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哲学 – 亚里士多德 – 译学馆
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哲学 - 亚里士多德

PHILOSOPHY - Aristotle

亚里士多德出生在公元前384的马其顿的古希腊王国
Aristotle was born around 384 BC in the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia
他的爸爸是御医,他长大成为最受争议的最有影响力的哲学家
where his father was the royal doctor. He grew up to be arguably the most influential
最谦虚的昵称都像“大师”和“哲学家”这样
philosopher ever, with modest nicknames like ‘the master’ and simply ‘the philosopher’.
他的第一份重要的工作是教育了亚历山大大帝,之后不久又征服了
His first big job was tutoring Alexander the Great who, soon after, went out and conquered
文明世界
the known world
亚里士多德之后又去了希腊,和柏拉图
Aristotle then headed off to Athens, worked with Plato for a bit, then branched out on
他创建了一个小型学校称作Lyceum。法国中学—“the lycees”
his own. He founded a little school called the Lyceum. French secondary schools – ‘the
就是这个美德的荣誉命名。他喜欢在教书育人的时候
lycees’ – are named in honour of this venture. He liked to walk about while teaching and
散步
discussing ideas.
他的追随者被称为“亚里士多德学派”的漫步者
His followers were nicknamed ‘peripatetics’ – ‘the wanderers.’
他的许多书实际上是演讲稿
His many books are actually lecture notes
亚里士多德被许多事吸引
Aristotle was fascinated by how many things
小鸡为什么是从卵孵化的,乌贼是怎么样繁殖的
actually work: how does a chick grow in an egg? How do squid reproduce?
什么一些植物只在一些地方长的好,而在其他很难生长
Why does a plant grow well in one place
最重要的是,人是怎么被创造出来的
and hardly at all in another? And – most importantly – what makes a human life, and
整个社会如何才会走向更好?对亚里士多德来说,哲学是一门实际的智慧
a whole society, go well? For Aristotle, philosophy was about practical
这里有四大个哲学问题
wisdom. Here are four big philosophical questions
他回答的1:怎么使人快乐
he answered. One : what makes people happy?
在尼格马洛伦理学(这本书有这个名字因为是他儿子编辑的)
In the ‘Nicomachean’ ethics (the book got it’s name because it was edited by his
亚里士多德设定他自己的确定的任务是引导人们
son, Nicomachus) Aristotle set himself the task of identifying the factors that lead
有一个更好的生活
people to have a good life – or not.
他提出好的人和成功的人应该有更加明确的美德
He suggested that good and successful people all possess distinct ‘virtues’ – and proposed
并提出我们应该增强识别它们的能力,这样的话
that we should get better at identifying what these are, so that we can nurture them in
我们就可以培养自身的美德以及尊敬别人的美德.亚里士多德强调十一种美德
ourselves and honour them in others. Aristotle zeroed in on 11 virtues
勇敢,自制
Courage Temperance
慷慨,心胸宽广
Liberality Magnificence
自尊
Magnanimity Pride
耐心,真诚
Patience Truthfulness
理智,友善
Wittiness Friendliness
谦虚
Modesty
亚里士多德也观测到每一种美德似乎都是处于两种罪恶的之间
Aristotle also observed that every virtue seems to be bang in the middle of two vices.
它出现在亚里士多德命名为《中庸》的书里(一个完美地平衡的三脚架),在两个极端角色之中。
It occupies what he termed ‘the golden mean’ [a perfectly balanced plank on triangle] between
比如,在他的第四部关于道德的书中
two extremes of character. For example, in Book IV of his Ethics, under
有个吸引人的标题:健谈的优点-智慧,滑稽和粗鲁的亚里士多德
the charming title of ‘Conversational Virtues: wit, buffoonery and boorishness’, Aristotle
看待人们善于或拙于交谈的人们(了解如何有一个好的
looks at ways people are better or worse at conversation. (knowing how to have a good
会谈是美好生活的基石,亚里士多德认为)
conversation is one of the ingredients of the good life, Aristotle recognised).
有些人的情况没有改善是因为他们缺少对幽默的敏锐感知:这是个粗野之人
Some people go wrong because they lack a subtle sense of humour: that’s the “boor”,
一些人对于任何种类的社交都是没用的,因为他没有贡献
someone “useless for any kind of social intercourse, because he contributes nothing
还抵触一切事物。
and takes offence at everything.’
但另外一些人是幽默过度:丑角无法抵抗一个玩笑,保守的人既不会是自己也不会是
But others carry humour to excess: ‘The buffoon cannot resist a joke, sparing neither
别的人提供让他能够讲出一个笑话,说一些
himself, nor anybody else provided that he can raise a laugh, and saying things that
有品味的人将永不会说出的话。
a man of taste would never dream of saying.’
因此,“善良的”人在中庸思想里是:诙谐的,但很机智。
So the ‘virtuous’ person is in the golden mean in this area: witty, but tactful.
一个特别的,迷人的时刻,是当亚里士多德画好一个关于整个美德的图表:“太少”,
A particularly fascinating moment is when Aristotle draws up a table of ‘too little’
“太多”和“刚好”。
‘too much’ and ‘just right’ around the whole host of virtues.
我们不可能在上述提及的地方立刻改变自己的行为
We can’t change our behaviour in any of these areas just at the drop of a hat. But
但是事实上,这种改变是可能的。亚里士多德说:“道德的善是习惯的结果。”
change is possible, eventually. ‘Moral goodness’ says Aristotle ‘ is the result of habit’.
它需要时间、实践和鼓励。因此,亚里士多德认为,那些缺乏道德的人,应该被看作不幸的,
It takes times, practice, encouragement. So, Aristotle thinks, people who lack virtue should
而不是邪恶的。他们需要的不是责骂或者被扔进监狱
be understood as unfortunate rather than wicked. What they need is not scolding or being thrown
而是一位更好的老师,更多的引导。
in prison but better teachers, more guidance.
第二个问题是:
Two: what is art for?
在当时风靡一时的艺术是悲剧。雅典人在社区文化节上观看那些充满暴力和血腥的戏剧
The blockbuster art at that time was tragedy. Athenians watched gory plays at community
在巨大的露天影院里。埃斯库罗斯,索福克勒斯和欧里皮德斯都是家喻户晓的名字。
festivals in huge open air theatres. Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles were household names.
亚里士多德写过一本叫做《如何写出伟大的戏剧》的手册——诗学。
Aristotle wrote a ‘how to write great plays’ manual: the Poetics. It’s packed with great
这本书里有非常多的点子。例如,确保使用:
tips. For example, make sure to use:
剧情突转——一种命运的转变,英雄的事迹由伟大转为可怕
peripeteia – a change in fortune, when for the hero things go from great to awful [in
(在泰坦尼克号中,莱昂纳多·德·迪卡普里奥得到了凯特·温斯洛[伟大],然而后来却遇到冰山事件[可怕]);
Titanic, Leonardo de Caprio gets Kate Winslow (great) then they hit the iceberg (awful)
还有相认——一个戏剧性的真相被揭露的时刻,
and anagnoresis – a moment of dramatic revelation
突然间,英雄了解到他们的生活本质上是一场灾难。
when suddenly the hero works out their life is a catastrophe
但悲剧究竟是什么呢?
But what is tragedy actually for? What is
整个团体聚集在一起去看正发生在主角身上非常可怕的事情是什么意思呢?
the point of a whole community coming together to watch horrible things happening to the
像俄狄浦斯王(索福克勒斯的戏剧里),杀死了自己的父亲,却又意外的
lead characters? Like Oedipus (in the play by Sophocles) who by accident, kills his father,
去了自己的母亲,发现自己所做的事情
gets married to his mother, finds out he’s done these things [on screen: anagnoresis!)
并在懊悔和绝望中挖掉自己的双眼。
and gouges out his own eyes in remorse and despair.
亚里士多德的答案是——精神宣泄,在希腊是这种写法。
Aristotle’s answer is Katharis – which is greek for … Catharsis.
精神宣泄是一种清洗——
Catharsis is a kind of cleaning – you get
你摆脱了不好的东西。在这种情况下,可以清洗我们的情绪,具体来说,就是我们对于
rid of bad stuff. In this case cleaning up our emotions, specifically our confusions
害怕与怜悯这种感觉的困惑。我们都会有天生的问题:
around the feelings of fear and pity. We’ve got natural problems here: we are
我们都是硬心肠:我们不会给予应得的怜悯。我们更倾向于要么夸大
hard hearted: we don’t give pity where it is deserved. And we’re prone to either exaggerated
恐惧要么不会越来越怕。
fears or not getting frightened enough
悲剧提醒我们:可怕的事情会发生在正派人士身上,包括
Tragedy reminds us that: terrible things can befall decent people including
我们自己;一个小的缺陷可能会导致一生的松散
ourselves): a small flaw can lead to a whole life unravelling
因此我们应当拥有更多的同情心(怜悯)
and so we should have more compassion (or pity) for
对于那些采取灾难性错误的行动的人。我们需要集中的再次学习这些至关重要的,
those whose actions go disastrously wrong. We need to be collective re-taught these crucial
基于一个定期的真理。艺术的任务,在亚里士多德看来,就是对于
truths on a regular basis. The task of art – as Aristotle saw it – is to make profound
坚守在我们思想中关于生命的真谛有个深远的意义。第三:什么是朋友?
truths about life stick in our minds. Three: What are friends for?
亚里士多德在《尼各马可伦理学》的八和九中鉴定了三中不同的
In books eight and nine of the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle identifies three different
友谊。一种是友情出现在当
kinds of friendship. There’s friendship that comes about when
每个人都在寻觅快乐时,他们主要的兴趣是在他们自身的喜悦和
each person is seeking fun; their ‘chief interest is in their own pleasure and the
一些别人所提供的机会中。我们需要别人来拥有
opportunity of the moment’ which the other person provides. We need other people to have
一个美好时光,我们需要令人愉快的同伴。
a nice time around. We need pleasant companions.
(啤酒节上)一种友情是
[on screen, beer drinking festival] Then there are friendships that are really
战略上的熟人:他们目前仅以可以从彼此公司
strategic acquaintances: ‘they take pleasure in each other’s company only in so far as
有希望获取利益为乐。
they have hopes of advantage of it.’
(虚假快乐的商业会议)然而这却是真朋友:没有人
[on screen: faux-jovial business meeting] Then there’s the true friend: Not someone
刚好很喜欢你。但是有些人不是你——仅仅是你像关心自己那样关心他们。
who’s just like you. But someone who isn’t you – but about whom you care as much as you
真朋友的伤痛就是你的伤痛,
are about yourself. The sorrows of a true friend are your sorrows
他们的快乐就是你的快乐。这是你更加易受攻击的——任何事情都应该降临在这个人身上。
to, their joys are yours. It makes you more vulnerable – should anything befall this person.
但它是深深地固化了的:你从你自己的思想和忧虑的小轨道上解放出来,
But it is hugely strengthening: you are relieved from the too small orbit of your own thoughts
你涉足另一个人的生活,并且你变得庞大,更加聪明,
and worries, you expand into the life of another, together you become larger, cleverer, more
更强的适应力,更公正。你分享美德并抵消彼此的缺点。
resilient, more fair minded. You share virtues and cancel out each other’s defects. Friendship
友情教会我们做我们该做的。它是生命中最好的一部分,确实不夸张的说。
teaches us what we ought to be. It is – quite literally – the best part of life.
第四:理念怎样可以切入这个繁忙的世界?
Four: how can ideas cut through in a busy world?
像很多人那样,亚里士多德被一种观点所困:最好的论证
Like a lot of people, Aristotle was struck by the fact that the best argument doesn’t
并不总会在辩论或战场上获胜。
always win the debate or the battle.
他想知道为什么
He wanted to know why
这种事情会发生,我们能为它做些什么。
this happens and what we can do about it.
他有很多可以观察的机会:在雅典,很多的决议是在公开的会议里决定的
He had lots of opportunity for observations: in Athens lots of decisions were made in public
(通常在集会——当地的广场);演说者会和另一个人竞争去影响
meetings (often in the Agora – the town square); orators would vie with one another to sway
热门的观点。
popular opinion.
亚里士多德划分出了观众和个人被许多因素影响的方式,
Aristotle plotted the ways audiences and individuals are influenced by many factors that don’t
发现他们并没有严格地适应逻辑或案件的事实。
strictly engage with logic or the facts of the case.
这使人非常恼火。很多认真的人(如柏拉图)无法忍受。
It’s maddening. And many serious people [especially Plato] can’t stand it. They
他们躲避市场和平民主义的辩论。
avoid the marketplace and populist debate.
亚里士多德是非常有雄心的。他发明了一种我们沿用至今的艺术,叫做修辞学:
Aristotle was more ambitious. He invented the art of what we still today call Rhetoric:
一种能让人们认同你的艺术。他希望深思的,认真的,有良好意图的
the art of getting people to agree with you. He wanted thoughtful, serious and well-intentioned
人能够学会成为说服力的人——可以影响到那些先前持不同意观点的人。
people to learn how to be persuasive – to reach those who don’t agree already.
他还提出了一些永恒的观点:你不得不认可,告知已收到,缓和人的
He makes some timeless points: You have to recognise, acknowledge and sooth people’s
恐惧。你得看到事情表现强烈情感的一面——坦白的说是人的自尊心,
fears. You have to see the emotional side of the issue – is someone’s pride on the
他们是否感到尴尬,并还有其相应的边缘。
line, are they feeling embarrassed – and edge round it accordingly.
你得是它有趣——因为注意力的寿命是很短的。
You have to make it funny – because attention spans are short.
或许你还得用插画和例子使你的观点生动。
And you might have to use illustrations and examples to make your point come alive.
我们是亚里士多德的热情的学生。当今“哲学”听起来不是
We’re keen students of Aristotle. Today ‘Philosophy’ doesn’t sound like
最有实践性的活动。或许是因为如今我们没有予以足够的关注
the most practical activity. Maybe that’s because we’ve not paid enough attention, recently, to
在亚里士多德身上。
Aristotle

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亚里士多德,古代先哲,古希腊人,世界古代史上伟大的哲学家、科学家和教育家之一,堪称希腊哲学的集大成者。他是柏拉图的学生,亚历山大的老师。

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