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哲学 - 萨特

PHILOSOPHY - Sartre

让 保尔 萨特把思考与哲学变得魅力四射
Jean-Paul Sartre made thinking and philosophy glamorous.
1950年他出生于巴黎 他做海军军官的父亲在他还是婴儿的时候就死了
He was born in Paris in 1905. His father, a navy captain, died when he was a baby – and
他从小到大都非常亲近母亲 让他遗憾的是他12岁时母亲再婚了
he grew up extremely close to his mother until she remarried, much to his regret, when he was twelve.
萨特人生大部分时间都生活在巴黎他经常去巴黎的左岸咖啡馆
Sartre spent most of his life in Paris, where he often went to cafes on the Left Bank. He
他一只斜眼 另一只眼无神戴着一副与众不同的沉重的眼镜 他身材矮小
had a strabismus, a wandering eye, and wore distinctive, heavy glasses. He was very short
(五英尺三英寸(约一米六)) 常常自称丑男
(five feet three inches) and frequently described himself as ugly.
到20世纪60年代 萨特在欧美已经是家喻户晓的名字
By the 60’s Sartre was a household name in both Europe and the United States, and
他的经典哲学 存在主义 也是如此
so was his chosen philosophy, Existentialism.
萨特出名主要因为他的书 存在与虚无(1943)
Sartre is famous principally for his book Being and Nothingness (1943), which enhanced
这本书增加他的名声不很因为人们能够理解他的观点
his reputation not so much because people could understand his ideas
却恰恰因为人们不能理解
but because they couldn’t quite.
存在主义基于以下几个关键的洞察
Existentialism was built around a number of key insights:
1.事情比我们想象的要诡异
One: Things are weirder than we think
萨特强烈意识到那些世界向我们展现出它远比我们平常所体会到更奇怪 更神秘的时刻
Sartre is acutely attentive to moments when the world reveals itself as far stranger and
那些我们平常视若无睹的逻辑变得不再有效的时刻
more uncanny than we normally admit; moments when the logic we ascribe to it day-to-day
它们向我们说明事情是高度偶然的甚至是荒诞不经的 令人恐惧的
becomes unavailable, showing things to be highly contingent and even absurd and frightening.
萨特的第一部小说 出版于1938年的 恶心里边充斥着引发这些时刻的时间
Sartre’s first novel – Nausea, published in 1938 – is full of evocations of such moments.
一方面 主人公 罗丹冈 一个生活在
At one point, the hero, Roquentin, a 30-year-old writer living in a fictional
法国海边虚构小镇的30岁作家正在乘坐有轨电车
French seaside town, is on a tram.
他把手放在座椅上 却又马上收回来了
He puts his hand on the seat, but then pulls it back rapidly. Instead of being the most
座椅不再是那个基本而理所当然的毫不起眼的设计物
basic and obvious piece of design, scarcely worth a moment’s notice, the seat promptly
却突然间让他觉得深深地陌生
strikes him as deeply strange;
座椅这个词从它的吊钩上松脱了它指代的那个物件其本身所具有的神秘性
the word ‘seat’ comes loose from its moorings, the object it refers to shines forth in all
闪闪发着光 就好像他这辈子还没见过个座椅一样罗丹冈不得不逼着自己
its primordial oddity, as if he’s never seen one before. Roquentin has to force himself
记住他身边儿的这东西是用来给人们坐的在那令人毛骨悚然的瞬间
to remember that this thing beside him is something for people to sit on. For a terrifying moment,
罗丹冈得以窥视到萨特所说的 世界的荒谬之处
Roquentin has peered into what Sartre calls the ‘absurdity of the world.’
这样的时刻直指萨特哲学的中心做萨特的追随者就是要意识到
Such a moment goes to the heart of Sartre’s philosophy. To be Sartrean is to be aware
剥除任何偏见 任何
of existence as it is when it has been stripped of any of the prejudices and stabilising assumptions
我们日常生活带给我们的思维定势之后的存在本身
lent to us by our day-to-day routines.
在生活的很多方面我们都可以体验一把萨特视角
We can try out a Sartrean perspective on many aspects of our own lives. Think of what you
来想想我们所熟知的 与伴侣共进晚餐 吧
know as ‘the evening meal with your partner’.
用上文的描述 可能还挺符合逻辑的但是一个萨特主义者则会抽离
Under such a description, it all seems fairly logical, but a Sartrean would strip away the
表面常态而看到掩藏在底下的彻底的诡异
surface normality to show the radical strangeness lurking beneath.
晚餐实际上是啥呢 就是在你所处的半球
Dinner really means that: when your part of the planet has spun away
转离遥远的那颗氢氦爆炸能量源之后
from the energy of a distant hydrogen and helium explosion,
你把自己的膝盖挪到一片砍好的木头底下
you slide your knees under strips of a chopped-up tree
把死去动植物的某部分放进嘴里嚼吧嚼吧
and put sections of dead animals and plants in your mouth and chew,
你旁边 还有个你有时候摸它生殖器的哺乳动物在做着和你一样的事情
while next to you, another mammal whose genitals you sometimes touch is doing the same.
2.我们是自由的
Two: We are free
这种时刻肯定让人感到迷惑而相当恐怖 但是萨特
Such weird moments are certainly disorienting and rather scary, but Sartre wants to draw
让我们注意到这样的时刻的一个主要原因是因为他们有着完全自由的一面
our attention to them for one central reason: because of their liberating dimensions.
生活固然要比我们所想的古怪得多 但还有一个推论是 生活同时也存在丰富多彩的可能性
Life is a lot odder than we think, but it’s also as a consequence far richer in possibilities.
事情没有必要总是保持你所想的那个样子
Things don’t have to be quite the way they are.
在我们全面实现自由的过程中我们会面临存在的 萨特称之为
In the course of fully realising our freedom, we will come up against what Sartre calls
angoisse 或是说 痛苦所有事情都耸人听闻地有可能发生
the ‘angoisse’ or ‘anguish’ of existence. Everything is (terrifyingly) possible because
因为没什么事情注定的 无论是以上帝赐予的说法还是个人意图的角度
nothing has any pre-ordained, God-given sense or purpose.
人类不过是随着他们前进的脚步胡编乱造而已
Humans are just making it up as they go along, and are free to cast aside the shackles at
随时随地都能甩开那副镣铐
any moment.
3.我们不应该活在 执念 中
Three: We shouldn’t live in ‘Bad faith’
萨特给这种在生存中没有适当地考虑自由的现象 一个术语
Sartre gave a term to the phenomenon of living without taking freedom properly on board.
他称之为执念
He called it BAD FAITH.
无论何时我们告诉自己事情必须是某个特定样子
We are in bad faith whenever we tell ourselves that things have to be a certain way and shut
对其他选择视而不见的时候我们就心存执念了
our eyes to other options.
坚称我们必须做某种特定的工作
It is bad faith to insist that we have to do a particular kind of work or live with
或与某个特定的人共存 在规定的地方安家都是心存执念
a specific person or make our home in a given place.
对执念最出名的描述出自 存在与虚无 这本书里
The most famous description of ‘bad faith’ comes in Being and Nothingness, when Sartre
萨特留意到 有个服务生因他对自己角色的过度奉献 而让人印象深刻 好像他首先
notices a waiter who strikes him as overly devoted to his role, as if he were first and
最重要的是个服务生而不是个自由的人
foremost a waiter rather than a free human being.
他的行动迅速而敏捷 有点过于精确了有点过于快了
His movement is quick and forward, a little too precise, a little too rapid. He comes
他响应顾客的步伐是有点过于敏捷 他弯腰鞠躬
towards the patrons with a step that is a little too quick. He bends forward a little
的姿势有点太过急切 他的声音 和眼神流露出的
too eagerly: his voice, his eyes express an interest a little too solicitous for the order
盼望顾客点菜的心情有点过于热切了
of the customer…’
这个人(萨特可能是以佛罗伦萨的圣热尔曼咖啡馆中某人为模特)说服了他自己
The man (he was probably modelled on someone in Saint-Germain’s Café de Flore) has convinced
他本身注定是个服务生而非一个
himself that he is essentially, necessarily a waiter rather than a free creature who could
本能够成为爵士乐演奏家 或是北海拖网渔船上渔夫的自由个体
be a jazz pianist or a fisherman on a North Sea trawler.
4.我们可以任意解构资本主义
Four: We’re free to dismantle capitalism.
阻止人们体会到个体自由的一个最关键的因素
The one factor that most discourages people from
就是金钱 我们大多数人拍灭一系列
experiencing themselves as free is money. Most of us will shut down a range of possible
可能的选择(移居国外 尝试新职业甩掉合伙人) 就只用说一句
options (moving abroad, trying out a new career, leaving a partner) by saying,
前提是假如我不用担心金钱问题的话…
‘that’s if I didn’t have to worry about money.’
这种面临金钱问题时的消极态度在政治的层面上刺激了萨特
This passivity in the face of money enraged Sartre at a political level. He thought of
他将资本主义看做是一个创造出很多
capitalism as a giant machine designed to create a sense of necessity which doesn’t
现实中不存在的需求的庞大机器
in fact exist in reality:
资本主义让我们告诉自己 我们必须工作一定的小时数
it makes us tell ourselves we have to work a certain number of hours, buy a particular
买特定的产品或服务 凡此种种
product or service, and so on.
在资本主义下 我们唯有否定自由拒绝尽我们所能地
But in this, there is only the denial of freedom – and a refusal to take as seriously as
发掘存在的其他方式
we should the possibility of living in other ways.
正是由于这种观点 萨特终其一生都对马克思主义感兴趣
It was because of these views that Sartre had a life long interest in Marxism.
马克思主义就理论而言经由减少物质考量对人类生活的重要性
Marxism seemed in theory to allow people to explore their freedom, by reducing the role played
允许人们探索生存的自由
in their lives by material considerations.
20世纪60年代 萨特参与了很多巴黎街头的抗议活动 1968年再次被逮捕后
Sartre took part in many protests in the streets of Paris in the 60s. Arrested yet again in
查尔斯 戴高乐总统赦免了他 并说
1968, President Charles de Gaulle had him pardoned, saying,
咱不能逮捕伏尔泰哇
“you don’t arrest Voltaire.”
萨特还拜访过 费德罗 卡斯特罗 和 切 格瓦拉他深深地敬重这两个人物
Sartre also visited Fidel Castro and Che Guevara and admired them both deeply. As a result
由于这些羁绊 以及他激进的政治主张美国FBI收集了厚厚一堆萨特的资料
of these connections and his radical politics, the FBI kept a large file on Sartre trying
就为了发掘他可疑的哲学观念背后的真正意图
to deduce what his suspicious philosophy might really mean.
萨特所极力主张的 事情不一定必须是它们现有的样子 这点 非常发人深省
Sartre is inspiring in his insistence that things do not have to be the way they are.
无论对一个个体还是对一个物种而言他都大大激活了我们的潜在能力
He is hugely alive to our unfulfilled potential, as individuals and as a species.
他鞭策着我们去接受存在的变化多端
He urges us to accept the fluidity of existence
去创建全新的制度 习惯 观点 以及思想
and to create new institutions, habits, outlooks and ideas.
这种生活不必须有什么注定的逻辑也不一定有什么固有意义 的认定
The admission that life doesn’t have some preordained logic and is not inherently meaningful
能够成为一种巨大安慰的来源尤其在我们受到来自
can be a source of immense relief when we feel oppressed by the weight of tradition
传统观念或是地位论的压迫时
and the status quo.

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让-保罗·萨特(Jean-Paul Sartre,1905年—1980年),法国20世纪最重要的哲学家之一,法国无神论存在主义的主要代表人物,西方社会主义最积极的倡导者之一,一生中拒绝接受任何奖项,包括1964年的诺贝尔文学奖。在战后的历次斗争中都站在正义的一边,对各种被剥夺权利者表示同情,反对冷战。他也是优秀的文学家、戏剧家、评论家和社会活动家。

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