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物候学和自然的变化节奏

Phenology and nature's shifting rhythms - Regina Brinker

向窗外看一下
Take a look outside a window.
你在哪里,哪个季节?
What is the season where you are?
你怎么知道的?
How do you know?
很可能是,你看到了树或者植物
Most likely, you looked at a tree or plant
和注意叶子的细节
and noticed details about its leaves
还有对外面阳光强度的评估。
and assessed the qualities of sunlight streaming outside.
观察生物事件的变化时间
Observing the timing of biological events
以及,季节和气候变化之间的联系
in relation to changes in season and climate
被称为“生物气候学”。
is called “phenology”.
当你注意到水仙花的蓓蕾从雪中绽放,
When you notice the daffodil buds are poking through the snow
你觉得春天就要来临,
and think spring is on its way,
你也在使用生物气象学
you’re using phenology.
当你看到叶子从绿色逐渐转变为红色
When you see leaves turn from green to red,
看到候鸟飞过
and watch migrating birds fly past,
你意识到夏天已过,秋天已经来临
and realize that summer is over, autumn is here,
你也在使用
you’re using phenology.
字面上的意思是,”科学的外表”
Literally meaning, “the science of appearance”,
生物气候学一词源自于希腊词汇
phenology comes from the Greek words
pheno,表示显现或是出现,
“pheno,” to show or appear,
还有logs,表示学习。
and “logos,” to study.
自从生物气候学作为狩猎者和采集者所使用的时间,
Humans have relied on phenology
人们便开始依赖于它。
since the time of hunters and gatherers.
我们看到了季节的变化
We’ve watched changes in seasons
知道什么时候种植什么时候收割
to know when to plant and harvest food
候鸟什么时候迁徙
and when to track migrating animals.
科学家们在自然中观察和判断季节的变化
Scientists observe and document seasonal changes in nature
并寻找着季节变化事件的模式。
and look for patterns in the timing of seasonal events.
直到近期,这些自然信号出现的时间一直保持其一致性。
Timing of these natural signs has remained consistent until recently.
全球持续升温导致了自然节奏出现转变。
Increasing global temperature is causing rhythms of nature to shift.
发芽,是树或植物的叶子盛开,或是花儿的蓓蕾绽放
Bud burst, the day when a tree or plant’s leaf or flower buds open,
是一些物种生长期出现的现象。
is occurring earlier in the year for some species.
每年温度升高一摄氏度,
For every one degree Celsius rise in temperature,
发芽的时间会比正常情况下提早五天。
bud burst happens five days earlier than usual.
时间上的差异不仅影响着植物的生长,
Differences in timing affect not only plants,
还会影响着以植物为食的昆虫与鸟儿。
but the insects and birds that depend on the plants for food.
举个例子来说,荷兰阿纳姆森林的橡树
For example, oak trees in the Arnhem Forest of the Netherlands
现在正经历着提前十天发芽这件事。
now experience bud burst ten days earlier,
和二十年前相比,
as compared to twenty years ago.
新橡树的叶子是moth caterpillars(毛毛虫的一种)最喜欢的食物。
New oak leaves are a favorite food of winter moth caterpillars.
为了生存,这种毛毛虫会
To survive, the caterpillars adapted
适应橡树生长期的变化。
to the change in the tree’s timing,
所以,它们的孵化期也比从前早了15天。
and now hatch 15 days earlier than before.
然而,要迁徙的花色鹟鸟
Migrating pied flycatcher birds, however,
也不会迁徙了。
aren’t doing as well.
因为,这种鸟更喜欢给它们的孩子喂食冬天的moth caterpillars。
The birds prefer to feed their chicks winter moth caterpillars.
如今,这种毛毛虫在提前孵化,
The caterpillars are now hatching earlier,
鹟鸟的幼鸟却不会。
but the birds’ chicks are not.
因而,这样的延迟正耗费着鹟鸟的食物来源。
This delay is costing the birds a food source.
在某些地区,鹟鸟的数量
The pied flycatcher population has decreased
下降了百分之九十。
by up to 90% in some areas as a result.
一个看似简单的事件得以改变,
Changes to a seemingly simple event,
叶子的盛开,
leaves opening,
使得整个食物网产生了涟漪效应。
has ripple effects throughout a food web.
开花时间的提前同时也对经济产生了影响。
Earlier bloom times can also have an economic impact.
华盛顿特区著名的樱花树产地,
The famed cherry blossoms in Washington D.C.
比以往的开花时间提前了五天。
are blooming five days earlier than before.
因为樱花树的提早开花,
Since the cherry trees are blooming earlier,
也导致了樱花的提前凋谢。
the blossoms also fade earlier,
这使得成百上千来此地过樱花节的游客们
frustrating thousands of tourists who visit
唏嘘不已。
for the Cherry Blossom Festival.
高校行军的乐队计划
High school marching bands plan
一整年参加游行仪式。
all year to attend the parade
表演时,他们周围被繁茂的树冠所环绕着。
and perform, surrounded by a majestic white canopy.
对他们而言,要找一颗苍翠的大树,而不是那著名的樱花绽放,
How disappointing for them to find, well, trees
是件多么令人失望的事啊!
rather than the famous cherry blossoms!
植物与动物会对大自然光线和温度的变化做出相应的反应。
Plants and animals react to changes in natural light and temperature.
温度升高会导致植物提早开花,
Increasing temperatures cause plants to bloom earlier than before,
并会不同步地成为昆虫和鸟儿食物网的一部分。
and become out of sync with the insects and birds in a food web.
所以,当你下一次看向窗外时,
So, the next time you look out your window
你要注意一下现在是什么季节。
and notice what season it is,
你可能会被那些盛开的树木所愚弄。
you may be fooled by those blooming trees.
想想生物气候学,
Think of phenology,
再想想你该如何在减缓气候变化问题上尽一份力量。
then think of how you can play a part to slow climate change.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RNs3XpRmRfI

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