值得每个人
with which everyone pursues it.”
严肃认真地去追求”
“The romantic dominates life because,” Schopenhauer wrote,
“爱情主导人生是因为” 叔本华写道
“what is decided by it
“下一代的产生
is nothing less than the composition of the next generation…
恰恰是由它决定的……
the existence and special constitution of the human race
它决定了人类未来的延续
in times to come.
和生物特殊性”
Of course, we rarely think of future children
当然啦 我们和某人约会时
when we are asking someone out on a date.
很少想到后代的问题
But in Schopenhauer’s view,
但在叔本华看来
this is simply because the intellect remains much excluded
这只是因为理智会避开
from the real resolutions and secret decisions of its own will.”
它自己的真正决心和秘密决定
Why should such deception be necessary?
为什么非得自欺欺人呢?
Because for Schopenhauer,
因为叔本华觉得
we would never reliably to reproduce
除非我们一开始就丧失神志
unless we had first quite literally lost our minds.
否则是不会老老实实繁衍后代的
This was a man deeply opposed to the boredom,
他极力反对养育子女带来的厌倦
routine, expense and sheer sacrifice of having children.
单调乏味 花销 和白白的牺牲
Furthermore, Schopenhauer argued that most of the time,
此外 叔本华认为大部分时候
if our intellect were properly in charge of
假如我们的理智正常掌控
choosing who we could fall in love with,
选择谁作为恋爱对象
we would pick very different people
那我们的选择
to the ones we actually end up with.
会与实际截然不同
But we’re ultimately driven to fall in love,
但我们最终被迫爱上的
not with anyone we’ll just get on with well,
并非任何一个可以和睦相处的人
but with people whom the Will-to-Life recognises
而是生存意志认可的
as ideal partners for the project of producing
可与之繁衍叔本华直接称为“均衡孩子”的
what Schopenhauer bluntly called “balanced children”.
理想伴侣
All of us are a little bit unbalanced ourselves, he thought.
他觉得 我们所有人多多少少都有点不均衡
We’re a bit too masculine or too feminine,
我们要么太阳刚要么太柔弱
too tall or too short,
要么太高要么太矮
too rational or too impulsive.
要么太理性要么太冲动
If such imbalances were allowed to
如果这种不均衡
persist or aggravated in the next generation,
延续至下一代 甚至加剧
the human race would, within a short time,
人类很快就会
sink into oddity.
陷入反常的状态
The Will-to-Life must, therefore, push us towards people
因此 生存意志必须把我们推向那些
who can, on account of their compensating imbalances,
为弥补自身的失衡
cancel out our own issues.
而抵消我们自己问题的人
A large nose combined with a button nose
一个大鼻子和一个小鼻子结合
promise a perfect nose.
会产生完美的鼻子
He argued that short people
他认为 矮小的人
often fall in love with tall people.
通常会爱上高大的人
And more feminine men with more assertive and masculine women.
比较女性化的男人会爱上坚定刚毅的女人
Unfortunately, this theory of balancing attraction
不幸的是 这种吸引力均衡理论
led Schopenhauer to a very bleak conclusion,
让叔本华得出一个非常凄凉的结论
namely that a person who is highly suitable
就是那个非常适合
for producing a balanced child with is almost never,
共同孕育均衡后代的人
though we can’t realise it at the time
虽然我们当时意识不到
because we have been blindfolded by the Will-to-Life,
因为被生存意志蒙住了双眼
very suitable for us.
但他们几乎永远不会非常适合我们
“We should not be surprised,” he wrote,
“我们不应该感到惊讶” 他写道
“by marriages between people who would never have been friends…
“永远不该成为朋友的人却携手走进了婚姻的殿堂……
Love… casts itself on people who, apart from sex,
除了性以外 爱情…… 让我们选择的人
would be hateful, contemptible, and even abhorrent to us.”
往往可憎可鄙甚至和我们格格不入”
The Will-to-Life’s ability to
叔本华说 生存意志
further its own ends rather than our happiness may,
旨在完成自己的目标而非为我们谋求幸福
Schopenhauer implied, be sensed with particular clarity
这一点可以在交欢一结束
in that rather scary, lonely moment just after orgasm.
那令人孤独恐怖的瞬间清楚地被感知到
He wrote: “Directly after copulation,
他写道:“性交一结束
the devil’s laughter is heard.”
就立即传来了魔鬼的笑声”
Watching the human spectacle,
纵观世间万象
Schopenhauer felt deeply sorry for us.
叔本华为人类倍感悲伤
We are all just like animals,
除了因为更强大的自我意识
except because of our greater self-awareness,
而更容易悲伤外
far more unhappy than animals.
我们和动物无异
There are some poignant passages
叔本华曾对不同动物的生活方式
where Schopenhauer discusses the lives of different animals,
有过尖刻的描述
but he dwells especially on the mole.
但他特别关注的是鼹鼠
“A stunted monstrosity,” his words,
用他的话说就是 “发育不良的怪物
“that dwells in damp narrow corridors,
居住在潮湿狭窄的地道里
rarely sees the light of day
很少看见阳光
and whose offspring look like gelatinous worms,
后代犹如凝胶状的蠕虫
but which still does everything in its power
但它们还是会竭尽所能
to survive and perpetuate itself.
生存和延续后代
We’re just like moles, and just as pitiful.
我们跟鼹鼠无异 也如它们那般可悲
We are driven frantically to push ourselves forward.
我们被疯狂驱使着前进
We want to get good jobs to impress prospective partners.
想找份好工作吸引将来的伴侣
We wonder endlessly about finding the One,
我们无休止地寻找真爱
and are eventually briefly seduced
最终却被那些一起生儿育女的人
by someone just long enough to produce a child,
短暂的迷惑
and then have to spend the next 40 years
然后不得不痛苦地一起度过余后的40年
in misery with them to atone for our errors.
为自己造的孽赎罪
Schopenhauer was always beautifully and comically
叔本华对人类的本性
gloomy about human nature.
总是抱有美丽而幽默的悲伤
“There is only one inborn error,” he wrote,
“与生俱来的错误只有一个” 他写道
“and that is the notion
那就是认为
that we exist in order to be happy…
活着是为了快乐……
So long as we persist in this inborn error…
只要还在坚持这个与生俱来的错误……
the world will seem to us full of contradictions.
我们就会觉得这个世界永远充满了矛盾
For at every step, in great things and small,
因为不管大事小事 每走一步
we are bound to experience
我们都注定亲眼见证
that the world and life are certainly not arranged
这个世界和我们的生活
for the purpose of being happy.
从来都不是为着快乐而运转的
That’s why the faces of almost all elderly people
这就是为什么几乎所有老人的面孔
are deeply etched with disappointment.”
都深深地被失望所侵蚀”
Schopenhauer offers two solutions
叔本华提出了两种
to deal with the problems of existence.
解决生存问题的方案
The first solution is intended for rather rare individuals
第一种只适用于极少数人
that he called sages.
他称之为圣贤
Sages are able, by heroic efforts,
圣贤之人通过自己英勇的奋战
to rise above the demands of the Will-to-Life.
超越生存意志的挟制
They see the natural drives within themselves towards selfishness,
他们洞察自己内心天生对自私 性和虚荣的渴望
sex and vanity, and override them.
然后推翻它们
They overcome their desires,
他们战胜自己的欲望
live alone, often away from big cities, never marry
通常远离大城市 独自生活 终生不婚
and can quell their appetites for fame and status.
并能够扼制自己对名望和地位的欲求
In Buddhism, Schopenhauer points out,
叔本华指出 在佛教中
this person is known as a monk.
这样的人被称为僧侣
But he recognizes that only a tiny number of us
但他意识到 不管何年何代
in any generation will ever go in for such a life.
只有很少人会选择这样的生活
The second and more easily available and realistic therapy
第二种更切实可行方法是
is to spend as long as we can with art and philosophy,
尽可能多地花时间在艺术和哲学上
whose task is to hold up a mirror
它们的任务就是竖起一面镜子
to the frenzied efforts and unhappy turmoil
以折射出生存意志在我们身上
created in all of us by the Will-to-Life.
制造出的疯狂努力和不幸的骚乱
We may not be able to quell the Will-to-Life very often,
也许我们并不能总是扼制住生存意志
but in the evenings at the theatre,
但身处夜晚的剧院
or on a walk with a book of poetry,
或者读着诗本漫步时
we can step back from the day-to-day,
就可以从日常生活里抽身出来
and look at life without illusion.
审视生活真实的样子
The art Schopenhauer loved best is the opposite of sentimental:
叔本华最喜爱的艺术形式可不怎么柔情善感:
Greek tragedies, the aphorisms of La Rochefoucauld
比如古希腊的悲剧 拉罗什福科公爵的《道德箴言录》
and the political theory of Machiavelli.
还有马基雅维利的政治理论
Such works speak frankly about
这些作品真实地描述了
egoism, suffering, selfishness and the horrors of married life,
婚姻生活的个人主义 痛苦 自私和恐怖
and extend a tragic, dignified, melancholy sympathy to the human race.
并对人类衍生出一种悲壮庄严的 令人忧伤的悲悯之情
It’s fitting that Schopenhauer’s own work fitted his description
叔本华自己的作品与他所描述的
of what philosophy and art should do for us.
哲学与艺术的作用相契合
It too is deeply consoling in its morbid bitter pessimism.
他病态而痛苦的悲观主义也同样能深深抚慰人心
For example, he tells us:
比如他说:
“结婚意味着竭尽所能让自己变成对方厌弃的东西”
“每个生命历程都是一部受难史”
“生命本质上没什么价值 只是通过欲望和幻觉来为继”
After spending a lot of time trying, yet failing to be famous,
他想功成名就却屡试屡爽
and trying, yet failing to have a good relationships.
他追求爱情也都以失败告终
Towards the end of his life, Schopenhauer did eventually
生命将尽时 他终于
find an audience who adored his writings.
找到了一位喜欢他作品的听众
He lived quietly in an apartment in Frankfurt with his dog,
他和他的小狗安静地生活在法兰克福的公寓里
a white poodle whom he called Atman,
那是一只白色的贵宾犬 他给它取名艾德曼
after the word “soul of the Buddhists”,
意思是“佛教徒的灵魂”
but whom the neighbouring children less respectfully referred to
但被邻居家的孩子不怎么恭敬地称为
as Mrs Schopenhauer.
叔本华夫人
Shortly before his death,
在他死前不久
a sculptor made a famous bust of him.
一位雕塑家为他塑了那尊著名的半身像
He died in 1860 at the age of 72,
他于1860年去世 享年72岁
having achieved calm and serenity.
终于获得了平静与安宁
He is a sage for our own times,
他是我们这个时代的圣贤
someone whose bust should be no less widespread
他的雕像应该像他深爱的佛陀一样
and no less revered than that of the Buddha he so loved.
受人敬仰并广为流传

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视频概述

他是个彻底的悲观主义者,是第一位真正研究佛教的西方哲学家。哲学史上第一个公开反对理性主义哲学的人并开创了非理性主义哲学的先河,也是唯意志论的创始人和主要代表之一,认为生存意志是主宰世界运作的力量。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0zmfNx7OM4

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