未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

斯宾诺莎

PHILOSOPHY - Baruch Spinoza

哲学
斯宾诺莎
Baruch Spinoza was a 17th century Dutch philosopher
巴鲁赫·斯宾诺莎是17世纪荷兰哲学家
who tried to reinvent religion,
他试图改革宗教的面貌
moving it away from something based on superstition
使其不再基于迷信
and ideas of direct divine intervention
不再基于上帝直接干预的理念
to being a discipline that was going to be far more impersonal, quasi scientific
成为一种更客观更科学的准则
and yet also at times serenely consoling.
同时偶尔能给人带来些许安慰
Baruch – the word means blessed in Hebrew,
“巴鲁赫”一词在希伯来语中是“被庇佑”的意思
was born in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam in 1632,
1632年他出生在阿姆斯特丹的犹太社区
a thriving central Jewish commerce in thought.
那是一个思想上很繁荣的犹太商业中心
His ancestors were sephardic Jews
其祖先是西班牙籍犹太人
who’d fled the Spanish Peninsula following the Catholic conspired expulsion of 1492.
1492年天主教密谋驱逐犹太人 他们逃离西班牙半岛
Baruch, a studious, highly intelligent child,
巴鲁赫是一个勤奋好学 非常聪明的孩子
received an intensely traditional Jewish education.
接受的是严格的传统犹太教育
He went to the local Jewish school,
他就读于当地的犹太学校 耶希瓦学校
the Yeshiva and followed all the Jewish High Holidays and rituals.
遵循犹太人的节日和仪式
But gradually he began to distance himself from the faith of his ancestors.
但他逐渐将自己从祖先的信任中剥离
“Although I have been educated from boyhood in the
他后来谨慎地写道
accepted beliefs concerning Scripture”, he later wrote with characteristic caution,
“虽然我从小就接受信仰圣经的教育”
“I have felt bound in the end to embrace other views”.
“但我感到有义务接受其它观点”
His fully fleshed-out views would to be expressed his great work ‘The Ethics’,
他的详实观点体现在其伟大作品《伦理学》中
written entirely in Latin and published in 1677.
该书全部用拉丁语写成 出版于1677年
In The Ethics
在《伦理学》中
Spinoza directly challenged the main tenets of Judaism in particular
斯宾诺莎直接质疑犹太教的主要原则
and organized religion in general.
以及一般意义上成体系的宗教
God is not a person who stands outside of nature
上帝并非超然物外的存在
there is no one to hear our prayers or to create miracles
没人听我们的祷告 没人在创造神迹
or to punish us for misdeeds.
没人惩罚我们的过失
There is no afterlife
没有来世
man is not God’s chosen creature.
人不是被上帝选中的生物
The Bible was only written by ordinary people.
《圣经》不过是普通人写的
God is not a craftsman or an architect,
上帝不是工匠或建筑师
nor is he a King or military strategist who calls for believers to take up the Holy Sword.
也不是呼吁信徒拿起圣剑的国王或军事家
God doesn’t see anything, nor does he expect anything.
上帝什么也看不见 也不期待什么
He doesn’t judge.
他不作评判
He doesn’t even reward the virtuous with the life after death.
甚至不用来世来奖赏有道德的人
Every representation of God as a person is a projection of the imagination
上帝以人的形象出现 只不过是想象力的投射
and everything in the traditional liturgical calendar is pure superstition and mumbo-jumbo.
而传统礼拜仪式是纯粹的迷信和胡言乱语
However, despite all this, remarkably, Spinoza did not declare himself an atheist.
但斯宾诺莎并没有宣布自己是无神论者
He insisted that he remained a staunch defender of God.
他坚定捍卫上帝的存在
God plays an absolutely central role in Spinoza’s ethics.
上帝在斯宾诺莎的伦理学中起着核心作用
But it isn’t anything like the God who haunts the pages of the Old Testament.
但是它一点也不像游走在《旧约》字里行间的上帝
Spinoza’s God is wholly impersonal
斯宾诺莎的上帝是完全客观的
and indistinguishable from what we might variously called ‘nature’ or ‘existence’ or a ‘world soul’.
与“自然”或“存在”或“万物之灵”等称谓没有区别
God is the universe and its laws.
上帝是宇宙及其法则
God is reason and truth.
上帝是理性和真理
God is the animating force in everything that is and can be.
上帝赋予一切事物生命
He is not in time and he cannot be individuated.
他不存在于时间之中 不能被个体化
Spinoza writes:
斯宾诺莎写道:
“Whatever is, is in God
“万物皆存于上帝
and nothing can exist or be conceived without God.”
没有上帝万物皆不存在 不能被感知”
Throughout his text, Spinoza was keen to undermine the idea of prayer.
在整个文章中 斯宾诺莎热衷于削弱“祈祷”这一理念
In prayer, an individual appeals to God to change the way the universe works.
在祷告中 个人呼吁上帝改变宇宙的运作方式
But Spinoza argues that this is entirely the wrong way around.
但斯宾诺莎认为 这完全是错误的做法
The task of human beings is
人类的任务在于
to try to understand how and why the universe works the way it does and then accept it,
试图理解宇宙的原理和原因 然后接受它
rather than protest at the workings of existence
而不是通过向上天发送微不足道的信息
by sending little messages up into the sky.
来抗议存在的运行机制
As Spinoza put it beautifully but rather caustically:
正如斯宾诺莎那漂亮而苛刻说辞:
“Whoever loves God cannot strive that God should love him in return”.
“凡爱神的人 不能强求神回报他以爱”
In other words only a deeply distorted and infantile narcissism would lead someone that wants to believe in God
换句话说 只有极度扭曲和幼稚自恋的人才相信上帝
and then to imagine that this God would take an interest in bending the rules of existence
然后去想象上帝会有兴趣改变存在的规则
to improve his or her life in some way.
以某种方式改善他或她的生活
Spinoza was deeply influenced by the philosophy of the Stoics of ancient Greece and Rome.
斯宾诺莎深受古希腊和罗马斯多葛派哲学的影响
They had argued the wisdom lies not in protest against how things are
他们认为智慧不在于反抗事物的存在方式
but in continuous attempts to understand the ways of the world
而在于不断尝试理解世界的运行方式
and then bow down peacefully to necessity.
然后平静地接受必然之事
Seneca, Spinoza’s favorite philosopher,
斯宾诺莎最喜欢的哲学家塞内加
had compared human beings to dogs on a leash being led by the necessities of life in a range of directions.
曾把人类比作被各个方面的生活必需品牵着的狗
The more one pulls against what’s necessary, the more one is strangled.
一个人越反对必要的东西 就越会被勒死
And therefore the wise must always endeavor, to try to understand ahead of time how things are.
因此 聪明人必须试图提前了解事情的原理
For example what love is like or how politics works.
比如爱情是什么样的 或者政治是如何运作的
And then change their direction accordingly
然后相应地改变自己的方向
so as not to be strangled unnecessarily.
以免被不必要地勒死
It is this kind of stoic attitude that constantly pervades Spinoza’s philosophy.
正是这种斯多葛态度贯穿在斯宾诺莎的哲学中
To understand God, traditionally means studying the Bible and other holy texts.
按照传统 了解上帝需要研究《圣经》和其它经典
But Spinoza now introduces another idea.
但斯宾诺莎却不这样认为
The best way to know God is to understand how life and the universe work.
他认为认识上帝的最好方法是理解生命和宇宙是如何运作的
It’s through a knowledge of psychology, philosophy and the natural sciences
通过心理学 哲学和自然科学知识
that one comes to understand God.
人们才能理解上帝
In traditional religion believers ask special favors of God.
在传统宗教中 信徒向上帝索取特殊恩惠
Spinoza proposes instead that we should understand what God wants
而斯宾诺莎建议我们应该了解上帝想要什么
and we can do so in one way above all –
我们可以以一种方式做到这一点——
by studying everything that is.
即研究现存的一切
By reasoning we can exceed to a divine eternal perspective.
通过理性 我们可以进入到神圣永恒的视角
Spinoza made a famous distinction between two ways of looking at life.
斯宾诺莎对两种看待生活的方式作了区分
We can either see it egoistically from our limited point of view.
我们可以狂妄自大地从个人的有限角度看待事物
As he put it: sub specie durationis (under the aspect of time)
正如他所说: sub specie durationis(在时间层面)
or we can look at things globally and eternally:
我们也可以用全局和永恒的角度看待事物
sub specie aeternitatis (under the aspect of eternity).
即sub specie aeternitatis(在永恒层面)
Our nature means that we’ll always be divided between the two.
人的本性使我们将永远处于两者之间
Sensual life pulls us towards a time-bound partial view.
感官生活把我们拉向基于时间的片面观点
But our reason and intelligence can give us unique access to another perspective.
但是理性和智慧可以让我们接触到另一个视角
It can quite literally allow us – and here Spinoza becomes beautifully lyrical
斯宾诺莎抒情道——
– to participate in eternal totality.
它完全可以让我们参与到永恒的总体中
Normally we call bad, whatever is bad for us,
通常我们将对己不利的称之为坏
and good whatever increases our power and advantage.
将能增强力量和优势的称之为好
But for Spinoza,
但对斯宾诺莎来说
to be truly ethical means rising above such local concerns.
真正的道德意味着超越这种狭隘的担忧
It might all sound forbidding,
这一切听起来可能令人望而生畏
but Spinoza envisaged his philosophy as a route to a life
但是斯宾诺莎把他的哲学设想为一条路
based on freedom from guilt, from sorrow, from pity or from shame.
这条路通往远离内疚 悲伤 怜悯或羞耻的生活
Happiness involves aligning our will with that of the universe.
快乐就是我们的意志与宇宙的意志一致
The Universe God has its own projects
宇宙之神有祂自己的设想
and it’s our task to understand rather than rail against these.
我们的任务是理解而不是反对
The free person is one conscious of the necessities that compel us all.
能意识到我们被必然性所驱使的人才是自由的
Spinoza writes,
斯宾诺莎写道
the wise man, the person who understands how and why things are,
聪明的人懂得事物的原理和原因
possesses eternally true complacency of spirit.
永远拥有精神上的真正满足
Needless to say these ideas got Spinoza into a very deep trouble.
不用说 这些想法给斯宾诺莎带来了很大的麻烦
He was excommunicated from the Jewish community of Amsterdam in 1656.
他在1656年被逐出阿姆斯特丹犹太社区
The rabbis issued a censure known as ‘cherem’ against the philosopher.
犹太教祭司对这位哲学家发表了一篇名为“革出教门”的谴责文章
It went by the decree of the angels and by the commander of the holy man –
按照天命和圣主意旨
we excommunicate, expel, curse and damn Brauch Spinoza
我们开除 驱逐 诅咒 辱骂斯宾诺莎
with all the curses which are written in the book of law
照律法所写的一切诅咒
cursed he be by day and cursed be he by night.
他白天和晚上必受诅咒
Cursed be he when he lies down and cursed be he when he rises up.
他躺卧的时候必受诅咒 起来的时候必受诅咒
Spinoza was forced to flee Amsterdam and eventually settled in The Hague,
斯宾诺莎被迫逃离阿姆斯特丹 最终定居海牙
where he lived quietly and peacefully
在那里他成了一名镜头研磨工和私人教师
as a lens grinder and private tutor
安静平和地生活着
till his death in 1677.
直到1677年去世
Spinoza’s work was largely forgotten down the ages.
斯宾诺莎的作品在很大程度上一直是被遗忘的
Hegel took an interest, as did Wittgenstein and
只有黑格尔 维特根斯坦
several other twentieth century philosophers.
和其他几位二十世纪的哲学家对他产生了兴趣
But from many perspectives Spinoza’s work constitutes a warning about failures of philosophy.
但从许多方面来看 斯宾诺莎的作品是对哲学失败的警告
The ethics is one of the world’s most beautiful books.
《伦理学》是世界上写得最美的书之一
It contains a calming perspective for storing take on life.
它以平静的方式对待人生
It replaces the God of superstition with a wise and consoling pantheism.
它用睿智慰藉的泛神主义取代迷信之神
And yet Spinoza’s work failed utterly to convince any but a few to abandon traditional religion
然而斯宾诺莎仅说服了少数人放弃传统宗教
and to move towards a rationalist, wise system of belief.
走向理性明智的信仰体系
The reasons are in a way simple and banal.
原因在某种程度上既简单又无趣
Spinoza failed to understand,
就像之前和之后的许多哲学家一样
like so many philosophers before and since,
斯宾诺莎没能理解
that what leads people to religion isn’t just reason,
把人们引向宗教的不仅仅是理性
but far more importantly: emotion, belief, fear and tradition.
更重要的是:情感 信仰 恐惧和传统
People stick with their beliefs because they like the ritual, the communal meals,
人们坚持自己的信仰是因为他们喜欢这种仪式 喜欢共餐
the yearly traditions, the beautiful architecture, the music
喜欢一年一度的传统 美丽的建筑 音乐
and the lovely language read out in a sinagoge or church.
以及在犹太教堂或教堂里念出悦耳的话语
Spinoza’s Ethics arguably contains a whole lot more wisdom than the Bible.
斯宾诺莎的伦理学可以说比《圣经》包含了更多的智慧
But because it comes without any of the Bible’s supporting structure
但是它没有圣经的那种支撑体系
it remains a marginal work,
所以仍然是一部边缘性的作品
studied here and there at universities in the West.
只时不时出现在西方各个大学的研究里
What the traditional religion,
斯宾诺莎认为
that Spinoza thought outmoded in the 1670s, continues to thrive
1670年代就过时的传统宗教仍然繁荣发展
and convince people.
并有很多信徒
If we’re ever to replace traditional beliefs,
如果我们要取代传统宗教信仰
we must remember
就必须记住
just how much religion has helped along by ritual, tradition, art and a desire to belong.
宗教是如何通过仪式 传统 艺术和归属感来帮助我们的
All things that Spinoza, despite its great wisdom,
有着伟大智慧的斯宾诺莎 在大胆尝试取代《圣经》时
ignored it as peril in his bold attempt to replace the Bible.
却忽视了所有这些他觉得很危险的想法

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

如何拥有更明智的信仰体系?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员VV

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVEeXjPiw54

相关推荐