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哲学 - 认识论:怀疑论的问题

PHILOSOPHY - Epistemology: The Problem of Skepticism [HD]

[主题音乐]
[intro music]
我是Jennifer Nagel
My name is Jennifer Nagel.
多伦多大学的哲学老师
I teach philosophy at the University of Toronto,
今天我们要学习有关怀疑论的问题
and today, I want to talk to you about the problem of skepticism.
什么是你确切知道的?
What do you know for sure?
假设你正在电脑上看视频
Consider the fact that you are watching a video, on your computer, right now
你确定这件事正在发生吗?
Is this something you “know?”
肯定答复前请思考以下问题:
Before you say yes, consider the following question:
会不会有这样的可能
do you think it is possible for someone to dream
有人梦见他们在看视频
that they’re watching a video online,
实际上他们睡着了 电脑也关了
when in fact, they’re asleep in bed, with their computer turned off.
你能证明自己现在是醒着的而不是做梦吗?
Can you prove that you are now awake and not dreaming?
否则 你怎么知道自己在看真正的视频
If not, do you know that you are watching a real video
而不是一个梦?
as opposed to dreaming one up?
如果你开始有怀疑自己认知的倾向
If you start feeling inclined to doubt that you have knowledge,
便能感受到怀疑论的魅力
you’re feeling the attraction of skepticism.
怀疑论一词源自古希腊
Our word, skepticism, comes from ancient Greece,
那里诞生了两个伟大的怀疑派别
the home of not one, but two great skeptical traditions,
学院派怀疑论和皮浪主义怀疑论
academic skepticism, and Pyrrhonian skepticism.
学院派认为感官印象
Academic skeptics argued that sensory impressions,
常作为认识世界的前提基础
which are often taken to be the foundation of knowledge about the world,
而实际上没有让你认识任何东西
don’t actually enable you to know anything.
你是否有过这样的印象 此时你听到的声音
Do you have the impression that the voice you’re hearing now,
正是本系列第一个视频的讲述者的声音
is the voice of the same person who narrated the first video in this series?
我可能有个双胞胎妹妹
I might have an identical twin.
你会因为记忆错乱 做梦或其他原因而搞混淆
You might be mis-remembering, dreaming, or in some other way making a mistake.
因为印象会误导人
Because impressions can be misleading,
你未发觉两个视频都是同一个讲述者
you can’t know that the same person is narrating both videos.
学院派用类似刚刚提到的论证
The academics used arguments like that one
来证明他们的一般结论
to support their general conclusion
即认识世界对人类来说是不可能的
that knowledge of the world is impossible for humans.
皮浪主义学派向前迈了一步
Pyrrhonian skeptics went one step further.
他们以不断提出疑问 怀疑一切事物为使命
Their mission was just to keep on inquiring, and doubting everything
但是不给出任何结论
without reaching any conclusions at all.
学院派认为认识是不可能的
Where the academic skeptics argued that knowledge was impossible,
皮浪主义学派甚至在这一点上也保留质疑
the Pyrronian skeptics worked to suspend judgment even on that point,
所有问题都是开放性的
keeping all questions open.
一些怀疑论自古时起便为人们所知
Some skeptical arguements have been known since antiquity
应用于东西方哲学领域中
and used in both eastern, and western philosophy.
其中闻名遐迩的是梦境论
Most famously, the dreaming argument.
假设你现在所经历的只是一场梦
If what you are now experiencing is just a dream,
那么你对当前的环境甚至包括你自己
then it’s not clear that you know anything about your immediate environment
也许都没有清晰的认识
or even about yourself.
中国古代哲学家庄子
The ancient Chinese philosopher Xiang Xiu [Jwang Ju],
据说梦见自己变成了一只蝴蝶
reported having dreamed that he was a butterfly,
他后来担忧 究竟是庄周在梦中变成了蝴蝶
and worried later that he did not know whether he was then, a man dreaming he was a butterfly,
还是蝴蝶在梦中变成了庄周
or whether, he might now be a butterfly, dreaming he was a man.
你可能会认为 无论是否在做梦总有一些东西是能够被认知的
You might think that there are some facts you could know whether or not you are dreaming.
17世纪的哲学家勒内·笛卡尔指出
The 17th century philosopher, Rene Descartes, suggested that
即使在梦中 你仍然知道正方形有四条边
even if you are dreaming, you should still be able to know that a square has four sides,
或者2+3=5这样的事实
or that 2+3=5.
但笛卡尔也找到向这些事实提出质疑的方法
But Descartes found a way to raise skepticism about those facts, too.
他说我们很容易做出简单的数学判断
He noted that it feels natural to us to make those simple mathematical judgments,
但我们会对感觉的真实性表示怀疑
but pointed that we could ask whether what feels natural to us really has to be true.
人的感觉究竟源自哪里?
Where does our nature come from anyway?
笛卡尔还提出了一个有力的怀疑情景
Decartes also developed a powerful skeptical scenario,
目的在于让你绝对地怀疑一切事物
designed to make you doubt absolutely everything,
包括你所掌握的抽象事实
including your grasp of abstract fact.
假设有一个拥有至高权力且狡猾邪恶的天才
Imagine that there is an evil genius of utmost power and cunning,
处心积虑地想要欺骗你
devoted to deceiving you.
这个邪恶的天才控制了你的所有感官印象
The evil genius controls all your sensory impressions
直觉判断 计算能力和几何思维等
and all your instincts, about math, and geometry, and so on.
让你把虚假的事物当做真实
Making false things seem true to you.
笛卡尔称 怀疑论面临的挑战
The challenge of skepticism, Descartes argues,
就是去证明你现在没有落在恶魔的掌心
is the challenge of proving that you are not, right now, in the hands of such a demon.
下期视频会告诉我们笛卡尔如何应对这个挑战
In the next video, we’ll look at Descartes’ own way of answering that challenge.
与此同时 其他很多有力的怀疑论
Meanwhile, various other powerful skeptical arguments
也在笛卡尔时期兴起
have emerged since Descartes’ time.
18世纪的哲学家大卫·休谟持有不同的见解
The 18th century philosopher David Hume, had some especially good ones
具体细节在两个独立的WiFi视频里有介绍
covered in detail in two separate Wi-Fi videos.
回到我们生活的时代
Moving to the present day,
笛卡尔的邪恶天才论发展出新的版本
we have a new version of Descartes’ evil genius argument.
假设缸里装了一个大脑
Imagine a brain kept alive in a vat,
这个大脑能与传送感官信号的超级电脑联系
and connected to a supercomputer that delivers sensory signals
共同模拟经历一件连贯且真实的事情
to simulate the experience of a coherent reality.
电脑也能接受到大脑输出的运动信号
The computer also picks up the brain’s outgoing motor signals
并相应地调整它自己的输入
and adjusts its inputs accordingly.
大脑发出举手触摸某物的运动信号时
When the brain sends out motor signals to raise a hand and touch something,
电脑也相应地把看到的手和触碰的东西
the computer delivers coordinated visual and tactile input
进行视觉和触觉输入
of seeing the hand and feeling what it touches.
如果这个电脑计划切实可行
If the computer program is good enough,
那么让我们做个假设
and let’s assume that it is,
假设缸中之脑所体验的真实世界是完美可见的
the brain-in-a-vat experiences a perfectly realistic virtual world.
某人可能在一个阳光明媚的日子里去到海边
He could have experiences of going to the beach on a sunny day,
和朋友聚会 遇到交通堵塞
meeting friends, being stuck in traffic,
又或者独自在家 看关于哲学辩题的视频
or being home alone, watching videos about philosophical topics.
目前的体验中你能用什么来证明自己不是缸中之脑呢?
Is there anything you could point to, in your present experience, to prove that you aren’t a brain in a vat?
掐自己一把是徒劳无益的
It won’t help to pinch yourself.
因为这种局部疼痛只是感觉信号的一种
The local feeling of pain, is just the kind of sensory signal
是超级电脑很容易就能灌输给缸中之脑的信号
that the supercomputer can easily supply the in-vatted brain.
典型的怀疑论者不会设法证明你就是缸中之脑
Typical skeptics don’t try to prove that you actually are a brain in a vat,
他们会提出怀疑而不是糟糕认定你可能是
they will argue instead that it’s bad enough that you just might be,
然而你无法分辨
but you can’t tell the difference.
即使在普通的物质世界里看着视频
Even if you are in an ordinary physical world,
实际上你看的是眼前的手
watching a video, and actually looking at a hand in front of you —
我们称之为好案例
we call that the good case —
但问题在于你的体验和缸中之脑的体验相同
it’s a problem that your experience feels just like the experience of the brain-in-the-vat.
某人甚至没有注意到眼前的手
He doesn’t know that his hand is in front of him;
且他可能只是个没有手的大脑
he’s just a brain. He doesn’t even have hands.
我们称之为坏案例
We call this the bad case.
所以 即使你在好的案例中
So, even if you are in the good case,
也只不过通过看见自己的手来获得真实体验
and your experience really is coming from looking at your hand,
你只能庆幸自己不在坏的案例中
You’re just lucky that you’re not in the bad case.
但不能证明自己不是缸中之脑
You can’t prove that you aren’t,
也无力将其排除在外
and your inability to rule out the bad case
意思是其实你不知道手就在眼前
means that you don’t actually know that your hand is really there in front of you.
梦境论 邪恶天才和缸中之脑
The dreaming argument the evil genius, and the brain-in-the-vat scenario
合称为“整体怀疑情景”
are known as “global skeptical scenarios.”
他们向人们普遍认识的事物提出质疑
They raise doubts about virtually everything you would ordinarily take yourself you know.
怀疑主义者不必立足整体
But skepticism doesn’t have to be global.
你可以怀疑特定的认识领域
You can raise skeptical worries about some particular range of knowledge.
比如 怀疑过去的认识
For example, you can worry about your knowledge of the past.
如果整个宇宙5分钟前才刚刚形成
What if the whole universe just came into being five minutes ago,
伴随着化石 古老家具
complete with fossils, antique-looking furniture,
和你自己清晰的记忆轨迹 会怎样?
and your own apparent memory traces?
如果这是事实 宇宙还是会照常运转
If it did, it would look just the way it does now.
但很多我们坚信的事情
But many of your beliefs,
比如你去年夏天所经历的一切
like your beliefs about what you did last summer for example,
就会成为虚幻
would be false.
局部怀疑的范围比较窄
In a more restricted, local skepticism,
我们可以单独怀疑某个事实
we can raise skeptical worries about knowledge of single facts,
只需考虑和它所呈现的事物不同的潜在原因
just by thinking of some possible way in which things might fail to be as they appear.
假设爱丽丝在街上散步
Consider Alice, who’s walking down the street
思索时间是何物
and wondering what time it is.
瞥一眼手表 显示4:30
She glances up at the clock, and sees that the hands show 4:30.
如果时间没错 说明手表在正常运转
Suppose that’s right, and that the clock is working fine.
一般而言 我们会说:“爱丽丝知道现在是4:30”
Ordinarily, we’d say, “Now Alice knows that it’s 4:30.”
可是如果强调某些不靠谱的因素
But if we highlight something that could have gone wrong —
比如手表有时会坏掉
sometimes clocks are broken —
而爱丽丝看得很快 没注意表是否运转
and Alice didn’t look long enough to be sure that the hands were moving,
所以很难说爱丽丝是否知道真正的时间
then it gets harder to see Alice as really knowing the time.
如果她快速一瞥
If her quick glance
却没能辨别出手表的好坏
isn’t enough to tell a difference between a working clock and a broken one,
那她又如何会知道真正的时间?
then how does Alice really know what time it is?
一想到可能会出差错
Just thinking about the possibility of error
似乎难以获得真正的认识
can make it seem like knowledge is really hard to attain.
我们有必要为了正确时间而反复检查手表吗?
Do we always have to double check that the clock is working in order to know the time?
令人惊讶的是 我们很容易去怀疑人类的认识
It’s surprisingly easy to generate doubts about human knowledge,
即使是那些我们普遍认为简单易懂的
even knowledge of the kinds of things we’d ordinarily consider easily known,
比如你的眼前是否有一只手
like whether there’s a hand in front of your face right now.
不管是整体还是局部的怀疑论
Skepticism, whether it’s global, or local
都是一个古老且深奥的难题
is an ancient, and difficult problem.
哲学家们提出了不同的解决方案
Philosophers have proposed various solutions to this problem.
接下来的两个视频 我们要讨论主要的
The next two videos describe some of the main ways
应对来自怀疑论的挑战的方法
of answering the skeptic’s challenges
并证明认识对人类来说是可能的
and defending the idea that knowledge is humanly possible.
[音乐]
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视频概述

整体怀疑论对知识概念本身提出根本怀疑,局部怀疑论尽管承认知识在一些领域的可能性,但否认其在许多其他领域的可能性。让我们从笛卡尔、休谟和庄子的观点出发,简单了解一下怀疑论。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PqjdRAERWLc

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