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哲学 – 海德格尔 – 译学馆
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哲学 - 海德格尔

PHILOSOPHY - Heidegger

马丁·海德格尔无疑是迄今以来最难理解的德国哲学家。
Martin Heidegger is without doubt the most incomprehensible German philosopher that ever lived.
没什么能比得上他的代表作《存在与时间》中的文章那样充满了复杂的
Nothing quite rivals the prose in his masterpiece Being and Time, which is filled with complex
复合的德语词汇像 Seinsvergessenheit Bodenständigkeit和Wesensverfassung。
compound German words like ‘Seinsvergessenheit’ ‘Bodenständigkeit’ and ‘Wesensverfassung’.
然而在这些术语背后,海德格尔告诉了我们一些简单的,有时甚至是朴素的关于
Yet beneath the jargon, Heidegger tells us some simple, even at times homespun truths
我们生活的意义,我们时代的病态和通往自由之路的真理。
about the meaning of our lives, the sicknesses of our time and the routes to freedom.
我们需要花费时间好好了解他。
We should bother with him.
他生为 并且在某些情况下一直是 一个德国乡巴佬
He was born, and in many ways remained, a rural provincial German, who loved picking
喜欢采蘑菇 在乡间行走 早早睡觉 他讨厌电视 飞机
mushrooms, walking in the countryside and going to bed early. He hated television, aeroplanes,
流行乐和加工食物 有一段时间 他是希特勒的支持者 直到见到了他的错行
pop music and processed food. At one time, he’d been a supporter of Hitler, but saw the
他人生中的大部分时间都在森林小屋中度过 远离现代文明
error of his ways. Much of his life he spent in a hut in the woods, away from modern civilisation.
他将现代人诊断为遭受众多灵魂疾病的折磨
He diagnosed modern humanity as suffering from a number of diseases of the soul.
第一:我们忘记了我们是存在者
Firstly: We have forgotten to notice we’re alive.
理论上我们当然知道 但我们不能每天都正确的
We know it in theory, of course, but we aren’t day-to-day properly in touch with the sheer
理解存在的全部秘密 海德格尔称为“das Sein”
mystery of existence, the mystery of what Heidegger called ‘das Sein’ or in English,
或用英语说“存在”的秘密
‘Being’.
只有一些零散的时刻 可能是深夜 或者我们病了
It’s only at a few odd moments, perhaps late at night, or when we’re ill and have been
必须孤独终日 或在乡间散步 我们遇见了
alone all day, or are on a walk through the countryside, that we come up against the uncanny
所有事奇怪的陌生:为什么事情那样存在 为什么我们在这里而不是那里
strangeness of everything: why things exist as they do, why we are here rather than there,
为什么世界是这个样子的
why the world is like it is.
我们在逃离的是对抗存在的背面
What we’re running away from is a confrontation with the opposite of Being, what Heidegger
海德格尔称为“das Nichts”(空无)
called: ‘das Nichts’ (The Nothing).
第二个问题是我们忘记了所有的存在
The second problems is we have forgotten that all Being is connected
与大多数的时间有关 我们的工作和日常事务让我们自私与困惑
Most of the time, our jobs and daily routines make us egoistic and focused. We treat others
我们永无止境地对他人与自然苛刻
and nature as means and not as ends.
但有时(又一次走进乡村尤其有助于这实现)
But occasionally (and again walks in the country are particularly conducive to this realisation),
我们可能走出我们狭窄的轨道 欣赏广阔的风景
we may step outside our narrow orbit – and take a more expansive view.
我们可能意识到海德格尔称为“存在的集合”
We may sense what Heidegger termed ‘the Unity of Being’, noticing for example that we,
留心例如我们和那个树皮上的瓢虫和那块岩石和那里的那朵云现在都存在着
and that ladybird on the bark, and that rock, and that cloud over there are all in existence right now
由我们共同存在这一基本事实从根本上联合起来
and are fundamentally united by the basic fact of our common Being.
海德格尔极大地评价了这些时刻——并且希望我们将它们作为跳板
Heidegger values these moments immensely – and wants us to use them as the springboard to
以前进到更深层次的慷慨 一个克服了异化、自私和更深层次的
a deeper form of generosity, an overcoming of alienation and egoism and a more profound
对短暂时间的欣赏 在“空无”依次要求我们之前提醒我们
appreciation of the brief time that remains to us before ‘das Nichts’ claims us in turn.
第三个问题是 我们忘记了自由和为自己而活
The third problem is we forget to be free and to live for ourselves
我们中的大多数当然不非常自由 我们——在海德格尔的反常构想中
Much about us isn’t of course very free. We are – in Heidegger’s unusual formulation
在我们生命的最初“突然陷进了世界”:突然陷进了一个特定
– ‘thrown into the world’ at the start of our lives: thrown into a particular and
和狭隘的社会背景中 与僵硬的态度、陈旧的偏见和
narrow social milieu, surrounded by rigid attitudes, archaic prejudices and practical
非我们知道的实际必需品一道
necessities not of our own making.
哲学家希望帮助我们克服这一“突然陷进的状态”(就像他用德语提出的Geworfenheit)
The philosopher wants to help us to overcome this ‘Thrownness’ (‘Geworfenheit’ as he puts it in german)
通过理解它 我们需要抓住我们的心理、社会和专业的
by understanding it. We need to grasp our psychological, social and professional
地方风气——并将其升级为一个更普遍的观点
provincialism – and then rise above it to a more universal perspective.
如此以来,我们会使海德格尔古典的旅行从Uneigentlichkeit
In so doing, we’ll make the classic Heideggerian journey away from ‘Uneigentlichkeit’ to
转为 Eigentlichkeit(从不真实转为真实)我们实际上会
‘Eigentlichkeit’ (from Inauthenticity to Authenticity). We will, in essence, start
开始为自己而活
to live for ourselves.
而大多数时间 对海德格尔来说 我们在这个任务中阴暗地失败了
And yet most of the time, for Heidegger, we fail dismally at this task. We merely surrender
我们仅仅向一个社会化的、浅薄的存在模式 他称为“他们自身”(与“我们自身”相对)投降了
to a socialised, superficial mode of being he called ‘they-self’ (as opposed to ‘our-selves’).
我们顺从了从报纸上电视中和大城市里
We follow The Chatter (‘das Gerede’), which we hear about in the newspapers, on
即海德格尔讨厌于其上浪费时间的 听到的唠叨(das Gerede)
TV and in the large cities Heidegger hated to spend time in.
有助于我们脱离“他们自身”的是对我们将要到来的死亡恰当而强烈的注意
What will help us to pull away from the ‘they-self’ is an appropriately intense focus on our own
只有当我们意识到其他人不能将我们从空无中拯救出来
upcoming death. It’s only when we realise that other people cannot save us from ‘das
我们才有可能不为他们而活 停止强烈担心他人的想法
Nichts’ that we’re likely to stop living for them; to stop worrying so much about what
停止交出我们生命和能量的最大部分
others think, and to cease giving up the lion’s share of our lives and energies to impress
以给那些从一开始就不真正喜欢我们的人留下印象
people who never really liked us in the first place.
1961年在一个讲座中海德格尔被询问我们应该怎样更好地引导我们的生命
When in a lecture, in 1961, Heidegger was asked how we should better lead our lives,
他简洁地回复说我们应该仅仅只在“墓地”上花更多的时间
he replied tersely that we should simply aim to spend more time ‘in graveyards’.
说海德格尔的含义和思想永远非常清晰是谎话
It would be lying to say that Heidegger’s meaning and moral is ever very clear. Nevertheless,
然而 他不时告诉我们的事迷人、睿智、惊人的有用
what he tells us is intermittently fascinating, wise and surprisingly useful. Despite the
尽管使用了非同寻常的词和语言 在某种意义上 我们已经了解很多
extraordinary words and language, in a sense, we know a lot of it already. We merely need
我们仅需要提醒和勇敢地认真接受它 而奇怪的散文风格帮助了我们这样做
reminding and emboldening to take it seriously, which the odd prose style helps us to do.
我们心中明白是时候克服我们的“突然陷进的状态”
We know in our hearts that it is time to overcome our ‘Geworfenheit’, that we should become
我们每天都应更加意识到虚无
more conscious of ‘das Nichts’ day-to-day, and that we owe it to ourselves to escape
只有我们自己才能逃离唠叨的掌控 看在真实的面子上
the clutches of ‘das Gerede’ for the sake of ‘Eigentlichkeit’ – with a little help
和由墓地提供的一点帮助
from that graveyard.

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马丁·海德格尔,德国哲学家。20世纪存在主义哲学的创始人和主要代表之一。出生于德国西南巴登邦(Baden)弗赖堡附近的梅斯基尔希(Messkirch)的天主教家庭,逝于德国梅斯基尔希。

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