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哲学:杰克斯·德里达

PHILOSOPHY: Jacques Derrida

哲学
Philosophy
雅克·德里达
Jacques Derrida
雅克·德里达是法国近代知识分子中最著名
Jacques Derrida was one of the most famous, controversial,
最具争议 但又具有智慧的人物之一
but also wise figures in recent French intellectual life.
他发明了一种研究哲学的方法 并称之为”解构”
He invented a way of doing philosophy that he called ‘deconstruction’,
这从根本上改变了我们对许多学术领域 尤其是文学研究的理解
which fundamentally altered our understanding of many academic fields, especially literary studies.
德里达1930年出生于阿尔及尔的一个郊区埃尔比亚尔
Derrida was born in 1930 in El Biar, a suburb of Algiers
阿尔及利亚当时属于法国殖民地
in what was then French colonial Algeria.
他的家人是犹太人 他的父亲是当地一家葡萄酒公司的推销员
His family were Jews. His father, a salesman for a local wine firm.
他最初在学校学习缓慢 梦想成为一名职业足球运动员
He was initially slow at school and harbored dreams of becoming a professional soccer player.
1942年 根据法国卖国者维希政权新颁布的法律
In 1942, under new laws enacted by the collaborationist French Vichy regime,
德里达像所有其他犹太孩子一样 被迫离开中学
Derrida, like all other Jewish children, was forcibly excluded from his lycée,
他有很长一段时间都和母亲待在家里
and spent a lot of his time at home with his mother.
占人口多数的阿尔及利亚穆斯林群体反犹太主义 使他深受其苦
He suffered greatly from the anti-semitism of Algeria’s majority Muslim population,
而且他深深地被曾处于劣势地位的经历所影响
and was deeply marked by the experience of having been in an inferior position,
因为三种不同的宗教 犹太教 基督教与伊斯兰教互相缠斗
at the nexus of three different religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,
它们都声称自己的教义是真理
all of which claimed to speak the truth,
却都不懂得如何给予其它教派的人特定的尊重
none of which knew how to treat the others with particular respect.
1949年 刚满19岁的德里达
In 1949, just turned 19,
前往巴黎著名的高等师范学院就读
Derrida travelled to Paris to take up a place at the prestigious Ecole Normale Supérieure.
他是一名出色的学生 却处于一个奇怪的地位
He was a brilliant student, but in an odd position.
虽然他在教育上享有殊荣
Highly privileged in terms of education,
但作为一个阿尔及利亚犹太人 他完全处于法国大都会的边缘
but utterly at the margins in Metropolitan France in his status as an Algerian Jew.
虽然德里达不是一个自传体作家
Though Derrida was not an autobiographical writer,
但很难不将他的作品看做是他对偏执和排斥的
it’s hard not to read his work as a highly abstract response
一个高度抽象的反应
to his first-hand knowledge of bigotry and exclusion.
从二十世纪六十年代末开始
It was from the late 1960s onwards
德里达开始研究发展那些使他成名的思想
that Derrida began to develop the ideas that made his name.
随后 他成了欧洲和美国的名人知识分子
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America.
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
In time he became a celebrity intellectual around Europe and America
他是一个非常迷人 相貌英俊的男人
He was hugely glamorous, a good looking man,
对风衣和发型有着很好的品味
with great taste in raincoats and haircuts.
拥有丰富多彩而又复杂的爱情生活
He had a rich, diverse and complex love life.
1980年 他因莫须有的毒品走私指控被捕
In 1980, he was arrested on a wholly false drug smuggling charge,
但得到了法国总统和左右翼政客的支持
but was supported by the French President and politicians from both left and right.
他喜欢打台球 大部分的下午都在打台球
He loved playing snooker, and devoted most of his afternoons to the game,
他球技一流 堪作楷模
which he played with exemplary skill.
2004年他死于胰腺癌 享年74岁
He died in 2004 from pancreatic cancer at the age of 74.
德里克写了40本深奥又敏感的书
Derrida wrote 40 books, all of them abstruse and subtle.
但他对我们的重要性可以通过检查
But his importance for us can be revealed
他经常使用的三个一听就很奇怪的术语来揭示:
by examining three initially odd-sounding terms he often used:
解构 困惑 和逻各斯中心主义
deconstruction, aporia, and logocentrism.
在夸张的词汇背后隐藏着一些非常重要的思想
Behind the high-flown vocabulary lie some of crucially important ideas.
“解构主义”是最常与德里达关联的词
‘Deconstruction’ is the word most commonly associated with Derrida.
他用它来描述他思考的方式
He used it to describe the way he went about thinking.
虽然 当其他人开始使用这个术语的时
Though when other people started using this term,
他经常觉得到他们误解了他的意思
he quite often felt they misunderstood what he meant by it.
本质上 解构意味着废除我们对任何想法的过度忠诚
Essentially, ‘deconstruction’ means dismantling our excessive loyalty to any idea,
并学会看到可能隐藏在对立面的真相的各个方面
and learning to see the aspects of the truth that might lie buried in its opposite.
1967年 德里达出版了他的第一本主要著作《论文字学》
It was in 1967 that Derrida published his first major book, Of Grammatology.
无可否认 这个论题相当奇怪甚至乏味
Its overt topic is admittedly rather strange, even tedious.
德里达确信 自苏格拉底以来 西方哲学家就已经系统性地将言论置于优先位置
Derrida was convinced that western philosophers since Socrates had systematically privileged speech,
将其视为比写作更真实的交流
which was seen as authentic communication over writing,
写作被当做只是人们说话的一个文稿
which was regarded as a mere transcript of what people might say,
一份缺乏对话的互动性和真实性的间接资料
a second-hand report lacking the interaction and truthfulness that comes with conversation.
它本身则没那么重要
In itself this hardly feels like an urgent issue.
但德里达作品的戏剧性来源于他从这一主张中发展出来的更大的想法
But the drama of Derrida’s work came from the bigger idea he developed from this claim.
他的首要目标是推进一个巨大的令人不安的命题
His overarching ambition was to advance a vast troubling proposition,
但一旦我们开始仔细检视它
but once we begin to examine it closely,
几乎我们所有的想法都是错误的
almost all our thinking is riddled with false,
将一件事优于另一件事是不公正和无益的
that is unjustified and unhelpful, privileging of one thing over another.
演讲胜过书写 理性胜过激情
Speech is privileged over writing, reason over passion,
而男人至少在很长一段时间里胜过于女人
and men, at least for long periods, over women,
语言胜过图片 视觉胜过触觉
words over pictures, sight over touch.
德里达的核心观点是这种优先观点未能看到
Derrida’s core point was that this privileging involves a failure
方程式中占小部分的优点和价值
to see the merits and value of the supposedly lesser part of the equation.
德里达没有那么多认为一切都毫无价值的虚无主义观点
Derrida was not so much making the nihilistic point that everything is worthless.
他强调在一些我们主要的分歧中
He was stressing that the neglected counterparts
被忽视的部分 值得爱和关注
in some of our key oppositions, are worthy of love and attention.
在他的40本书中 德里达解构了一系列关键的二元相对术语:
Over his 40 books, Derrida deconstructed a range of key binary terms:
理性对激情
reason versus passion,
男性对女性
masculinity versus femininity,
利益对慷慨
profit versus generosity,
高雅文化对低俗文化
high culture versus low culture.
他希望我们能学会更聪明地生活
His hope was that we could learn to live more intelligently
这些术语背后的一些冲突
with some of the conflicts that lay beneath these terms,
能让我们看到双方对某些事物的不同立场
that we could come to see that both sides were on to something,
双方都不完美 彼此需要
that both were a bit wrong, that both needed each other,
而且两者间必然的紧张关系总被证明是不可避免的
and that the tension between would by necessity always prove irrevocable.
看起来德里达总是在用”解构”来攻击传统
It might look as if Derrida was always using ‘deconstruction’ to attack tradition,
和自由市场 推动左翼平等主义议程
and the free market, and to promote a left-wing egalitarian agenda,
但它比这更微妙
but it was a great deal more subtle than this.
例如 在他平等观念的解构中
For example, in his deconstruction of the idea of equality,
德里达提出平等总是比不平等更好的主张
Derrida proposed that the assertion that equality is always better than inequality
尽管这可能是一个现代的自由主义公理
though this might be a modern liberal axiom,
但实际上当时是不稳定和模糊的
is, in fact, unstable and obscure.
他指出 我们所知道的一些最好的人的处境
And he pointed out that some of the best human situations we know
显然是缺乏平等的
are obviously not examples of equality in action.
德里达是一个专职教授和父亲
Derrida, a devoted professor and father,
他漂亮又详细地描写了学生与老师
wrote beautifully and at length about the relationship
孩子与父母之间的关系
between pupils and teachers, and children and parents.
解构一个想法是要表明它是混乱和充满逻辑缺陷的
To deconstruct an idea is to show that it’s confused and riddled with logical defects,
我们要时刻记住它的的混乱
and that we must keep its messiness constantly in mind.
德里达批评我们倾向于认为每一个问题背后
Derrida was criticizing our tendency to imagine that behind every problem
都有完美的解决方案
lies somewhere a good and neat solution.
生物注定要过没有明确答案的生活
We offer him creatures destined to live our lives without clear answers,
渴求明确答案是我们烦恼的根源
and that the craving for them is at the root of our troubles.
他想通过质朴朴素的爱来治愈我们
He wanted to cure us of our love of crude simplicity,
用永恒的自然智慧让我们活得更舒服
and to make us more comfortable with a permanently oscillating nature of wisdom.
例如 他认为我们可能会困惑于资本主义和社会主义的进步
For instance, he argued that we might be rightly confused about the merits of capitalism and socialism,
或者爱和性的关系
or the relationship between love and sex,
我们不应急于就这些话题得出结论
but that we should never rush to conclusions around these topics.
这些方程式的两方面都有有用的东西可以讲
There’re useful things to be said on both sides of these equations.
断定资本主义是繁荣的还是有罪的
To conclude that capitalism is either splendid or sinful,
爱和性是密不可分
or that love and sex are either very closely linked,
还是毫不相关
or having nothing much to do with one another,
是为了避免与充满欺诈又千变万化的现实相抗争
is to avoid grappling with a fraud and kaleidoscopic nature of reality.
对这样的概念感到困惑和不确定并不是懦弱或愚蠢的表现
Being confused and uncertain around such concepts isn’t a sign of weakness or stupidity,
对德里达来说这是成熟的标志
it is for Derrida the central mark of maturity.
德里达的策略是美化这种情况并给予积极的肯定
Derrida’s tactic was to glamorize this condition and to give it a positive ring,
这就是为什么他使用一个美丽的古希腊词”aporia”
which was why he brought back into use a beautiful Greek word ‘aporia’,
意思是僵局或困惑
meaning impasse or puzzlement.
他建议把”aporia”作为一个州
He was proposing ‘aporia’ as a state
我们应以了解和经常访问这个州而感到自豪
we should feel proud to know and to visit on a regular basis.
困惑和疑问不是尴尬的死胡同
Confusion and doubt are not embarrassing dead ends,
在德里达的世界观里 它们只是头脑成年的证据
in a Derridean world view, they are simply evidence of the adulthood of the mind.
德里达批评的主要目标之一是一种思维方式 他称之为”逻各斯中心主义”
One of Derrida’s chief targets of Criticism was a way of thinking that he called ‘logocentrism’,
他认为这是一种过于仓促 天真地奉献于理性 逻辑和明确的定义
by which he understood an over hasty, naive devotion to reason, logic, and clear definition,
以语言信仰为支撑的 自然的以及最好的沟通方式
underpinned by a faith in language, as the natural and best way to communicate.
德里达喜欢音乐和艺术
Derrida, who loved music and art,
他强调很多我们所感觉到的最重要的事情
stressed that many of the most important things we feel
是无法用口头或书面的话完好地表达出来出
can never be neatly expressed in words spoken or written,
而逻各斯中心主义者往往会忘记这一点
as a logocentrist tends to forget.
关于逻各斯中心主义 有一个德里达特别感兴趣的例子
An instance of logocentrism, which particularly interested Derrida,
就是IQ理念的威望
was the prestige of the idea of IQ,
它主要是衡量一个人解决逻辑难题的能力
which measures primarily a person’s ability to solve logical puzzles,
却在很大程度上忽略了许多其他的心理素质
but which largely ignores many other qualities of mind,
例如 很少告诉我们关于一个人的社交
for example, telling us very little about a person’s capacity for friendship,
为人父母 娱乐 或者情绪管理的能力
for being a parent, for having fun, or managing their emotions.
对德里达来说 某些人在做几何序列时可能没那么出色
For Derrida, certain people might not be so brilliant at completing geometrical sequences,
但这很少告诉我们
but that would tell us very little
他们成功完成一份婚姻
about their skill of making a success of a marriage,
一份事业 一个假期 或者一个聚会的能力
a business, a holiday, or a party,
德里达深知其重要性
all of whose importance Derrida understood well.
身为一个在世界上最好的大学里任教的受人尊敬的教授
As an esteemed professor who lectured in the world’s best universities,
同时也是一个爱好台球和足球的阿尔及利亚犹太人
Derrida, who was also a snooker and football loving Algerian Jew,
德里达对整个现代知识世界观的基础提出了质疑
was casting doubts on the entire foundations of the modern intellectual worldview.
如同许多重要的思想家 德里达被珍视为某些过度态度的纠正者
Like many important thinkers, Derrida can be cherished as a corrective to certain excessive attitudes,
对他来说 就是对理智和明确的答案的过于热衷
in his case, an overzealous devotion to reason and clear-cut answers.
德里达不想删除所有的层次结构
Derrida didn’t want to remove all hierarchies.
他知道善良应该优于残酷
He knew it was right that kindness should be privileged over cruelty,
智慧优于愚钝 慷慨优于吝啬
wit over dullness, generosity over meanness,
但他也知道 我们经常不知不觉地忽视一些事物 人和观念
but he also understood how often we unwittingly dismiss things, people and ideas
当他们处于我们不认同的立场的时候
when their opposites bask in what might be an arbitrary status.
恰好 德里达就像一个谦虚而有耐心的声音
At its best, Derrida is a voice of modesty and patience,
让我们辩证地看待那些很容易被我们忽视的观念中所存在的价值
asking us to see what might be a value in those ideas we too easily overlook,
并好奇于它们总是存在的意义 哪怕只是暂时地
and to get curious about why it might be nice to be always, even if only for a little while,
站在对方的角度去看待问题
on the other side of any debate.

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视频概述

德里达是一个优秀的思想家,他强调我们不应过度忠诚于某些观念,学会辩证地看待问题。

听录译者

霜霜

翻译译者

769032218

审核员

[译学馆审核团D]

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0tnHr2dqTs

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