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PHILOSOPHY - Albert Camus

哲学
阿尔贝·加缪
Albert Camus was an extremely handsome,
阿尔贝·加缪相貌极其英俊
mid 20th century French Algerian philosopher and writer
是20世纪中叶阿尔及利裔法国籍哲学家和作家
whose claim to our attention is based on three novels:
他因三部小说闻名于世
The Outsider, The Plage, The Fall
《局外人》《鼠疫》《堕落》
and two philosophical essays:
他还有两本哲学随笔:
The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel.
《西西弗神话》和《反抗者》
Camus won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957
1957年加缪获诺贝尔文学奖
and died at the age of 46,
逝世时46岁
inadvertently killed by his publisher Michelle Gallimard
被他的出版商米歇尔·伽利玛意外杀死
when his Facel Vega sports car they were in crashed into a tree.
米歇尔驾着载着两人的Facel Vega跑车撞上了一棵大树
In his pocket was a train ticket he had decided not to use last-minute.
当时他口袋里有一张最后没有使用的火车票
Camus’ fame began with and still largely rests upon his novel of 1942: The Outsider.
加缪因1942年的小说《局外人》声名远播
Set in Camus’ native Algiers,
该书的背景是加缪的故乡阿尔及利亚
it follows the story of a laconic detached ironic hero called Meursault.
讲述了冷漠疏离 行为荒谬讽刺的主人公莫尔索的故事
A man who can’t see the point of love or work or friendship,
莫尔索认为爱 工作和友谊都没有意义
and who one day, somewhat by mistake, shoots dead an Arab man
有一天莫尔索意外枪杀了一个阿拉伯人
without knowing his own motivations and ends up being put to death
动机不明 却最终被判处死刑
partly because he doesn’t show any remorse
部分原因是他毫无懊悔之意
but not really caring for his fate one way or the other.
对自己命运的完全漠然
The novel captures the state of mind, defined by the sociologist Emile Durkheim,
社会学家埃米尔·涂尔干将小说中的心态定义为
as “Anomie,”
“失范”
a listless, affectless, alienated condition
一种冷淡 无动于衷 疏远的状态
where one feels entirely cut off from others
这种心态下的人与他人完全隔离
and can’t find a way to share their sympathies or values.
并且无法表达自己的感情或想法
Reading The Outsider has long been a well-known
对法国人和其他各地的少年来说
adolescent rite of passage among french and many other teenagers,
阅读《局外人》一直都是他们的成年礼
which isn’t a way of doing it down
这个读者群年龄并不小
for a lot of the greatest themes are first tackled at 17 or so.
因为很多最伟大命题都是在17岁左右才开始接触的
The hero of The Outsider, Meursault,
《局外人》中的主人公莫尔索
cannot accept any of the standard answers for why things are the way they are.
不接受为什么事情是现在这样的任何标准答案
He sees hypocrisy and sentimentality everywhere and can’t overlook it.
他认为虚伪和多愁善感随处可见 不容忽视
He’s a man who can’t accept the normal explanations
莫尔索是个无法接受正常解释的男子
given to explain things like the education system, the workplace,
不相信那些将原因推给教育系统 工作场所
relationships or the mechanism of government.
人际关系或政府机制的解释
He stands outside normal bourgeois life
他站在正常的资产阶级生活之外
highly critical of its pinched morality
高度批评它的道德沦丧
and narrow concerns for money and family.
以及对金钱和家庭的狭隘关注
As Camus put it in an afterword he wrote for the American edition of the book:
正如加缪在为该书美国版撰写的后记中所说:
“Meursault doesn’t play the game. He refuses to lie…”
“莫尔索不玩这个游戏 他拒绝撒谎……”
“…he says what he is, he refuses to hide his feelings…”
“是什么他就怎么说 他拒绝掩饰自己的感情”
“…and so society immediately feels threatened.”
“这样社会就立刻感到受了威胁”
Much of the unusual mesmerizing quality of the book comes from the coolly
这本书的许多不寻常的令人着迷的品质来自于
distant voice in which Meursault speaks to us, his readers.
莫尔索用那冷酷遥远的声音对我们 对他的读者讲述
The opening is one of the most legendary in twentieth-century literature,
开头是二十世纪文学史上最具传奇色彩的开篇之一
and sets the tone.
定下了感情基调
“Aujourd’hui, maman est morte.
“今天 妈妈死了
Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas.”
也许是在昨天 我搞不清”
The ending is a stark and is defiant.
结局是赤裸裸的 目中无人的
Meursault condemned to death for a murder committed almost off hand,
莫尔索因一起错手发生的谋杀案被判处死刑
because it could be interesting to know what it’s like to press the trigger,
仅仅因为他好奇按下扳机时是什么感觉
rejects all consolations and
他拒绝一切安慰
heroically accepts the universe’s total indifference to human kind.
英勇地接受全世界对他的完全冷漠
“My last wish was that there should be a crowd of spectators at my execution…”
“我期望处决我的那天 有很多人前来看热闹”
“…and that they should greet me with cries of hatred.”
“他们都向我发出仇恨的叫喊声”
Even if we’re not killers, and we’ll ourselves be really quite sad when our mother dies,
即使我们不是杀手 当母亲去世时 也会非常难过
the mood of The Outsider is one we’re all liable to have some experience of.
《局外人》里的情绪是我们都容易体验到的
When we have enough freedom to realize we are in a cage but
我们有足够的自由意识到自己身处牢笼
not quite enough freedom to escape it.
但是没有足够的自由逃出去
When no one seems to understand and
当似乎没有人理解时
everything appears a little hopeless,
一切都显得有些无望
perhaps in the summer before we go to college.
也许这种情况发生在我们上大学之前的夏天
Aside from The Outsider,
除了《局外人》
Camus’ fame rests on an essay published the same year as the novel
加缪的声名还来源于他同年发表的另一篇随笔
called The Myth of Sisyphus.
即《西西弗神话》
This book, too, has a bold beginning:
该书也有一个无畏的开头
“There is but one truly serious philosophical problem…”
“真正严肃的哲学问题只有一个”
“…and that is suicide.”
“那便是自杀”
“Judging whether life is or is not worth living,”
“判断人生值不值得活”
“…that is the fundamental question of philosophy.”
“这就是哲学的根本问题”
The reason for this stark choice is in Camus’ eyes because
在加缪眼中这是残酷的选择
as soon as we start to think seriously, as philosophers do,
因为只要我们像哲学家一样 开始严肃思考
we will see that life has no meaning and
我们会看到生命没有意义
therefore we will be compelled to wonder
这就迫使我们思考
whether or not we should just be done with it all.
是否应该结束这一切
To make sense of this rather extreme claim and thesis,
为了弄明白这个相当极端的主张和论点
we have to situate Camus in the history of thought, his dramatic
我们必须把加缪放在思想史中
announcement that we have to consider killing ourselves because
他那戏剧性的宣言是我们必须考虑自杀
life might be meaningless, is premised on a previous notion
因为生命可能是毫无意义的 是建立在一个先在的概念之上
that life could actually be rich in god-given meaning.
即生命的意义由上帝赋予
The concept which will sound remote to many of us today
这个概念在今天对我们很多人来说听起来很遥远
and yet we have to bear in mind that for the last two thousand years in the West
然而在过去的两千年里
a sense that life was meaningful was a given,
在西方 我们一直相信生命是有意义的
accorded by one institution above any other – The Christian Church.
这种意义由一个高于一切的机构基督教会给予的
Camus stands in a long line of thinkers, from Kierkegaard
加缪和许多思想家一样 从克尔凯郭尔
to Nietzsche, to Heidegger and Sartre
到尼采 海德格尔 萨特
who wrestle with a chilling realization
认为事实上生活没有预定意义
that there is in fact no preordained meaning in life.
他们与这种令人不寒而栗的意识搏斗
We’re just biological matter spinning senselessly on a tiny rock
我们只是居于冷漠宇宙的一个角落里
in a corner of an indifferent universe.
在一块小石头上毫无意义地旋转的生物物质
We were not put here by a benevolent deity
我们不是被仁慈的神灵安顿于此
and asked to work toward salvation in the shape of the Ten Commandments,
并要求遵循《十诫》以求解脱
there’s no roadmap and no bigger point and,
生命中没有路线图也没有更大的意义
it’s this realization that lies at the heart of
我们心中所有的
so many of the crises reported by the thinkers
就是存在主义思想家所提出的
we now know as the existentialists.
关于危机的认识
A child of despairing modernity,
个人是绝望的现代性之子
Albert Camus accepts that all our lives are absurd in the grander scheme
阿尔伯特·加缪认为 我们的生活处于宏达规划的荒谬中
but, unlike some philosophers,
但是 与某些哲学家不同的是
he ends up resisting utter hopelessness or Nihilism.
他最后选择抵制完全的绝望或虚无主义
He argues that we have to live with the knowledge
他认为我们必须接受这样的事实
that our efforts will be largely futile,
即我们的努力很大程度上是徒劳的
our lives soon forgotten,
我们的生命很快被遗忘
and our species irredeemably corrupt and violent
我们人类不可挽救地堕落和暴力
and yet we should endure nevertheless.
然而我们只能忍受
We are like Sisyphus,
我们就像西西弗斯——
the Greek figure ordained by the Gods to roll a boulder up a mountain,
希腊神话中被众神命令推一块巨石上山的人物
and to watch it fall back down again in perpetuity.
并且看着石头无休止地再次滚回山下
But ultimatelly, Camus suggests we should cope as well as we can
但最终 加缪建议我们尽己所能
at whatever we have to do, we have to acknowledge the absurd background to existence,
去应付我们不得不承认的存在的荒谬背景
and then triumph of the constant possibility of hopelessness.
然后在持续性的绝望中获得胜利
In his famous formulation
在加缪的构想中
“One must imagine Sisyphus happy.”
“人们必须认为西西弗斯是快乐的”
This brings us to the most charming and seductive side of Camus,
这让我们看到加缪最迷人的一面
the Camus wants to remind himself and us of
加缪想提醒自己和我们
the reasons why life can be worth enduring,
为什么生命是值得忍受的
and who in the process writes with exceptional intensity and wisdom
而在这个过程中 加缪用非凡的笔触和智慧
about relationships, nature, the summer, food, and friendship.
书写人际关系 自然 夏天 食物和友谊
As a guide to the reasons to live, Camus is delightful.
加缪很乐意做我们生活意义的向导
Many philosophers have been ugly and cut off from their bodies,
许多哲学家都是丑陋和肢体残缺的
think of sickly Pascal,
想想身残志坚的帕斯卡尔
crippled Leopardi,
跛足的利奥帕尔迪
sexually unsuccessful Schopenhauer or
情场失意的叔本华
poor peculiar Nietzsche.
或者可怜古怪的尼采
Camus was by contrast very good-looking,
相反加缪长着一副帅气的面孔
extremely successful with women for the last ten years of his life,
在生命的最后十年颇有女人缘
he never had fewer than three girlfriends on the go,
他同时交往的女友不低于三个
and wives as well
还有多个妻子
and had a great dress sense,
受詹姆斯·迪恩和汉弗莱·伯德的影响
influenced by James Deen and Humphrey Board.
他的衣品也不俗
It isn’t surprising that he was asked to pose by American Vogue.
《美国时尚》杂志请他当模特也就不足为奇了
These weren’t all just sylistic quirks,
这些不仅仅是单纯的怪癖
once you properly realize that life is absurd
一旦你恰当地意识到生活是荒谬的
you’re on the verge of despair perhaps,
你也许正处于绝望的边缘
but also compelled to live life more intensely.
但也被迫更加努力地生活
Accordingly came grew committed to and deeply serious about the pleasures of ordinary life.
因此 加缪主张严肃看待平凡生活的乐趣
He said he saw his philosophy as
他说他将自己的哲学视为
“A lucid invitation to live and to create in the very midst of the desert.”
“在沙漠中生活和创造的明确邀请”
He was a great champion of the ordinary
他是普通人心中的伟大斗士
which generally has a hard time finding champions in philosophy
哲学界一般很难找到斗士
and after pages and pages of his dense philosophy, one turns with relief to
发表了一页又一页哲学文章后 他放下工作
moments when Camus writes with simplicity in praise of sunshine, kissing or dancing.
用简洁的笔调赞美阳光 亲吻或跳舞的时刻
He was an outstanding athlete as a young man,
年轻时他是一个杰出运动员
once asked by his friend Charles Poncet which he preferred, football or the theater.
一次他的朋友友查尔斯·彭赛特问他选择足球还是戏剧
Camus is set to have replied: “Football, without hesitation.”
加缪回答“当然是足球”
Camus played as goalkeeper for the junior local Algiers team
加缪曾是阿尔及尔当地中学球队的守门员
Racing Universitaire de Algier, which won both the North African Champions Cup
赢得了1930年的北非冠军杯
and the North African Cup in the 1930’s.
和南非冠军杯
The sense of teamspirit fraternity and common purpose, appeal to Camus enormously.
团队友谊和共同目标极大地吸引了加缪
When he was asked in the 1950s by a sportsmagazine
50年代他被一个体育杂志访问
for a few words regarding his time with football, he said:
被问及对足球的感悟时 他说:
“After many years during which I saw many things…”
“许多年来 我看过许多事情”
“what I know most surely about morality and the duty of man…”
“我理解最深的是男人的道德和责任”
“I owe to sport.”
“这是我从体育中学到的”
Camus was also great advocate of the Sun,
加缪也是喜爱阳光的人
his beautiful essay Summer in Algiers
他的优美散文《阿尔及尔之夏》
celebrates the warmth of the water and the brown bodies of women.
赞颂了水的温暖和女性棕色的身体
He writes “For the first time in two thousand years
他写到“两千年来头一回
the body has appeared naked on beaches,
人们可以在海滩上赤身裸体了
for twenty centuries
两千年来
men have striven to give decency to Greek
人们竭力要将希腊的放肆与纯真装扮得体面些
insolence a naiveity to diminish the flesh and complicate dress
尽量少暴露血肉之躯 把服装弄得越来越复杂
but today young men running on Mediterranean beaches
如今年轻人在地中海海滩上的奔跑
repeat the gestures of the athletes of Delos.”
已与古希腊德洛斯运动员优美的姿势相似”
He spoke up for a new paganism,
加缪为一种基于身体的即时快感的
based on the immediate pleasures of the body.
新的异教说话
This extract from Summer in Algiers:
散文《阿尔及尔的夏天》中说:
“I recall a magnificent, tall girl who danced all afternoon.
“我还记得一位身材高大的妙龄女郎 她整个下午都在跳舞
She was wearing a jasmine garland on her tight blue dress
她那紧身蓝衣裙上戴着一只茉莉花的花环
wet with perspiration from the small of her back to her legs
汗水已将下半身衣裙溻得透湿
she was laughing as she danced and throwing back her head
她边舞边笑 并且仰面向天
as she passed the tables
她从每一张桌子旁边掠过时
she left behind her a mingle scent of flowers and flesh.”
留下了鲜花与肉体交融的芬芳”
Camus railed against those who would dismiss such things as trivial
加缪反对那些对琐碎事物不屑一顾
and longed for something higher, better, purer.
去追求更高更好更纯洁的东西的人
“If there is a sin against this life…” he wrote,
他写到“如果这种生活中有罪恶”
“it consists perhaps not so much into sparing of life,”
“它也许并不包括多少生命的保存”
“as in hoping for another life and eluding the quiet grandeur of this one.”
“正如希望另一种生活 却逃避当下生活的平静壮丽”
In a letter he remarked:
在一封信中他写到:
“People attract me insofar as
“人们吸引我的地方正在于
they are impassioned about life and avid for happiness…”
他们对生活的慷慨激昂 对幸福的渴望”
“There are causes worth dying for, but none worth killing for.”
“有值得用生命去追求的 但没有什么值得用自杀去追求”
Camus achieved huge acclaim in his lifetime,
加缪在有生之年取得了巨大的赞誉
but the Parisian intellectual community was deeply suspicious of him.
但巴黎知识界对他深表怀疑
He never was a Parisian sophisticate, he was a working-class Pied-Noir,
他从来不是巴黎人 他是工人阶级法国移民
that is someone born in Algeria but of European origin,
即出生在阿尔及利亚的欧洲人
whose father had died of war-wounds when he was an infant,
他的父亲在他还是婴儿的时候就死于战争
and whose mother was a cleaning lady.
他的母亲是一名清洁工
It isn’t a coincidence that Camus’ favorite philosopher was Montaigne,
加缪最喜欢的哲学家是蒙田 这并非巧合
another very down to earth frenchmen,
蒙田是另一个法国人非常熟悉的人物
and someone one can love as much for what he wrote, as for what he was like.
他还是一个挚爱自己的文章 挚爱本来的自己的人
Someone one would have wanted as a wise and a life-enhancing friend.
一个原本想成为明智且能提高生活的朋友
This, too, is what philosophy is about.
这 也是哲学要探讨的

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视频概述

这个世界是不合理的,这是人们可以明确说出的表述。但是,荒诞是这一不合理性与人的心灵深处所呼唤的对条理性的强烈要求的对立。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQOfbObFOCw

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