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哲学 – 萧沆 – 译学馆
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哲学 - 萧沆

PHILOSOPHY - Emil Cioran

在二十世纪末期,一位著名的罗马裔法国哲学家
Towards the end of the twentieth century, a celebrated Romanian-French philosopher
应邀在苏黎世讲演
was invited to speak in Zurich.
人们用浮夸的排场欢迎他
He was introduced with rhetorical pomp and flattering
还奉承地把他比作克尔凯郭尔和叔本华 这位哲学家微微一笑
comparisons to the likes of Kierkegaard and Schopenhauer.
这位哲学家微微一笑
The speaker smiled, and immediatelyconfounded his German interpreter
他开场便说Mais jene suis qu’un déconneur(我也只是个蠢货)
by beginning his presentation with the words:
这句话一下子就把为其担任翻译的德国译员搞糊涂了
‘Mais je ne suis qu’un déconneur’ / ‘But I’m just a joker’.
一下子就把为其担任翻译的德国译员搞糊涂了 一些他的批评者或许
A few of his critics might agree, but they would be wrong.
因为萧沆绝对有资格与
For Emil Cioran is very much worthy of inclusion in

the line of the great French and European moral philosophers and writers of maxims
比如
stretching back to Montaigne, Chamfort, Pascal and La Rochefoucauld.
1911年4月
Cioran was born in Rasinari, Romania, in April 1911.
萧沆出生于罗马尼亚的勒希纳里 他的父亲是希腊东正教牧师 这两点都对萧沆
His father was a Greek Orthodox priest.
以上两点都对萧沆后来的作品有重大影响
Both facts were to be key in his later work.
后来的作品产生了重要的影响
The writer’s Romanian origins are often taken as the source of a
使其性情深沉 浪漫 相信宿命的根源 又因为父亲在教会工作
brooding, Romantic, fatalistic temperament while his father’s ecclesiastical calling
所以宗教 圣徒 无神论的危险与快乐
finds echoes in his son’s unswerving preoccupation with themes of religion, sainthood and the
都是萧沆始终关注的研究主题
dangers and joys of atheism.
1934年 年仅23岁的萧沆在罗马尼亚
In 1934, at the age of only 23, he published his first
出版了自己的第一本书《在绝望之巅》这本书的内容孕育了许多清晰
book in Romanian, On the Heights of Despair.
这本书孕育了许多清晰
The book contains in embryo much of the lucidly
阴冷 虚无的思想 这些思想的发展将贯穿他的一生
bleak, nihilistic thinking that he’d develop throughout his life.
萧沆认为 写作可以代替饮弹自尽
He explained that writing had been an alternative to shooting himself.
除了饮弹自尽 唯一的选择便是写作 他的书值得你在绝望 忧郁时
This is an author to read at moments of despair and melancholy.
细细品读 萧沆没有令我们心灰意冷 他只是缓解了我们悲伤时的孤独
He doesn’t depress us, merely makes us feel less alone with our sorrows.
以下是他作品中造诣最高的内容:“你不值得为自杀而心烦
Here is a peak inside his work:
“自杀是不值得的 因为你总是错过动手的时机”
‘It is not worth the bother of killing yourself, since you always kill yourself too late.’
因为你总是错过动手的时机” “当乐观主义者不再乐观时 他们就会自杀
‘Only optimists commit suicide, optimists who no longer succeed at being optimists.
也只有他们才会自杀 至于其他人 即找不到生之原由
The others, having no reason to live, why would they have any to die?’
“若心声无处可以吐露 那就把它写在书里吧”
‘Write books only if you are going to say in them the things you would never dare confide to anyone.’
那就把它写在书里吧” “你从早到晚都干些什么? 我在忍受我自己”
And: ‘What do you do from morning to night?’ ‘I endure myself.’
对萧沆来说 1937年是个重要的年份 那年他移居法国
1937 proved a pivotal year for Cioran.
那年他移居法国并很快便成为了法国公民
He moved to Paris and soon became a French citizen.
很快便成为了法国公民 自此 萧沆再也没有返回自己的出生地 流落他乡又为平添了一些
He never returned to the country of his birth.
忧郁的色彩 但萧沆声称 任何没有感到自己被流放的人
It was a move that provided him with another reason to be melancholic: exile.
但萧沆声称 任何没有感到自己被流放的人 都是缺乏想象力的
And yet he asserted that anyone who doesn’t feel themselves to be an exile has no imagination.
都是缺乏想象力的 他说 “只有乡下的傻瓜才有归属感”
‘Only the village idiot thinks they belong,’ he noted.
萧沆在巴黎捱过了第二次世界大战 这次大战过后
Cioran sat out the Second World War in Paris.
这次大战过后 他的第一部法文作品《解体概要》于1949年
In its aftermath, he approached the famous publishing house, Gallimard,
他的第一部法文作品《解体概要》于1949年
with his first work in French, A Short History of Decay, published in 1949.
如他所说 用法语写作就好比用字典写情书
Writing in French was he said, ‘like writing a love letter with a dictionary’.
用字典写情书
The book became a bestseller, the first in a series of devastatingly wicked
风格极度阴沉 黑暗 为之后的同系列书籍打下了基础
and dark texts composed mainly of aphorisms and tart short essays.
文章的标题要么具有挑衅意味 要么颠覆你的想象
Each of Cioran’s titles comes as a provocation or a punch:
《苦涩三段论》
Syllogisms of Bitterness,
《存在之诱惑》以及他的杰作《诞生之不便》
The Temptation to Exist and his masterpiece:The Trouble with Being Born.
他的本部作品都无情地围绕着疾病 死亡和自杀展开
Each book deals relentlessly with themes of illness, death and suicide.
而十分讽刺的是 萧沆活到了84岁高龄
It was a rather touching irony that the author lived to the ripe old age of 84.
萧沆于1995年逝世 那时他已是法国人民崇拜的对象
By the time Cioran died in 1995, he had become a cult in France, attracting the
人们把追捧萧沆看做是一种时尚 而这恰恰是萧沆在其作品中痛斥过的东西
sort of faddish attention he witheringly denounced in his work.
他坚称 每个生命都绝对无可复制 且完全微不足道
Every life, he maintained, is utterly peculiar – and wholly unimportant.
在迪士尼的狂欢年代 这种黑暗的想法非常重要
In the age of Walt Disney, this kind of darkness matters.
萧沆的作品
Cioran’s writing belongs in the line of those great aloof European miserabilists,
莱奥帕尔迪 尼采和贝克特 而萧沆的作品与他们的作品同属一类
including La Rochefoucauld, Chamfort, Leopardi, Nietzsche and Beckett.
和这些人一样 萧沆把文明
Like them, he saw civilization
很滑稽 认为它只不过是人们为逃避终有一死的现实而创造出来的东西
as an absurd distraction from the ultimate meaninglessness of existence.
他始终认为
‘Only an idiot could think there is a point to any of this,’ he insisted.
但萧沆总是睿智乐观的
But he always kept his wit and good cheer.
萧沆的是他
One of his greatest sources of sorrow was that he couldn’t sleep very well
经常在凌晨三点醒来 然后他会在巴黎的街道上闲逛 直到清晨
– and was often up at 3am. He’d walk around the streets of Paris until dawn. He noted
他在《诞生之不便》中讽刺道
sardonically in The Trouble with Being Born, ‘What is that one crucifixion compared to
更痛苦的刑法吗? 萧沆痴迷于自杀 他在书中这样写道:
the daily kind any insomniac suffers?’ Cioran was obsessed by suicide. But better to live,
最好还是活着 但活得像个行尸走肉就可以了 毕竟
he wrote, and yet think and act as though one were already dead. After all, he said:
终有一死的想法可以宽慰自己 为什么要把它丢掉呢?
why deprive oneself of the consoling idea of no longer being around? ‘Continuing to
“继续活下去的唯一理由可能是我们的想象和记忆出了问题”
Live is possible only because of the deficiencies of our imagination and our memories.’ he
“我的诞生就是个意外 为什么要认真对待生命呢?” 不过自杀
wrote. ‘I’m simply an accident. Why take it all so seriously?’ But suicide was a
的想法可以一直带来安慰:只有在我们想结束生命但不确定是否能下手时
constant relief as an idea: ‘We dread the future only when we are not sure we can kill
我们才会对未来恐惧 “我总是活在灾难不期而至的恐惧中
ourselves when we want to.’ ‘Having always lived in fear of being surprised by the worst,
我为了先人一步而经历过每一种境遇 在不幸发生之前
I have tried in every circumstance to get a head start, flinging myself into misfortune
就早早地让自己与不幸共处 我们的时代出奇地乐观 这种乐观让我们
long before it occurred.’ Our age is notably optimistic and it makes us suffer hugely from
备受煎熬 私下里 我们拥有的悲伤比实际承认的要多得多
being so. We are all, in private, a lot sadder than we are allowed to admit. Writers like
和萧沆一样的作家为我们提供了公开表达内心悲伤的机会
Cioran provide an occasion for the sadness inside all of us to be communally expressed
因此我们减缓了一点悲伤 但也仅仅只有一点 《诞生之不便》是一部佳作
and thereby a little, but only a little, diminished and softened. In his beautiful book, The Trouble
萧沆在这本书中写道 “只有人们心情极度低落 没有欲望
with Being Born, Cioran wrote: ‘I can be friends with people only when they are at
也没有力量重获日常的伤感幻想时 我才和他们交朋友
their lowest point and have neither the desire nor the strength to restore their habitual
确切地说 在这种心境中 所有有思想的人
sentimental illusions.’ It’s precisely in that kind of mood,a mood into which all thoughtful
都可能认为我们何其幸运能遇到
people must probably think on a fairly regular basis that we are blessed to find the dark
萧沆黑暗而又安慰人心的作品
and consoling works of Emil Cioran waiting for us.
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视频概述

萧沆(Emil Cioran, 1911-1995)罗马尼亚旅法哲人,20世纪怀疑论、虚无主义重要思想家。有罗马尼亚语及法语创作格言、断章体哲学著述传世,以文辞精雅新奇、思想深邃激烈见称。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMOM34XEi2k

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