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哲学 – 尼采 – 译学馆
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哲学 - 尼采

PHILOSOPHY - Nietzsche

挑战从读出他的名字开始
The challenge begins with how to pronounce his name.
第一个音节听起来像“Knee” 第二个音节听起来像“cha”
The first bit should sound like ‘Knee’, the second like ‘cha’
也就是“Knee cha(尼采)”
Knee – cha.
然后我们就需要了解他的那些古怪又充满挑衅意味的的思想了:
Then we need to get past some of his extraordinary and provocative statements:
“那些没能杀死我的 终将使我更强大”
‘What doesn’t kill me makes me stronger’
“上帝已死 我等杀之!”
‘God is dead! And we have killed him.’
当然 还有他那把大胡子
And his large moustache.
但是如果我们真正去了解的话 我们就会发现他偶尔也是一个魅力十足 充满智慧
But when we do, we’ll discover a thinker who is intermittently enchanting, wise and
还非常有帮助的思考者
very helpful.
弗里德里希•尼采 1844年出生德国东部一个宁静的小村庄
Friedrich Nietzsche was born in 1844 in a quiet village in the eastern part of Germany
他的父亲 是当地的一个牧师
where his father was the priest.
他在高中和大学里在古希腊这方面表现都异常的优秀
He did exceptionally well at school and university and so excelled at
于是他成为了巴塞尔大学
ancient Greek that he was made a professor
的一名教授
at the University of Basel
那时他只有二十五岁
when still only in his mid-twenties.
但是 他的教授生涯并没有持续很久 他受够了他的学术同僚们
But his official career didn’t work out. He got fed up with his fellow academics, gave
于是放弃了他的工作 搬去了在阿尔卑斯山脉那里的锡尔斯玛利亚
up his job and moved to Sils Maria in the Swiss alps
他在那里度过宁静的时光 完成了他的名著
where he lived quietly, working on his masterpieces,
这些作品包括了
among them:
《悲剧的诞生》《人性,太人性了》
The Birth of Tragedy, Human, All Too Human,
《快乐的科学》《查拉图斯特拉如是说》
The Gay Science, Thus Spoke Zarathustra,
《善恶的彼岸》《论道德的系谱》
Beyond Good and Evil, On the Genealogy of Morals,
他也有许多的困扰 他和家庭之间的关系并不和睦
He had lots of problems: – he didn’t get on with his family:
“我不喜欢我的母亲 甚至听到妹妹的声音都让我痛苦不已。”
‘I don’t like my mother and it’s painful even for me to hear my sister’s voice.’
女人都在抗拒他 他的书也不畅销
– women kept rejecting him. – his books didn’t sell
他精神奔溃了 那时他只有44岁 导致这一切发生
– And when he was only forty-four, he had a mental breakdown, precipitated when he saw
他在都灵(意大利城市)的大街上看到一匹马被骑马人鞭打
a horse in a Turin street being beaten by its driver
他跑上去 抱住了他 大叫道 “我理解你!”他再也没有从中恢复过来
and ran over to embrace him shouting ‘I understand you’. He never recovered and
悲惨地度过了十一个年头 直到去世
died eleven sad years later.
但是他的哲学充满了英雄主义的色彩并且蔚为壮观
But his philosophy was full of heroism and grandeur.
他是一名先知 他称之为:勇气(德语)自我超越的意思
He was a prophet of what he called: SELBSTÜBERWINDUNG
一个有伟大灵魂的人
or SELF-OVERCOMING, the process by which a great-souled
称之为超人的人
person – what he called an ÜBERMENSCH
无论生活有多么艰难
rises above their circumstances and difficulties to embrace
无论生活丢给他什么都能够挺住
whatever life throws at them.
他希望他的作品能触动我们 就像他说道 “如何实现真实的自我”
He wanted his work to teach us, as he put it, ‘how to become who we really are’.
他给出了四条建议
His thought centers around 4 main recommendations:
承认自己感到嫉妒
Own up to envy
尼采认为嫉妒是我们生活很大的一部分
Envy is – Nietzsche recognised – a big part of life. Yet the lingering effects of
但是在基督教思想中 告诉我们这样是很羞耻的
Christianity generally teaches to be feel ashamed
因为嫉妒是一种邪恶的化身
of our envious feelings. They seem an
所以我们隐藏自己的嫉妒情绪 无论是对自己还是对别人
indication of evil. So we hide them from ourselves and others
尼采主张 嫉妒本身不是一种错误只要我们将它视为对自身欲望的指引
Yet there is nothing wrong with envy, maintained Nietzsche, so long as we use it as a guide
每一个现在让我们产生嫉妒的人
to what we really want. Every person who makes us envious should be seen as an indication
都是我们将来可能成为的样子引诱你产生嫉妒的作家 大亨 大厨
of what we could one day become. The envy-inducing writer, tycoon
暗示你将来也可能成为这样的人
or chef is hinting at who you are capable of one day being.
尼采并不认为我们都能在最终得到自己想要的东西 他的人生
It’s not that Nietzsche believed we always end up getting what we want. His own life
就证明了这一点 他仅仅强调了我们必须面对自己内心真实的欲望
had taught him this well enough). He simply insisted that we must face up to our true
英勇地战斗捍卫荣誉 直到最后 为失败而遗憾的时候 也带着无限的尊严
desires, put up a heroic fight to honour them, and only then mourn failure with solemn dignity.
这就是怎样成为超人
That is what it means to be an ÜBERMENSCH
第二 不要做基督教徒
2. Don’t be a Christian
尼采对基督教有一些极端的言论
Nietzsche had some extreme things to say about Christianity
“在整个新圣约书里
‘In the entire New Testament, there
只有一个值得尊敬的人 普拉特 罗马帝国的统治者”
is only person worth respecting: Pilate, the Roman governor.’
这看上去杂乱 实际上他的目标是明确的 有趣的 他憎恨
It was knockabout stuff, but his true target was more subtle and more interesting: he resented
基督教 因为基督教教人们避开嫉妒
Christianity for protecting people from their envy.
尼采在罗马帝国晚期 分析奴隶们的
Christianity had in Nietzsche’s account emerged in the late Roman Empire
卑怯心理时 才注意到基督教 奴隶们当时
in the minds of timid slaves, who had lacked the stomach
缺乏去争取希望得到的东西的勇气
to get hold of what they really wanted
因此就依恋在某种能把懦弱当做美德的哲学中
and so had clung to a philosophy that made a virtue of their cowardice.
他称之为SKLAVENMORAL
He called this SKLAVENMORAL
基督徒 – 他粗鲁的将他们称之为DIE HEERDE 羊群 – 一群希望能
Christians – whom he rather rudely termed DIE HEERDE, the herd – had wished to
享受真正的满足感原料(地位 性
enjoy the real ingredients of fulfilment (a position in the world, sex,
智力掌控 创造力)
intellectual mastery, creativity)
却又太笨而获得不到
but had been too inept to get them.
于是他们就传播了一种虚伪的戒律谴责
They had therefore fashioned a hypocritical creed denouncing what
他们想要得到的东西 但实际上是他们太弱小了
they wanted but were too weak to fight for
同时会去宣扬他们不想要的但实际上
– while praising what they did not want but happened
不得不有的 所以 基督徒的价值体系里 无性
to have. So, in the Christian value system, sexlessness
变成了纯洁 懦弱变成了友善 屈从于痛恨的人变成了
turned into purity [show text changing] weakness became goodness, submission-to-people-one-hates
顺从 用尼采的话说 “没能力报复” 变成了
became obedience and, in Nietzsche’s phrase, “not-being-able-to-take-revenge” turned
“谅解”
into “forgiveness.”
基督信仰累积成了一个不承认痛苦的巨大机器
Christianity amounted to a giant machine for bitter denial.
第三 永不饮酒
3. Never drink alcohol
尼采自己只喝水 – 有时候会特别的喝些牛奶 他认为我们
Nietzsche himself drank only water – and as a special treat, milk. And he thought we
也应该这样做 他不是从一个细小的
should do likewise. He wasn’t making a small,
奇怪的饮食角度来说的 这个思想是他哲学的核心
eccentric dietary point. The idea went to the heart of his philosophy, as contained
他声明说 “在欧洲文明里有两种麻醉剂
in his declaration: ‘There have been two great narcotics in European civilisation:
基督教和酒精”
Christianity and alcohol.’
他憎恨酒精的原因和批判基督教非常相似
He hated alcohol for the very same reasons that he scorned Christianity: because both
因为两者都帮助人们逃避痛苦两者都让我们相信一切都很好 让我们
numb pain, and both reassure us that things are just fine as they are, sapping us of the
不再努力争取更好的生活 饮酒会引入一种暂时的
will to change our lives for the better. A few drinks usher in a transient feeling of
满足感 但却会给我们在改善生活的道路上带来
satisfaction that can get fatally in the way of taking the steps necessary to improve our
致命的威胁
lives.
尼采着迷于这种令人尴尬的真理 那就是真正有价值的东西是让人痛苦的
Nietzsche was obsessed with the awkward truth that getting really valuable things done hurts.
“你对人类的幸福之道的太少了 – 你这个舒服的小人”
“How little you know of human happiness – you comfortable people” he wrote
“充盈生命的秘密是:
“The secret of a fulfilled life is: live
生活的险境之中!在维苏威火山岩壁旁建造城市吧!”
dangerously! Build your cities on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius!”
第四 “上帝已死”
4. “God is Dead”
尼采的引人注目的断言说上帝已死 不是通常被
Nietzsche’s dramatic assertion that God is dead is not, as it’s often taken to be,
某种庆祝性语言所引用的那样
some kind of a celebratory statement.
除了他对基督教的意见外 尼采并不认为
Despite his reservations about Christianity, Nietzsche did not think that the end of belief
没有信仰是某种值得称道的事
was anything to cheer about.
他知道宗教信仰是虚假的 但是他观察到宗教在
Religious beliefs were false, he knew; but he observed that they were very beneficial
帮助我们面对生活中的困难时的价值
in the sense of helping us cope with the problems of life.
尼采觉得宗教留下的空虚应该被文化所填补(他的意思是:
Nietzsche felt that the gap left by religion should ideally be filled by Culture (he meant:
哲学 艺术 音乐 文学)文化应该替代圣经
philosophy, art, music, literature): Culture should replace Scripture.
然而 尼采深深的怀疑他所在的那个时代能否把握文化
However, Nietzsche was deeply suspicious of the way his own era was handling culture.
他相信全宇宙都正在杀死人文
He believed the universities were killing the humanities,
将他们变成一种干枯的学术联系
turning them into dry academic exercises,
而不是让他们成为他们应该做的人
rather than using them for what they were always meant to be:
生命的引导他崇拜
guides to life. He admired
希腊人使用的悲剧演绎方式 某种实用的疗愈性的方法
the way the Greeks had used tragic drama in a practical, therapeutic way,
某种宣泄的 道德教育的场景他希望自己所在的时代
as an occasion for catharsis and moral education – and wished his own age to be comparably
更加有抱负
ambitious.
他呼唤那些最近明白了信仰终结后带来的
He called for a reformation, in which people – newly conscious of the crisis brought
危机的人们 一起来改良 用哲学和艺术来填补
on by the end of faith – would fill the gaps created by the disappearance of religion
宗教消失后带来的虚无
with philosophy and art.
尼采认为 每个时代都会面对自己特殊的心理挑战
Every era faces particular psychological challenges, thought Nietzsche, and it is the task of the
这就是哲学家的任务 来判断问题 以至于帮助解决它们
philosopher to identify, and help solve, these.
对于尼采来说,十九世纪在两大发展的影响中摇摆
For Nietzsche, the 19th century was reeling under the impact
大规模民主运动
of two developments: Mass Democracy
以及无神论
and Atheism. The first
前者会可能释放出无法消化的嫉妒洪流
threatened to unleash torrents of undigested envy; the second to
后者则可能让人类出于无指引与道德的境况中
leave humans without guidance or morality.
对于这两个挑战 尼采留给了我们那种 可爱的 充满想象力的
In relation to both challenges, Nietzsche remains our endearing, fascinating often loveable
带着八字胡的指引
and moustachioed guide.

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尼采,德国著名哲学家、语言学家、文化评论家、诗人、作曲家、思想家,西方现代哲学的开创者。尼采对于后代哲学的发展影响极大,尤其是在存在主义与后现代主义上。

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