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哲学 - 伊壁鸠鲁

PHILOSOPHY - Epicurus

哲学
伊壁鸠鲁
This is a philosopher
这是一位哲学家
who helps us think about money, capitalism,
他帮助我们思考金钱 资本主义
and our runaway consumer societies.
以及失控的消费社会
Epicurus was an Ancient Greek
伊壁鸠鲁是古希腊人
born in 341 BC.
出生于公元前341年
What made him famous
使他名留青史的是
was that he spent all his life trying to work out
他终其一生致力于解决
the largest puzzle there is:
人生中最大的困惑
what makes people happy?
什么使人快乐?
Philosophers before him had discussed at length
在他之前的哲学家已经详尽讨论了
what could make people good.
如何使人向善
Epicurus preferred to look at what is fun.
而伊壁鸠鲁更喜欢探索快乐
Unfortunately, the world was bitter and bitchy even then,
很不幸 那时也世态炎凉
and when people heard
当人们听说
that Epicurus had set up a school to study happiness,
伊壁鸠鲁建立了一所学校传授快乐时
the rumors went off the scale.
流言四起
There were tales that the school hosted
传言说这个学校
ten course feasts, and orgies every night.
每晚都举办饕餮盛宴 纵欲狂欢
Epicurus was said, by one critic,
有人还批评伊壁鸠鲁
to have orgasmed 18 times in a single evening
在满是处女的床上
in a bed full of virgins.
一晚高潮了18次
It wasn’t true.
这不是真的
Epicurus and his team
伊壁鸠鲁和他的团体
were studying happiness,
是在研究快乐
but they were doing it very soberly.
但他们是非常严肃认真的
The philosopher owned only two cloaks,
这位哲学家只有两件斗篷
and lived on bread, olives, and for a treat,
靠面包和橄榄维生 只在请客时
an occasional slice of cheese.
才会吃一块奶酪
As for the bedroom,
对于性爱
he merely responded demurely that he’d
他仅仅严肃地回应道
married philosophy.
他已经和哲学成婚
Having patiently studied happiness for many years,
在潜心研究快乐多年后
Epicurus came to a set of remarkable and revolutionary conclusions
伊壁鸠鲁对于“快乐究竟需要什么”
about what we actually need to be happy.
提出了一套非凡创新的理论
He proposed that we typically make
他提出我们对快乐的理解
3 mistakes when thinking about happiness:
有三个典型错误
Firstly, we think happiness means having
第一 我们认为快乐意味着
romantic, sexual relationships,
拥有一段浪漫的性关系
but Epicurus looked around
但是伊壁鸠鲁环顾周围
and saw so many unhappy couples,
看到了很多不快乐的夫妻
their unions marred by jealousy, misunderstanding, cheating, and bitterness;
他们的结合被嫉妒 误解 欺骗和痛苦玷污
at the same time,
与此同时
he observed how much nicer friendships are:
他发现友谊更美好
how people tend to be so decent and unpossessive with their friends.
人们和朋友在一起时往往那么正派无私
Friendship seemed to be where human nature was at its sweetest.
友谊似乎闪耀着人性最大的光辉
The only problem Epicurus noted
伊壁鸠鲁认为唯一的问题是
was that we don’t see our friends enough.
我们跟朋友见面还不够频繁
The next thing we ordinary think that we need to be happy
另外 我们通常还认为快乐需要
is a lot of money.
很多很多钱
but we tend not properly to fact in
但我们并没恰当地了解一个事实
the unbelievable sacraficies
那就是要得到那些钱
we gotta have to make to get this money:
我们要做多大的牺牲:
the jealousy, the backbiting, the long hours.
他人的嫉妒 中伤以及长时间工作
What makes work really satisfying, Epicurus believed,
伊壁鸠鲁认为工作给人的真实愉悦感
ins’t money,
不来源于金钱
but it’s when we were able to work alone, or in small groups,
而来源于单独工作或小组协作时
like in a bakery, or boat repair shop
就像在面包店或修船店的工作
and when we feel we helping others
产生的帮助他人
and in our own, minor way improving the world.
或以一己之力改变世界的感觉
It isn’t really a large sum or status that we want deep down,
我们内心渴望的不是巨额金钱或高地位
it’s a sense of making a difference.
而是与众不同的成就感
And lastly,
最后
Epicure observed how obsessive we are with luxury
伊壁鸠鲁认为我们过于迷恋奢侈品
especially involving houses and beautiful serene locations.
特别是豪宅和优美的风景
But beneath of our love of luxury
在迷恋奢侈品的背后
this’s really something else we trying to get out.
实际上我们想获得的是另一种东西
What we want is a feeling of calm.
我们想要的只是宁静的感觉
We want our mind pure, free,
我们希望大脑纯净自由
not full of the normally boredom and chaos.
不被无聊与混乱所占据
But the great question is:
但有一个大问题
Does luxury actually make us calm?
奢侈品真的能让我们平静吗?
Epicurus wasn’t so sure…
伊壁鸠鲁不确定
Having looked happiness in depth,
深入研究快乐之后
Epicurus announced a revolution reset of insights
伊壁鸠鲁发表了一套革命性的观点
that you really need only three things
也就是此生你只需要三件东西
to be happy in this life.
就能快乐
Firstly,
第一
you need your friends around.
你需要朋友在你身边
No sex, no orgies. Just your mates.
你们之间没有性 没有欲 只是朋友
Enough of seeing them now and then,
不是时不时地见一面
it’s regularity of contact that counts.
固定的 频繁的联系才可以
So he did that thing most of us occasionally dream of doing,
他实现了我们大多数人偶尔会梦到
but never actually get around to.
但从未实际做过的梦想
He bought a big house and started living
他买了一座大房子
with all his friends.
与所有朋友同住
Everyone had their room quarters
每个人都有自己的房间
and there were pleasant shared areas too.
并且有舒适的公共区域
There was always someone nice to talk to in the kitchen.
在厨房总有友好的人与你交谈
Secondly,
第二
everyone downshifted.
每个人的工作都降级了
all the members of the commune
社群里的每个成员
stop working for other people.
都不再为别人工作
They took big pay cuts in return for doing their own staff.
他们用大降薪换来了做自己事情的自由
Some did farming, some cooking, some portraying or writing.
有人耕作 有人烹饪 有人绘画 有人写作
And thirdly,
第三
Epicurus and his friends
伊壁鸠鲁和朋友
stop thinking you could be calm
认为仅仅拥有悦目的美景
just by having a beautiful view to look out on.
不能使你平静
They devote themselves to finding calm in their own minds,
他们致力于在心灵深处找到平静
to spending time on their own
花时间独处
reflecting, writing stuff down
反思 写作
reading things, meditating.
阅读 冥想
The experiment was so successful.
这项实践那么成功
The members of the commune were so happy.
社群里的成员那么快乐
The idea spread like wildfire.
这项学说像野火一样传播
Epicurean communities opened up all around the mediterranean.
伊壁鸠鲁社群遍布了地中海沿岸
At the height of movement
在最繁盛的时期
there were four hundred thousand people living in commune from Spain to Palestine.
从西班牙到巴勒斯坦 有40万人居住在社群里
It was only the Christian church
只是5世纪基督教兴起
that ended things in 5th century.
社群逐渐没落
But they must have respected the community somehow
但某种程度上 他们也借鉴了这个社群
because they convert them all into monasteries.
因为他们建起了修道院
But we know as monasteries
但是所谓的修道院
are really just Epicurean communes
实际上是伊壁鸠鲁社群
with a Christian top soil.
加上基督信仰
Another interesting fact
还有一个有趣的事实
Karl Marx, his PhD thesis is on Epicurus
卡尔·马克思的博士论文与伊壁鸠鲁有关
and what we called communism
我们所说的共产主义
a gigantic, joyless, failed system
这个庞大 无趣又失败的体系
is really a grown-up corrupted
实际上是进化的 腐败的
not very successful version
不怎么成功版本的
of Epicureanism.
伊壁鸠鲁社群
The real legacy of Epicurus
伊壁鸠鲁留下的至理是
is the human beings aren’t very good of making themselves happy.
人类并不善于快乐自己
cheifly because they think it’s so easy.
主要是因为我们认为快乐很简单
we think we know it’s about money, sex and luxury.
我们认为快乐与金钱 性 奢侈品有关
We just wonder how to secure all these.
我们只想弄到这些东西
but no, says of Epicurus
但伊壁鸠鲁认为这样不对
Reflect on the moment
回顾那些
that truely bring you happiness
真正带给你快乐的时刻
and they aren’t to do with these.
那些时刻跟这些都没有关系
Have the courage to change your life
如果你有勇气
in accordance with the moments
根据这些真正带给你满足的时刻
that actually bring satisfication.
改变自己的生活
You might end up living a very different way,
你可能会以一种完全不同的方式活着
Out in the country,
住在郊外
with just cheese and a couple of clothes and few philosophy books,
伴着你的是少许奶酪 几件衣服 几本哲学书籍
and some very good friends down the corridor.
还有在走廊等你的好朋友

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视频概述

伊壁鸠鲁学派是古希腊唯物主义者和无神论哲学家伊壁鸠鲁(Epicurus)(公元前341年-公元前270年)创立的哲学派别

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