ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

米歇尔·福柯 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

米歇尔·福柯

PHILOSOPHY - Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault was a French 20th century philosopher and historian
米歇尔·福柯是法国20世纪哲学家和历史学家
who spent his career forensically criticizing the power of the modern bourgeois capitalist state, including its
他一生都在批判 现代资本主义社会中资本家的权力
police, law courts, prisons, doctors and psychiatrists.
包括警察 法庭 监狱 医生 以及精神病医生
His goal was to work out nothing less
他的目标是找出
than how power worked and then to change it in the direction
权力运作的机制然后根据马克思
of a marxist-anarchist utopia.
无政府主义乌托邦的思想指导来改造权力
Though he spent most of his life in libraries and seminar rooms,
虽然他一生中大部分时间花在图书馆和研讨室中
he was a committedly revolutionary figure.
但他确实是一个坚定的革命斗士
He met with enormous popularity in elite Parisien intellectual circles.
他在巴黎学术精英圈子获得了巨大的人气
Jean-Paul Sartre admired him deeply
让—保罗·萨特非常佩服他
and he still maintains a wide following among young people studying at university
世界上所有发达地区的大学里的年轻人中
in the prosperous corners of the world.
他也拥趸无数
His background, which he was extremely reluctant ever to talk about
福柯极不愿意提及他的家世背景
and tried to prevent journalists from investigating at all costs,
不遗余力地阻止记者对此进行调查
was very privileged.
事实上他家世优越
Both his parents were inordinately rich
他的父母都相当富有
coming from a long line of successful surgeons in Poitiers, in west central France.
他们都生于法国西部普瓦捷的世代传承的医学世家
His father, Dr. Paul Foucault, came to represent
他的父亲保罗·福柯 恰恰能代表
all that Michel would hate about bourgeois France.
米歇尔所憎恨的法国中产阶级的全部缺点
Michel had a standard upper class education.
米歇尔接受的是标准上等阶层教育
He went to elite Jesuit institutions, was an altar boy,
他在耶稣会开办的精英学校上学 当过祭坛助手
and his parents hoped he would become a doctor.
他的父母都希望他能成为一位医生
But Michel wasn’t quite like other boys.
但他和别的男孩不大一样
He started self-harming and thinking constantly of suicide.
他开始自残 不断地想要自杀
At University, he decorated his bedroom with images of torture by Goya.
到了大学 他在卧室里贴满了戈雅的《战争的灾难》图
When he was 22, he tried to commit suicide and was forced by his father,
22岁的时候他试图自杀
against his will,
却没能如愿
to see France’s most famous psychiatrist, Jean Delay, at the Hôpital Sainte-Anne in Paris.
他父亲逼他去巴黎圣安妮医院看法国最著名的精神病医生让·德雷
The doctor wisely diagnosed that a lot of Michel’s distress
医生敏锐地发现米歇尔的大部分忧郁
came from having to keep his homosexuality and, in particular,
都来源于不得不在极端苛刻的社会环境中
his interest in extreme sadomasochism away from a censorious society.
隐藏自己的同性恋倾向 尤其是他的SM性癖
Gradually, Foucault entered the underground gay scene in France,
福柯慢慢加入了法国地下同性恋的行列
fell in love with a drug dealer and then took up with a transvestite.
爱上了一个毒贩子 之后与一个异装癖交往
For long periods in his twenties, he went to live abroad in Sweden, Poland and Germany,
在20到30岁前 他在瑞典 波兰和德国居住
where he felt his sexuality would be less constrained.
在这些地方他觉得自己的特殊性向不会受到过多的束缚
All the while, Foucault was progressing up the French academic ladder. The seismic event to his intellectual life
在这期间 福柯在法国学术界的地位不断攀升
came in the summer of 1953, when Foucault was 27
直到1953年 27岁的他迎来了人生的转折点
and on holiday with a lover in Italy. There, he came across Nietzsche’s book
当时他和爱人在意大利度假 在这里 他发现了
“Untimely Meditations” which contains an essay called
尼采的《不合时宜的沉思》 其中有一篇文章
“On the Uses and Abuses of History for Life”.
叫“历史学对于生活的利与弊”
In the essay, Nietzsche argued that academics had poisoned our sense of how history
在这篇文章里 尼采提出学者误导人们对历史
should be read and talked.
阅读理解和探讨运用的方式
They made it seem as if one should read history in some sort of a disinterested way
他们让人们觉得为了了解过去发生的事
in order to learn how it all was in the past.
就应该用某种程度上很无趣的方式来读历史
But Nietzsche rejected this with sarcastic fury.
但尼采愤怒地讽刺 拒绝这种观点
There was no point learning about the past for its own sake,
为了了解过去而了解过去是没有意义的
the only reason to read and study history is to dig out from the past
了解研究历史的唯一原因是要从过去
ideas, concepts and examples which can help us to lead
找出能帮助我们在自己的时代活得更好的观点 思想 案例
a better life in our own times. This essay liberated Foucault intellectually
这篇文章给福柯带来了前所未见的思想解放
as nothing had until then. Immediately, he changed the direction of his work
很快他就改变了自己的研究方向
and decided to become a particular kind of philosophical historian:
决定成为一个独特的哲学历史学家
someone who could look back into the past to help to sort out the urgent issues of his own time.
回溯历史 来帮助解决当代的紧急问题
Eight years later,
8年后
he was ready to publish what’s recognizes as his first masterpiece:
他做好准备发行他的第一部著作
“Madness and Civilization”.
《疯癫与文明》
The standard view is that we now treat people with mental illness in so much more of a humane way
标准的观点认为我们现在对待精神病人的方式
than we ever did in the past. After all, we put them in hospitals, give them drugs
比以前任何时候都更人道 我们送他们去医院 给他们吃药
and get them looked after by people with PhD’s.
让博士学位的人照顾他们
But this was exactly the attitude that Foucault wished to demolish in “Madness and Civilization.”
然而这正是福柯在《疯癫与文明》中想要推翻的观点
In the book, he argued that things way back in the Renaissance
在书中 他提出事实上文艺复兴时期
were actually far better for the mad, than they subsequently became.
精神病患者的境遇比后来要好得多
In the Renaissance, the mad were felt to be different rather than crazy.
文艺复兴时期 人们认为疯子就是不同常人 而不是发疯
They were thought to possess a kind of wisdom
他们认为这些人都是有某种特殊智慧的
because they demonstrated the limits of reason.
因为他们展示出了理性的局限
They were revered in many circles
他们在很多圈子里受到尊重
and were allowed to wander freely.
可以自由行动
But then, as Foucault’s historical researches showed him,
然而 正如福柯的历史研究显示
in the mid 17th century, a new attitude was born
在17世纪中期 新的观点出现了
that relentlessly medicalized and institutionalized mentally ill people.
人们开始无情地用医疗手段和收容机构来处理精神病患者
No longer were they allowed to live alongside the so-called sane,
他们再也不被允许和所谓的“正常人”生活在一起
they were taken away from their families and locked up in asylums
他们被人从家里带走 关进收容所
and seen as people one should try to cure
被视作需要医治的病人
rather than tolerate for just being different.
而不是被普通人接纳容忍的非凡之人
You can recognize a very similar, underlying philosophy
在福柯的下一部著作《临床医学的诞生》中
in Foucault’s next great book: “The Birth of The Clinic.”
可以发现潜藏着类似的哲学观点
His target here was medicine more broadly.
这本书中他针对的是更宽泛意义上的医学
He systematically attacked the view that medicine had become more humane with time.
他系统地攻击了医学随时代进步变得更人性化的观点
He conceded that, of course, we have better drugs and treatments now
他承认我们现在确实有更好的药物和疗法
but he believed that in the 18th century the professional doctor was born
但他相信 18世纪职业医生诞生
and that he was a sinister figure
医生就是一个不光彩的形象
who would look at the patient always with, what Foucault called, the “medical gaze,”
总是用福柯说的“医生的凝视”来观察病人
denoting a dehumanizing attitude;
传达出一种反人性的态度
that looked at a patient just as a set of organs, not a person.
把病人看成一堆器官而不是一个人
One was, under the medical gaze, merely a malfunctioning
在医生的凝视下 一个人就只是出问题的
kidney or liver, not a person to be considered as a whole entity.
肾或者肝脏 而不是被视作整体的人
Next in Foucault’s oeuvre came: “Discipline and Punish.”
这部作品之后福柯创作了《规训与惩罚》
Here, Foucault did his standard thing on state punishment.
在这本书中他延续自己的风格探讨惩罚的问题
Again, the normal view is that the prison and punishing systems of the modern world
同样 一般的观点认为现代社会的监狱和惩罚体系
are so much more humane than they were in the days when people just used to be hung in public squares.
比以往动辄绞刑示众的惩罚方式要人性化得多
Not so, argued Foucault.
而福柯却不这么认为
The problem, he said, is the power now looks kind
他说问题在于现如今权力看似温和
but isn’t, whereas in the past it clearly wasn’t kind
实则不然 而在过去权力的残暴不仁显而易见
and therefore could encourage open rebellion in protest.
因此能激励人们公开抗议 反叛权威
Foucault noted that in the past, in an execution, a convict’s body
福柯指出 在过去 行刑过程中
could become a focus of sympathy and admiration, and the executioner
犯人的身体会成为同情甚至钦佩的焦点
rather than the convict, could become the locus of shame.
而刽子手反而是被唾弃的对象
Also, public executions often led to riots in support of the prisoner,
同时 公开处决也常常使人们因为支持犯人而造成暴动
but, with the invention of the modern prison system,
然而 随着现代监狱制度的诞生
everything happened in private, behind locked gates;
一切惩罚都在锁上的大门里悄悄发生
one could no longer see and, therefore resist, state power.
人们再也无法看到犯人被惩罚 因而无法反抗国家权力
That’s what made the modern system of punishment so barbaric
这就是福柯看来现代惩罚制度
and properly primitive in Foucault’s eyes.
野蛮得近乎原始之处
Foucault’s last work was the multi-volume “History of Sexuality.”
福柯的最后一部作品是分多卷出版的《性史》
The manoeuvres he performed in relation to sex are again very familiar.
他对性也秉持着类似的反常规态度
Foucault rebelled against the view
福柯反对
that we’re all now deeply libarated and at ease with sex.
现代人在性方面享有深度自由不受压抑的观点
He argued that since the 18th century, we have relentlessly medicalized sex,
他认为从18世纪开始我们不断地让性进入医学范畴
handing it over to professional sex researchers and scientists.
把性全部交给性学研究人员和科学家去了解
We live in an age of what Foucault called “scientia sexualis” (“science of sexuality”)
我们生活在一个被福柯称为“性科学化”(此处为法语)的时代
But Foucault looked back with considerable nostalgia
福柯带着深深的怀旧之情回望过去
to the cultures of Rome, China and Japan,
回顾古罗马 中国 日本的文化
where he detected the rule of, what he called, an “ars erotica” (“erotic art”),
他发现了“色情艺术”(原文为法语)的宗旨
where the whole focus was on how to increase the pleasure of sex
在于重心全部放在增添性的愉悦度上
rather than merely understand and label it.
而不是仅仅去理解并给性赋予概念
Once again, modernity was blamed for pretending there’d been progress
他再次批评了现代性伪装出进步
when there was in fact just the loss of spontaneity and imagination.
而事实上只是丢掉了自发自觉和想象力
Foucault wrote the last volume of this work while dying of AIDS,
福柯创作这本书的最后一卷时
that he had contracted in a San Francisco gay bar.
因在旧金山的同性恋酒吧里感染艾滋病
He died in 1984, age 58.
于1984年去世 享年58岁
Foucault’s lasting contribution is to the way we look at history.
福柯持久的影响在于他对看待历史的方式做出的贡献
There are lots of things in the modern world that we’re constantly being told are “fantastic”
现代社会很多被人赞叹的东西
and were apparently very bad in the past; for example
从表面上看 在过去是非常不好的 比如说
education or the media or our communication systems.
教育 媒体 还有我们的通讯系统
Foucault encourages us to breakaway from optimistic smugness
福柯鼓励我们不要乐观地对现状自我陶醉
about now and to go back and see in history many ways of doing things
而要回顾历史 看历史上人们多样的解决方式
which were perhaps superior.
或许他们有更优越的问题答案
Foucault wasn’t trying to get us to be nostalgic,
福柯不是想让我们怀古伤今
he wanted us to pick up some lessons of way back
想让我们从历史中得到学习
in order to improve how we live now.
来改善我们现在的生活方式
Academic historians have tended to hate Foucault’s work.
理论历史学家不大喜欢福柯的作品
They think it inaccurate and keep pointing out things
他们认为他写的不够准确
he hadn’t quite understood in some document or other,
总是用一些来源不可靠 他自己尚不完全理解的东西
but Foucault didn’t care for total historical accuracy.
但福柯不在乎分毫不差地尊重历史
History for him was just a storehouse of good ideas,
对他来说历史只是收藏着好点子的仓库
and he wanted to raid it rather than keep it pristine and untouched.
他想从中得到东西而不是让它不可触碰
We should use Foucault as an inspiration
我们应该把福柯的观点作为启发
to look at the dominant ideas and institutions of our times,
去了解当代的主导思想和规范
and to question them by looking at their histories and evolutions.
通过回顾历史演变来提出质疑
Foucault did something remarkable: he made history life-enhancing
福柯做了一件了不起的事 他让历史具有了改善现实生活的力量
and philosophically rich again.
使其重新获得丰富的哲学意义
He can be an inspiring figure for our own projects.
对我们普通人来说他也是一个激励人心的形象

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

当代文青必须了解的西方马克思主义代表性人物

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lucien 迷迭

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBJTeNTZtGU

相关推荐