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路德维希·维特根斯坦

PHILOSOPHY - Ludwig Wittgenstein

哲学
路德维希·维特根斯坦
A lot of unhappiness comes about in this world
世上许多的不幸源于
because we can’t let other people know what we mean clearly enough.
我们无法清楚地向他人传达本意
One of the philosophers who can help us with our communication problems
能够帮助我们解决沟通问题的哲学家之一
is Ludwig Wittgenstein.
是路德维希·维特根斯坦
He was a recluse. He had a stutter, paused for ages in the middle of his sentences
他是一位隐士 有口吃 讲话时语句间会停顿很久
and had a habit of storming out if he didn’t like what people were saying.
如果不喜欢别人观点 他习惯于夺门而出
It was weirdly the ideal background for someone intent on studying how easily communication between people goes wrong.
所以他异常适合研究人类为什么很容易出现沟通错误
Ludwig Wittgenstein was born Vienna in 1889.
1889年 路德维希·维特根斯坦出生于维也纳
The youngest child of a wealthy, highly cultured but domineering steel magnate.
他是一个富有 高知的钢铁巨头家庭的幼子
Three of Ludwig’s four brothers took their own lives,
路德维希四兄弟中有三个自杀了
and Ludwig himself was frequently troubled by suicidal thoughts.
路德维希自己也经常受到自杀念头的困扰
When he was young, he was interested in engineering.
他年轻时对工程学感兴趣
After studying at Cambridge,
从剑桥大学毕业之后
his father died and he inherited a lot of money.
他的父亲去世了 他继承了很多遗产
He gave it all away, mainly to his already very rich relatives
他把遗产都给了别人 主要是那些已经很富有的亲戚
and went to live in spartan solitude in Norway.
然后去挪威过起了斯巴达式的独居生活
Then he started writing a book published in 1921 called Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
接着他开始写《逻辑哲学论》并于1921年出版
It was a short, beautiful and baffling work.
这是一部简短出色 也令人困惑的作品
The big question that Wittgenstein asks in it is:
维特根斯坦在书中提出的主要问题是
How do human beings manage to communicate ideas to one another?
人类是如何相互交流思想的?
And his answer, which felt revolutionary,
他的回答是革命性的
is that language works by triggering within us pictures of how things are in the world.
他认为语言在我们脑中触发了万事万物的图像信息
Wittgenstein thought of this
维特根斯坦的观点源自于
while reading a newspaper article about a Paris court case in which,
他在报纸上读到的一篇关于巴黎法院案件的文章
in order to explain with greater efficacy, the details of
这件案子为了更有效地说明
an accident that had taken place a road junction,
一桩发生在路口交通案件的细节
the court had arranged for the accident to be reproduced visually
法庭通过使用模型车和行人
using model cars and pedestrians.
模拟重现了这次交通事故
It was a Eureka moment.
那是一个启发性的时刻
In Wittgenstein’s view words enables us to make pictures of facts.
在维特根斯坦看来 语言能够让我们把事实图像化
To say: The palm tree is by the shore,
当你说:棕榈树在岸边时
paints a rapid sketch that like the model,
就相当于画了一幅类似模型的速写
lets another person see the situation in their mind and understand.
从而让他人在脑海中看到并理解这幅画
We’re constantly swapping pictures between us.
我们一直在相互交换图片信息
But the Paris court needed to resort to an actual model for a very important reason,
但是巴黎法院需要采用实体模型的一个重要原因是
because on the whole, we’re very bad at managing to make good pictures in the minds of others.
总的来说 我们不擅长在别人脑海中生成合适的图片
Communication typically goes wrong
沟通时常会失误
because other people have, as we put it, the wrong picture
因为他人在脑海中形成了错误的图片
of what we’re meaning.
误解了我们的本意
It can take an age for two people to realize divergences over quite basic things.
对一些基本事物的分歧 有时需要长年累月的时间双方才能理解
Problems of communication typically start because
沟通问题的开始主要源于
we don’t have a clear and accurate enough picture of what we mean in our own heads.
我们自己脑海中未形成足够精准的图像
We say quite meaningless or modeled or unelaborated things
如果我们说的话非常漫无意义 模式化或笼统
which therefore can go nowhere in the minds of others.
自然不能在他人脑海中形成准确的含义
There’s another danger:
还有另一种误区:
That we read more meaning into the words of others than they ever intended or than is warranted.
我们对他人的话解读过多 甚至超过了他人的本意
You tell your partner you had a conversation with an interesting person at the hotel reception.
你告诉你的伴侣 你刚在酒店前台和一个“有趣的人”聊天
The picture in your mind is an innocent one.
你脑中的图像是一个没太所谓的人
But your partner swiftly forms a very different impression.
但你伴侣立刻形成了一种截然不同的印象
The Tractatus is a plea by a very taciturn, silent and precise Austrian philosopher
《逻辑哲学论》这本册子 就是一名寡言但严谨的奥地利哲学家的恳求
to speak more carefully and less impulsively.
他恳求人们言辞更为谨慎 不要太冲动
As he famously put it:
正如他的名言
“Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen.”
“人对于不能谈的事情就应当沉默”
When he published it, Wittgenstein thought somewhat grandly
出版《逻辑哲学论》时 维特根斯坦有些自负地认为
that the Tractatus was the last work of philosophy that would ever need to be written.
这本书是他最后的哲学著述 因为哲学领域有这一本书就够了
So he looked around for how to fill the rest of his life.
所以他找了别的差事来充实余下的人生
He turned to architecture and spent a couple of years
他转到建筑行业 花了几年时间
designing a house for his sister in Vienna.
为他妹妹在维也纳设计了一套房子
He spent ages getting the door handles and radiotors right.
光是装门把手和暖气片他就花了好几年时间
Very late on in the project, he got increasingly bothered about the ceiling in one of the rooms
工程后期 他越来越不满其中一间房子的天花板
and came to the conclusion that is was too low.
最终认定天花板太低了
At immense inconvenience to everyone,
尽管会给大家带来极大不便
he insisted on having it raised by three centimeters.
他还是坚持将天花板升高了3厘米
It made all the difference, he thought.
他觉得升高后的房子显得截然不同
Then, in 1929 Wittgenstein suddenly returned to Cambridge and to philosophy
1929年 维特根斯坦突然重返剑桥和哲学领域
because he realized he had some new things to say about language and communication.
因为他意识到在语言和沟通上有新的发现要阐明
And so he began to write a second book
于是他开始着手写第二本书
published posthumously,
这本书在他死后才出版
and that we know know as Philosophical Investigations.
也就是我们所知的《哲学研究》
Instead of thinking that language is only just about pictures,
他不再认为语言只和图片信息相关
he developed the idea that language is like a kind of tool that we use to play different games,
他提出语言是我们用来玩不同“游戏”的工具
which doesn’t literally mean games, more patterns of intentions.
“游戏”不是字面上的含义 而是指人们的意图形式
So if a parent says to a frightened child:
如果父母和受惊的孩子说:
“Don’t worry – everything’s gonna to be fine”,
“别担心 一切都会好起来的”
they can’t know it really will be fine.
他们不并觉得真的会好起来
They aren’t playing the Rational Prediction From Available Facts Game.
他们不是在玩“依据现有事实理性预测”的游戏
They’re playing another game: The Words as an Instrument of Comfort and Security Game
他们在玩另一种叫“这话是用来安慰和给与安全感的游戏”
Wittgenstein’s point is that all kinds of misunderstandings arise
维特根斯坦认为 所有的误解都是因为
when we don’t see which kind of game someone is involved in.
我们没有注意到他人正在玩何种“游戏”
If one’s partner says: “You never help me. You’re so unreliable.”
如果某人的伴侣对他说: “你从没帮助过我 你太不可靠了”
The natural inclination might be to hear this as a part of a Stating the Facts Game;
人们下意识会觉得这句话是一句“陈述事实”的话
like saying: The battle of Waterloo was in 1815.
就像说 “滑铁卢战争发生于1815年”那样
So one might respond by citing facts about
有些人会用引用事实来回应
how actually you got the car insurance yesterday,
比如你昨天到底是怎么获得车险的
and you bought some vegetables at lunch time, too.
还有你吃午饭时买了一些蔬菜
But actually, this person is involved in a different language game.
但实际上 这人玩的是另一种语言游戏
They’re using words not to capture facts.
他们用词不是为了紧扣事实
They’re playing The Help and Reassurance Game.
他们玩得是 “帮助你和让你安心”的游戏
So in the language game, they’re involved in,
所以在他们所玩的这个语言游戏中
“You never help” means “I want you to be more nurturing.”
“你从没帮过我” 的意思是“我想要你更照顾我”
Working out the game in question, is, Wittgenstein realized, key to good communication.
维特根斯坦认为 破解这些游戏是有效沟通问题的关键
In the Philosophical Investigations
在《哲学研究》中
Wittgenstein also wanted to draw attention
维特根斯坦也希望人们注意到
to how much of our self-understanding depends on the words of others,
人们的自我认识在多大程度上取决于他人的话语
on languages that have developed publicly and communally over many centuries long before we’re born.
取决于早已公开 并在我们出生前就已经流传数个世纪的语言
For example, on Sunday afternoon I might fall prey to a worried, confused mood
比如说 星期天下午我可能深受担心和迷茫之苦
as I think about the week ahead and everything I’ve got to do.
因为我想到了接下来的一周 我有许多事情要做
My ability to know this very private side of myself and to help others know me
如果我用一个约定俗成的词汇来描述这种情绪
will be hugely enhanced if I have to hand a word that’s been around a while:
我了解自己和帮助他人了解自己的能力会大大提高
Angst.
比如:焦虑
A word which was helpfully formulated
这个词的意思主要得益于
by the philosopher Kierkegaard in 19th century, Copenhagen.
19世纪哥本哈根哲学家克尔凯郭尔的阐释
Words like angst or also nostalgia, melancholy or ambivalent and many others
像焦虑 乡愁 忧郁 矛盾等等这样的词汇
help us to name elusive areas of our own experience.
帮助我们命名了人生经历中难以描述的事物
Language is a public tool for the understanding of private life.
语言成为了理解个人生活的通用工具
The richness of the language we’re exposed to
所以说我们面临的语言的丰富性
is therefore really important to our self-knowledge.
对于我们自我认知十分重要
Reading many books gives us tools
广泛阅读为我们提供了工具
with which to help to know who we are.
来帮助我们理解“我是谁”的问题
Though a lot of Wittgenstein’s philosophy is deeply complicated,
尽管维特根斯坦的许多理论相当深奥和复杂
it’s underpinned by a desire always to be helpful.
但出于帮助人们更好沟通的初衷 这些理论根基坚固
The task of philosophy, said Wittgenstein,
维特根斯坦认为哲学的目标在于
is to show the fly the way out of the fly bottle.
给困在苍蝇瓶里的苍蝇指明一条飞出来的路
The particular fly bottle, he was interested in, was language.
他在这里饶有意味所指的苍蝇瓶就是语言
And before his death from cancer in 1951,
维特根斯坦1951年因癌症去世
he managed to let out for us a lot of word flies usefully for us all.
离世前 他为全人类成功解放了一系列“语言苍蝇”

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视频概述

我们为何总是误会对方?路德维希·维特根斯坦用哲学的方法为您解释原因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

三十四

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQ33gAyhg2c

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