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哲学:奥古斯丁

PHILOSOPHY - Augustine

奥古斯丁是一位公元4世纪和5世纪的基督教哲学家
Augustine was a Christian philosopher, who lived in the 4th and 5th century A.D.,
他生活在走向衰败的罗马帝国边境的一个南非小镇希波里面
on the fringes of the rapidly declining Roman Empire in the North African town of Hippo.
他当了三十五年的主教
He served as bishop for 35 years,
可见他在这些未受教育的穷苦会众之中是很受欢迎的
proving popular and inspirational to his largely uneducated and poor congregation.
在他垂暮之年 一个被称为汪达尔人的日耳曼部落焚毁了希坡
In his last days, a Germanic tribe known as the Vandals burnt Hippo to the ground,
他们摧毁了镇上的军队 然后和年轻女子一起逃走了
destroyed the legions, made off with the town’s young women,
但奥古斯丁的大教堂和图书馆却没有受到任何破坏
but left Augustine’s Cathedral and library entirely untouched
而这正是出于对这位老哲学家的成就的尊重
out of respect for the elderly philosopher’s achievements.
奥古斯丁对我们当代的非基督徒同样很重要 既因为他对罗马的
He matters to us non-Christians today because of what he criticised about Rome,
价值以及观点的批判
its values and its outlook,
更因为古罗马和现在的西方世界有许多共同点
and because Rome has so many things in common with the modern West,
尤其是美国
especially the United States.
罗马人坚信着两件事
The Romans believed in two things in particular.
第一 世俗的幸福
One, EARTHLY HAPPINESS.
他们总体上来说是一群乐观的人
They were on the whole an optimistic lot.
加德桥和罗马竞技场的建造者有着对技术的信仰
The builders of the Pont du Gard, and the Colosseum had faith in technology,
也对人类的自控力 掌控自然的能力 以及为自身
in the power of humans to master themselves and in their ability to control nature
谋福祉的能力 抱有十足的信心
and plot for their own happiness and satisfaction.
像西塞罗和普鲁塔克这样的作家对未来有一定程度的自豪感、野心和信心
Writers like Cicero and Plutarch had a degree of pride, ambition and confidence in the future,
而这些想法在稍加修改之后 便得体地出现在了当代的帕罗奥图或《连线》杂志当中
which with some revisions wouldn’t be out of place in modern-day Palo Alto or the pages of Wired.
罗马人热衷于我们现在所称的自立
The Romans were keen practitioners of what we would nowadays call SELF-HELP
训练他们的受众获得更大成功以及更好的效果
training their audiences to greater success and effectiveness.
在他们眼里 人类这一生物是完全可以变得完美的
In their eyes, the human animal was something eminently open to being perfected.
第二 公平的社会秩序
Two, A JUST SOCIAL ORDER.
长期以来 罗马人相信他们的社会象征了正义
For long periods, the Romans trusted that their society was marked by justice
-正义-
– JUSTITIA –
野心家和聪明人可以将正义发扬光大
people of ambition and intelligence could make it to the top.
军队则被认为是精英化的
The army was trusted to be meritocratic.
人们认为赚钱的能力可以反映出实际能力和一定程度上的内在美德
The capacity to make money was held to reflect both practical ability and also a degree of inner virtue.
因此 炫耀自己的财富被认为是值得尊敬的 也是值得骄傲的
Therefore showing off one’s wealth was deemed honourable and a point of pride,
而名声 则被认定为了最崇高的目标
and fame, was considered a wholly respectable ideal.
奥古斯丁对这两种说法都无法认同
Augustine disagreed furiously with both of these assumptions.
他在自己的著作《上帝之城》中用了一种至今仍与我们息息相关的方式
In his masterpiece, The City of God, he dissected each of these two points,
对人生是可以变得完美的以及社会是公正的
that human life could be perfected and the societies were just,
这两点进行了剖析
in ways that continue to prove relevant to us today.
奥古斯丁提出了 原罪 这一概念
It was Augustine who came up with the idea of ORIGINAL SIN.
他指出 所有人都是扭曲的 而不仅是将某一个不幸福的人作为特例
He proposed that all humans, not merely this or that unfortunate example,
因为我们所有人 尽管未意识到 都是亚当的罪恶的继承人
were crooked because all of us are unwitting heirs to the sins of Adam.
我们罪恶的本性引出了奥古斯丁所说的 支配冲动
Our sinful nature gives rise to what Augustine called a LIBIDO DOMINANDI,
也就是支配欲 其在我们用残酷 狭隘 而无情的方式对待身边的人的时候
a desire to dominate, which is evident in a brutal, blinkered, merciless way
体现的淋漓尽致
we treat others in the world around us.
因为我们的自我主义和自尊的持续影响 我们无法正确地爱别人
We cannot properly love, for we are constantly undermined by our egoism and our pride.
我们的推理和理解能力是极其脆弱的
Our powers of reasoning and understanding are fragile in the extreme.
欲望日复一日地困扰着我们
Lust haunts our days and nights.
最终 我们没能了解自己 我们追逐着幻影 被焦虑所困扰着
We failed to understand ourselves. We chase phantoms. We are beset by anxieties.
通过责备那些哲学家 奥古斯丁结束了他的批判 用他的话来说
Augustine concluded his assault by chiding all those philosophers in his words
“他们非常愚蠢地幻想着在这里获得尘世间地幸福 以及通过自己的努力而得到赐福”
“have wished, with amazing folly, to be happy here on earth and to achieve bliss by their own efforts.”
这听起来可能令人沮丧 但它也可能变成一种别样的解脱
It might sound depressing, but it may turn out to be a curious relief
被告知我们的人生是扭曲的 不是因为巧合 而是因为单纯地因为我们是人类这一定义
to be told that our lives are awry not by coincidence but by definition simply because we are human,
因为没有人可以被培养成完全正直的人
and because nothing human can ever be made entirely straight.
我们是注定要凭直觉感知美德和爱的生物
We are creatures fated to intuit virtue and love,
但却永远无法为我们自己而去保护它们
but never quite being able to secure them for ourselves.
我们的关系、事业和国家是必然与我们的希望相异的
Our relationships, careers and countries are necessarily not as we’d want them to be.
这并不是我们所做的某一件事情——自人之初始 那些怪事就开始与我们作对了
It isn’t anything specific we have done – the odds are simply stacked against us from the start.
当我们慢慢地开始对我们自身和所做的所有事情的不完美本质妥协的时候
Augustinian pessimism takes off some of the pressure we might feel
奥古斯特尼的悲观主义去掉了一些我们可能感受到的压力
when we slowly come to terms with the imperfect nature of pretty much everything we do and are.
我们不应该愤怒 不应该觉得自己受到了迫害 或者觉得受到了不合理的惩罚
We shouldn’t rage or feel we’ve been persecuted or singled out for undue punishment.
这不过是人类的状态而已 虽然我们并不相信他那所谓原罪的神学
It’s simply the human condition, the legacy of what we might as well,
但姑且还是将其当作人类文明的遗产
even we don’t believe in Augustine’s theology, call ORIGINAL SIN.
在最雄心勃勃的时刻 罗马人曾认为自己是在管理一个精英社会
Romans had, in their most ambitious moments, thought themselves to be running a meritocracy –
一个人们将攀上权力顶峰的人渴望权利的行为归因于自身美德的社会
a society where those who got to the top were deemed to have done so on the back of their own virtues.
在君主康斯坦丁转信天主教之后
After the Emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity,
哲学家尤西比厄斯甚至提出世俗(国家)的力量是上帝在人间建立基督教的工具
the philosopher Eusebious even proposed that earthly power was God’s instrument for establishing Christianity on earth,
因此 罗马的权贵们现在不仅享有特权 而且会被上帝赐福 在上帝的眼中他们是正义的
so that the powerful in Rome were now not just privileged, but also blessed and righteous in God’s eyes.
奥古斯丁则回应 这是傲慢 自负且残酷的主张
What arrogant, boastful and cruel claims, responded Augustine,
正义未曾也不会存在于罗马或是世界上任何地方
there never was nor ever could be justice in Rome, or indeed anywhere else on earth.
上帝没有给予好人财富和权力 也不需去谴责那些缺少这些的人
God didn’t give good people wealth and power, and nor did he necessarily condemn those who lacked them.
奥古斯丁将他所谓的两种城市加以了区分
Augustine distinguished between what he called TWO CITIES,
人之城 和 神之城
the CITY OF MEN, and the CITY OF GOD.
后者是理想的未来 一个好人将最终实施统治的神圣乐园
The latter was an ideal of the future, a heavenly paradise where the good would finally dominate,
在这里 权力将与正义正确地结合 依道德统治
where power would be properly allied to justice, and where virtue would reign.
但是人类不可能独自建立起这样的城市
But men could never build such a city alone,
也不应相信他们自己可以做到
and should never believe themselves capable of doing so.
依照判决 他们只能生活在人之城中
They were condemned to dwell only in the city of men
而这个社会中缺陷遍布
which was a pervasively flawed society,
而金钱也永远无法准确衡量美德
where money could never accurately track virtue.
在奥古斯丁构想中 真正的正义是不存在的
In Augustine’s formulation, true justice has no existence,
哪怕是在建立者和统治者都是基督徒的那种共和国中
save in that republic whose founder and ruler is Christ.
这可能再次令人沮丧 但是这让奥古斯丁的哲学对
Again it may sound bleak, but it makes Augustine’s philosophy extremely generous
在我们或他人的失败 贫穷以及挫败极其宽容
towards failure, poverty and defeat, our own and that of others.
人类不应通过外在的成功标志来评判一个人
It’s not for humans to judge each other by outward markers of success.
在这种分析中 道德因素的缺失和势利行为贯穿其中
From this analysis flows a lack of moralism and snobbery.
我们应该对权力保持怀疑而对失败保持宽容
It’s our duty to be skeptical about power and generous towards failure.
即使不是天主教徒 我们也可以接受这些观点
We don’t need to be Christians to be comforted by both these points.
它们是宗教对于政治哲学和人类心理学的普适馈赠
They are the religion’s universal gifts to political philosophy and human psychology.
它们作为永恒的提醒存在着 提醒着若相信生命可以变得完美
They stand as permanent reminders of some of the dangers and cruelties
所带来的危险和残酷
of believing that the life could be made perfect
提醒着贫穷和卑微是象征人之城中的罪恶的可靠指标
or the poverty and obscurity are reliable indicators of vice in a city of men.

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视频概述

哲学家奥古斯丁对于古罗马帝国的批判,以及现代社会中对奥古斯丁哲学的理解和认识

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Aimik

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与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBAxUBeVfsk

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