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哲学 - 柏拉图

PHILOSOPHY - Plato

这是2400年前的雅典,一个小地方,只有25万居民居住于此。
Athens, 2400 years ago. It’s a compact place: only about a quarter of a million people live here.
这里有完善的公共澡堂,剧院,寺庙,购物街和竞技场。
There are fine baths, theatres, temples, shopping arcades and gymnasiums
一年有大半时候温暖如春。
It’s warm for more than half the year.
这里也诞生了世界上第一个真正的,甚至可能是最伟大的哲学家
This is also home to the world’s first true – and probably greatest – philosopher:
柏拉图
Plato
出身于城里有名的富裕家庭的柏拉图,
Born into a prominent and wealthy family in the city,
毕生致力于一个目标——帮助人们达到他所定义的状态:
Plato devoted his life to one goal: helping people to reach a state of what he termed:
εὐδαιμονία ( Eudaimonia ),或者说,幸福感
εὐδαιμονία (Eudaimonia) or fulfilment.
柏拉图常常很不理解苏格拉底,
Plato is often confused with Socrates
对柏拉图而言,苏格拉底是一位更为年长的朋友,他常常教导柏拉图,却没有将他自己的思想写成书。
Socrates was an older friend, who taught Plato a lot but didn’t write any books.
而柏拉图记录了很多并整理成书:共36本,都是苏格拉底语录。柏拉图亲手将
Plato wrote lots of them: 36, all dialogues: beautifully crafted scripts of
这些天马行空的讨论优美整齐地码成书。而在其中苏格拉底多扮演着主要角色。这些书有:
imaginary discussions in which Socrates is always alotted a starring role – among them:
《理想国》、《会饮篇》
The Republic The Symposium
《法篇》、《美诺篇》
The Laws The Meno
和《申辩篇》
and The Apology
关于如何让生活变得更有满足感方面,柏拉图提出四大点。
Plato had four big ideas for making life more fulfilled.
第一点:多思考
First big idea: Think more
我们很少花时间去认真地、条理清晰地思考该怎样度过我们的生命
We rarely give ourselves time to think carefully and logically about our lives and how to live
╮(╯_╰)╭
them.
有时候我们只是听从希腊人所说的”doxa”,即主流的观点
Sometimes we just go along with what the the Greeks called ‘doxa’: ‘popular opinions’.
在他所写的36本书中,柏拉图揭示这种’常识“充斥着
In the the 36 books he wrote, Plato showed this ‘common-sense’ to be riddled with
错误、偏见与迷信
errors, prejudice and superstition.
出名是好事。
Fame is great
听从你内心的声音。
Follow your heart
金钱带来高质量的生活。
Money is the key to a good life
问题是,主流观点会将我们推向错误的价值观、事业和人际关系。
The problem is, popular opinions edge us towards the wrong values, careers and relationships.
而柏拉图给出的回答是:
Plato’s answer is
了解真实的你
‘Know yourself.’
这需要施行一种特别的疗法——哲学
It means doing a special kind of therapy, philosophy:
将你的想法多加权衡,而不是意气用事。
Subjecting your ideas to examination rather than acting on impulse.
如果你加深对自身的了解,你就不会轻易被情绪牵着鼻子走。
If you strengthen your self-knowledge, you don’t get so pulled around by feelings.
柏拉图认为听任情绪就像
Plato compared the role of our feelings to being
被一群野马扯着走一样危险
dragged dangerously along by a group of wild horses.
为了纪念他的导师兼好友苏格拉底,他把这种方法叫”苏格拉底式问题研讨“
In honour of his mentor and friend, Socrates, this kind of examination is called a Socratic discussion.
你可以自己实行这个方法,或者最好找一个
You can have it with yourself or ideally, with another person who isn’t
真正想帮你理清思路,而不是挑你刺的人。
trying to catch you out but wants to help you clarify your own ideas.
第二点:让你的爱人改造你
Second Big idea: Let your lover change you.
如果你认为爱情意味着找一个
That sounds weird, if you think that love means
找到一个就是喜欢你这样子的爱人,那你可能觉得这听起来有点奇怪。
finding someone who wants you just the way you are.
在《会饮篇》的一幕戏中描绘了宴会上,一帮好友尽情畅饮,
In The Symposium , Plato’s play about a dinner party where a group of friends drink
讨论爱、性和男女关系,
too much and get talking about love, sex and relationships,
柏拉图说:“真正的爱情在于崇拜。”
Plato says: “True love is admiration.”
也就是说,你的伴侣身上应有你所缺失的
In other words, the person you need to get together with should have very good qualities
优秀品质。
… which you yourself lack.
他们应该是勇敢的
Let’s say, they should be really brave
或者是有条里的
Or organised.
或者是友好真诚的。
Or warm and sincere
与他/她在一起,你也会变得有点像他们。
By getting close to this person, you can become a little like they are.
对的人助我们充分发挥自身潜能。
The right person for us helps us grow to our full potential.
柏拉图认为,在良好的恋爱关系中,两个人不应该喜欢对方
For Plato, in a good relationship, a couple shouldn’t love each other exactly as they
现在的样子。
are right now.
而应致力于互相教导,使对方得到提升,并携手度过
They should be committed to educating each other – and to enduring the stormy passages
难以避免的风雨。
this inevitably involves.
每个人都应有意识地引导对方变得更好。
Each person should want to seduce the other into becoming a better version of themselves.
第三点:解读美。
Three: decode the message of beauty.
每个人都喜欢美好的事物。
Everyone – pretty much – likes beautiful things
柏拉图是第一个提出我们为什么喜欢这些事物的人。
Plato was the first to ask why do we like them?
他发现了一个很吸引人的原因:
He found a fascinating reason:
美好的事物蕴含着美好生活的真谛
Beautiful objects are whispering important truths to us about the good life …
当我们不经意间发现它们身上有我们生活中缺失的品质时,
We find things beautiful when we unconsciously sense in them qualities we need
我们觉得它们是美好的。
but are missing in our lives.
比如温柔,
gentleness
和谐,
harmony
平衡,
balance
安宁,
peace
力量等。
strength
因而美好的事物有一个非常重要的功能,
Beautiful objects therefore have a really important function.
就是教育我们的灵魂。
They help to educate our souls.
而丑陋之物同等重要。它将危险、有害的特质陈列在我们面前,
Ugliness is a serious matter too. it parades dangerous and damaged characteristics in front
让我们难以变得睿智、友善与冷静。
of us. It makes it harder to be wise, kind and calm.
柏拉图认为艺术有治愈功能,诗人和画家(现在还包括小说家、
Plato sees art as therapeutic: it is the duty of poets and painters (and nowadays, novelists,
电视制片人和设计师)有责任让我们过上好生活。
television producers and designers) to help us live good lives.
第四点:重组社会
Four: Reform society.
柏拉图花费大量时间思考政府和社会最理想的状态是怎样的。
Plato spent a lot of time thinking how the government and society should ideally be.
他是第一位乌托邦思想家。
He was the world’s first utopian thinker.
在这一点上,他受到雅典重要的竞争对手斯巴达的启发。
In this, he was inspired by Athens’s great rival: Sparta.
斯巴达这个城邦就像一个生产优秀士兵的机器。
This was a city-sized machine for turning out great soldiers
斯巴达人做的所有事情,包括怎样抚养他们的孩子、怎样组织经济、
Everything the Spartans did – how they raised their children, how their economy was organised,
崇拜哪些人、如何做♂爱、吃什么等等,都是为了这一目标。
whom they admired, how they had sex, what they ate – was tailored to that one goal.
从军事角度看,斯巴达可算是一个巨大的成功。
And Sparta was hugely successful, from a military point of view.
但那不是柏拉图所关心的。他更想知道,一个社会怎样才能在不生产军力,
But that wasn’t Plato’s concern. He wanted to know: how could a society get better at
而是使人们幸福的前提下变得更好?
producing not military power but fulfilled people?
在《理想国》中,柏拉图提出以下需要做出的改变:
In his book, The Republic, Plato identifies a number of changes that should be made:
雅典的社会十分重视富人,像声名狼藉的贵族 Alcibiades,
Athenian society was very focused on the rich, like the louche aristocrat Alcibiades, and
还有运动名人,如拳击手 Milo of Croton。
sports celebrities, like the boxer Milo of Croton.
但柏拉图对他们不感兴趣。我们崇拜怎样的人很重要,因为名人影响着我们的
Plato wasn’t impressed: it really matters who we admire, because celebrities influence our
外表,思想和行为。而不良的偶像会让性格缺陷看起来很有魅力。
outlook, ideas and conduct. And bad heroes give glamour to flaws of character.
因此,柏拉图希望为雅典树立新的偶像,把现在的换成
Plato therefore wanted to give Athens new celebrities, replacing the current crop with
他称为“守护者”的睿智且高尚的人,
ideally wise and good people he called Guardians
为每个人的发展树立榜样。他们
models for everyone’s good development. These people
因为公众服务、谦逊的品质、生活简朴、
would be distinguished by their record of public service, their modesty and simple habits,
淡泊名利和丰富的经验而脱颖而出。
their dislike of the limelight and their wide and deep experience.
他们会成为社会中最受尊敬和崇拜的人。
They would be the most honoured and admired people in society.
他还希望结束雅典的民主政治。他并不是疯了,只是他观察到
He also wanted to end democracy in Athens. He wasn’t crazy. He just observed how few
很少人在投票前能够正确地思考,因此选举出来的统治者并不优秀。
people think properly before they vote and therefore we get very substandard rulers.
他并不是希望以可怕的独裁代替民主政治,
He didn’t want to replace democracy with horrid dictatorship;
而是希望人们在能够理性地思考后才有投票权。
but wanted to prevent people from voting until they had started to think rationally. Until
即能够像哲学家一样思考。否则政府跟暴民统治没什么两样(想想刚才那群野马)。为了推进进程,柏拉图创办了雅典学院,它延续了
they had become philosophers. Otherwise, government would just be a kind of mob rule [back tothose horses].To help the process, Plato started a school, The Academy, in Athens, which lasted a good
300年。在那里,学生学到的不只是数学和拼写,还有怎样成为
300 years. There, pupils learnt not just maths and spelling, but also how to be good and
一个善良、品性好的人。
kind.
他的最终目标是让政治家们都成为哲学家。他认为只有当国王成为哲学家,
His ultimate goal was that politicians should become philosophers: ‘The world will not
或者哲学家当上国王,世界才能正确运行。
be right,’ he said, ‘until kings become philosophers or philosophers kings.’ [show
从左到右:奥朗德,默克尔,卡梅伦
Hollande, Merkel, Cameron all trooping into a uni- then coming out as philosophers]
柏拉图的思想仍有深深的启发性和吸引力,充满着抱负和理想主义。
Plato’s ideas remain deeply provocative and fascinating. What unites them is their
他希望将哲学作为改变世界的工具。我们应该从他身上得到启发。
ambition and their idealism. He wanted philosophy to be a tool to help us change the world.We should continue to be inspired by his example.

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视频概述

柏拉图,古希腊伟大的哲学家,也是全部西方哲学乃至整个西方文化最伟大的哲学家和思想家之一。他和老师苏格拉底,学生亚里士多德并称为希腊三贤。

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