ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

黑格尔 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

黑格尔

PHILOSOPHY - Hegel

哲学
黑格尔
Georg Friedrich Hegel was born in Stuttgart in 1770.
格奥尔格•弗里德里希•黑格尔生于1770的斯图加特
Intellectually he was adventurous, but in externals,
思维上他敢于打破常规 不过表面上
respectable, conventional, and proud of it.
他表现得很保守 尊重权威并引以为豪
He ascended the academic tree and reached the top most branch,
他在六十岁时攀上学术界的高峰 甚至到达了至高点
head of the University of Berlin, when he was sixty years old; he died the following year.
成为了柏林大学的校长 于后一年逝世
Hegel wrote some very long and very famous books, among them,
黑格尔有许多长篇著作 其中有
“The Phenomenology of Spirit”, “The Science of Logic”, and “Elements of the Philosophy of Right”;
《精神现象学》《逻辑学》和《法哲学原理》
but, we’ll be frank: he wrote horribly;
不过 坦白说 他写的太难懂了
his work is confusing and complicated when it should be clear and direct.
他的书在该明确和直白的地方 写的不清不楚 令人难以理解
He tapped into a weakness of human nature: to be trustful
他深入挖掘人性的弱点:
of grave-sounding, incomprehensible prose.
轻信那些看起来很正经又不好理解的内容
This has made philosophy much weaker in the world than it should be,
这使得整个世界的哲学界变得比原来还不受欢迎
and it’s made it much harder for us to hear the valuable things that Hegel has to say to us,
而且这也使得黑格尔想传达的重要观点 更难被我们接收到
amongst which a small number of lessons stand out.
其中就有几个突出的观点
Firstly, important part of ourselves can be found in history.
第一 我们能够从历史中发现关于人类自身的重要信息
In Hegel’s day, a standard European Way of looking at the past was to consider it as primitive,
在黑格尔的时代 欧洲民众普遍认为过去的东西就是落后的
and to feel proud of how much progress has been made to get us to the modern age.
并且只为那些成就了当今时代的重大突破感到骄傲
But in his book, “The Phenomenology of Spirit”, published in 1807, Hegel argued that
但在1807年出版的《精神现象学》一书中 黑格尔提出
every era can be looked at as a repository of a particular kind of wisdom.
每一个时代都可以被看作是一种智慧的源泉
This means we need to go back in time to rescue things which have gone missing.
就是说 我们需要回顾过去 去找回那些曾经丢失的宝贵财富
So, for example, we might need to mine history of ancient Greece
比如 我们需要研究古希腊的历史
to fully grasp the idea of what community can be,
才能更好地理解社会的概念
something which has been lost in the modern age.
还有那些在现代已经得不到的东西
Or, the Middle Ages can teach us, as no other era can, about the role of honor,
再者 虽然中世纪的儿童和女性饱受压迫
even if this period featured appalling attitudes to children or the rights of women.
但是没有任何一个时代可以像它一样让我们明白荣誉感的重要性
“Progress is never linear”, Hegel tells us; “there is wisdom at every stage”,
“历史的进步从来不是线性增长的” 黑格尔说 “每一历史时期都有启示”
“which”, says Hegel “points us to the task of the historian.”
他还说“这也正是历史学家的使命”
“To be a historian is to be someone
“历史学家 就是那些
who should rescue, from the past, those ideas that’re most needed”
能够从历史中筛选出最有用的信息
“to compensate for the blind spots of the present.”
并用来填补现在知识盲区的信息的人”
Secondly, learn from ideas you dislike.
第二 从你不认同的观点里学习
Hegel was a great believer in learning from one’s intellectual enemies,
黑格尔极力推崇要从聪明的敌人
from points of view we disagree with, or that feel alien.
自己不认同的观点或不熟悉的观念中学习
That’s because he held, “the bits of the truth”
因为他认为“真理的一部分
“are always getting scattered even in unappealing, or peculiar places,”
总是会散落在乏味 古怪的地方
“and we should dig them out by asking always,
而我们需要通过不断发问来找出它们
“what sliver of sense and reason might be contained
其他骇人或陌生的现象里
in otherwise frightening or foreign phenomena?”.
是不是也能发现些许道理和缘由呢?”
Nationalism, for instance, has had many terrible manifestations even in Hegel’s day,
比如 民族主义 就有很多危害极大的表现 特别是在黑格尔的时代
but Hegel’s move was to ask what underlying good idea
而黑格尔运动的目的就是要质疑看似正确的观点的背后
or important need might be hiding within the bloody history of nationalism.
从民族主义的血腥史中发现民众的迫切需求
He proposed that it’s the need for people to feel proud of where they come from,
他认为 人们需要有民族自豪感
to identify with something beyond merely their own achievements,
在为自身的成就骄傲的同时也需要认清现实
and to anchor their identities beyond the ego.
要对自己的身份有合理定位 避免自视甚高
Hegel is a hero of the thought that really important ideas
黑格尔提出了一个超前的观点 那些真正重要的观点
may be in the hands of people you regard, at first glance, as beneath contempt.
可能是掌握在你从一开始就瞧不起的人手里
Thirdly, Progress is Messy
第三 历史的进步是曲折的
Hegel believed the world makes progress,
黑格尔认为世界在进步
but only by lurching from one extreme to another.
但那只不过是从一个极端摆向另一个极端
As it seeks to overcompensate for a previous mistake.
试图过度弥补之前的错误
He proposed that it generally take three moves.
他认为在找到任何问题的真正平衡点之前
Before the right balance on any issue can be found.
需要经历三个步骤
A process that he named the DIALEKTIK.
这个过程称为“辩证法”
He was often thinking of the complex twist and turns that brought about the modern state.
他常常思考那些导致了国家现状的复杂的里程碑式的事件
We can also think the slow path towards sensible attitudes to sex in our own time.
我们也可以想想关于我们这个时代对性爱的敏感态度的问题
The Victorians impose too much repression,
维多利亚时代的人对性爱强加了太多约束
yet the 1960s may have turn out to be too liberal.
而结果上世纪六十年代又有些自由过了头
It might only be by 2020s that we`ll find the right balance between extremes.
也许到本世纪二十年代我们就能找到两个极端之间的平衡点了
All this can seem the most appalling waste of time,
这个过程浪费的时间可怕得惊人
but Hegel insists that the painful stepping from era to era is inevitable.
但黑格尔坚持认为 这种时代过渡的痛苦历程是不可避免的
Something we must expect and reconcile ourselves to when planning our lives
有时 在我们规划生活和思考历史的时候
or contemplating history books.
我们必须对自己有所期许 并学会自我接纳
And sometimes in this process of moving from era to era we`ll find a new solution,
而且有时 在时代之间的过渡过程中我们会找到一种
that manages to synthesize the good qualities of the previous solutions,
集过去那些方法的各种优点于一体的新出路
to make something really new, and different and better.
以此创造出一些全新的 完全不同的而且更好的事物
Four, Art has a purpose.
第四 艺术是有目的的
Hegel vigorously rejected the idea of art for art sake.
黑格尔强烈反对 艺术是为艺术而创造的观点
Painting, Music, Architecture, Literature and Design: all have a major job to do.
绘画 音乐 建筑 文学和设计:它们都有各自的创作目的
We need them so that important insights can become powerful and helpful in our lives.
我们需要艺术 这样我们宝贵的悟性才能得到提升并有用武之地
Art is in Hegel`s formulation: “the sensuous presentation of ideas”.
艺术在黑格尔看来是“通过感官来表达想法的途径”
Just knowing ideas often leaves us cold.
只是了解想法本身让我们变得冷漠
for example in theory we believe the conflict in Syria is an important one.
比如 理论上我们认为叙利亚的冲突是重要事件
In practice however we just switch off.
但实际上我们却没兴趣了解更多
In principle we know we should be more forgiving to our partners,
我们知道原则上应该对我们的另一半宽容些
but this abstract conviction gets forgotten at the least provocation.
但当底线被触及时 这些抽象的道理往往被抛诸脑后
The point of art Hegel realized, is not so much to come up with startling new strange ideas
黑格尔意识到 艺术的目的不是在于提出新奇 怪异的想法
but to take the good, helpful, important thoughts we already think we know,
而是把那些我们熟悉的 同时又很重要 很有用的好的观点
and make them stick more imaginatively in our minds.
变成我们脑海中更加生动的 而且持久的存在
Five. We need new institutions.
第五 我们需要制度
Hegel took a very positive view of institutions and of the power then can wield.
黑格尔很支持制度的运行和权力的行使
This is a point Hegel made again and again in different ways.
这是黑格尔反复用各种方式在强调的观点
For ideas to be active and effective in the world,
要让整体的运行变得主动而且高效
a lot more is needed
我们的路还很长
then the ideas are simply correct;
仅仅有正确的想法是不够的
to make major truths powerful in society
要让社会上的重要真理更有执行力
they need employees and building and budgets and legal advices;
人们需要有员工 房屋 经费和法律顾问
institutions allow for the scale of time and power
制度能够使重大项目需要的时间和权力
the big projects need to become effective in the world.
得到合理分配 提高整体运作效率
So, as new needs of a society get recognized,
因此 随着新的社会需求的出现
they should ideally lead not just to new books
人们不应该只是将其发表出来
but to the formation of new institutions.
更应该去引导新制度的形成
Nowadays we might say we need major new institutions to focus on relationships,
现如今 我们可能会说 我们需要一些关于感情关系
consumer education, career choice,
消费者教育 职业选择
mood management and how to bring up less damaged children.
情绪管理和减少虐待儿童现象的新的重大制度
Hegel help us to see valuable insights what we might initially resist them,
黑格尔帮助我们从艺术 制度 敌人的观点
in art in institutions in the ideas of our enemies
再到过去的荒诞错误这些方面去发现那些
and in the strange mistakes of the past.
我们可能原本抵触 但很宝贵的观点
His insight is the growth requires that clash of divergent ideas
他认为 成长需要有分歧的观点的碰撞
and therefore that will be painful and slow.
因而也是一个痛苦又漫长的过程
But at least once we know this
不过 至少明白这点以后
we don’t have to compound our troubles by thinking them abnormal.
我们不会再认为有问题是不正常的 还把问题搞得更糟
Hegel gives us a more accurate and hence more manageable view of ourselves,
黑格尔给了我们一个更准确 也更可行的观点
our difficulties and where we are in history.
关于我们自身 我们面临的困难和我们所处的历史阶段的观点

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

这位大名鼎鼎的哲学家黑格尔,写的书可谓是看到令人头秃也不知道在写啥,不过他却提出了许多重要观点,对于他的时代来说是很超前的,于我们看了也会深受启发,快来一睹为快吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kuki仔

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5JGE3lhuNo

相关推荐