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如何获得博士学位 – 译学馆
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如何获得博士学位

PhD: Doctor of Philosophy degree: Why? How? When?

自从我拿到博士学位
Since I’ve got my PhD degree,
我的朋友和同事问过我很多次
I was asked many times
关于博士学位的问题
by friends and colleagues about the PhD
所以我决定做一个关于这个主题的短片
So I decided to make a short clip,
或者一系列的视频
or maybe a series of videos, about this subject.
在这个视频中 我会试着回答一些
I will try in this video to answer the basic questions
关于博士学位的基本问题
about the PhD degree.
所以我将试着回答这七个问题
So I will try to answer these seven questions:
1-为什么要读博士?
1- Why to take a PhD?
2-什么是博士学位?
2- What does a PhD mean?
3-如何获得博士学位?
3- How to get a PhD degree?
4-你什么时候可以申请 什么时候可以完成?
4- When can you apply and when can you finish?
5-在哪里申请?
5- Where to apply?
6-需要多少时间?
6- How much time will it take?
最后 它要花多少钱?
And finally, how much does it cost?
现在让我们首先回答
Now let us start with the reasons
你为什么要获得博士学位这个问题
which make you take a PhD degree in the first place.
1-成为一名大学教授
1- To become a university professor.
如果你想成为一名大学教授
If you want to become a college professor,
通常没有博士学位你也能做到
usually you can do it without a PhD degree,
硕士学位就足够了
a master degree is sufficient.
2-被聘为某一特定领域的专家
2- To be employed as an expert in one specific domain.
但通常这仅限于
But usually this is limited to jobs
需要长期搞研究的工作
which require continuous research effort.
3-如果你有想要实现的科学梦想
3- You can start a PhD program also
也可以开始攻读博士学位
if you want to complete a vision of a scientific dream.
例如 你可能有一个伟大的想法
For example, you may have a great idea
想要对它进行准确的研究
and want to make accurate study about it
并注册在你的名字下
and register it under your name.
在这种情况下 你的想法
Your idea, in this case,
应该包括新的科学发现或新发明
should include a new scientific discovery or new invention.
4-为了获得学术界的认可
4- To get recognition in the scientific society
换句话说 就是为了获得这个头衔
or in other words to get the title for its sake.
这可能是许多博士生的情况
This could be the case of many PhD students,
但我不希望你们也这样想
but I hope you are not thinking this way
希望你们有除了我刚才提到的三个原因外更好的理由
and have a better reason from those three reasons I’ve just mentioned.
好 现在我们来看定义
Great! Let’s move now to the definition:
PhD是拉丁单词Philosophiae Doctor
PhD is an abbreviation of the Latin words Philosophiae Doctor
或英语Doctor of Philosophy的缩写
or in English Doctor of Philosophy.
我对博士生的定义如下
My Definition to the person who hold the PhD title is as it follows:
一个科学领域的专家
An expert in one field of science
能够进行科学研究
who can conduct a scientific research
并通过发表几篇成功的研究论文来证明这一点
and proved that by publishing few successful research papers.
此外 博士是在一个科学领域发现新事物
In addition, a PhD is a person who discovered new items,
发展新事物或达到新境界的人
developed something or reached new horizons in one scientific field.
假设
Let’s imagine
这个圆圈代表了我们今天已获取的所有知识
that this circle represents all the knowledge we acquired until this day.
由于科学的发展并不完全平等
Since the developments of the sciences are not perfectly equal,
实际的知识圈呈现出这种不规则的形态
the actual knowledge circle takes this irregular shape;
因为有些科学很发达 有些则不然
because some sciences are very developed and others are not.
现在你的任务是在自己的专业范畴内找到一个不太发达的领域…
Now your mission is to find a less developed area in your domain…
并试着像这样推进
and try to push it up like this.
现在我们来谈谈如何获得博士学位
Now we come to how to get a PhD degree.
要给出一个类似蓝皮书的答案确实非常困难
It is really very difficult to give one blue-print-like answer
因为这在很大程度上取决于大学和国家
because it depends widely on the university and the country.
然而 你可以遵循一条明确的路线
However, you can follow one clear line which is:
完成你想要开始攻读博士学位的
accomplish all the PhD requirements established or imposed
大学所规定的或强制提出的所有学位要求
by the university you want to start the PhD studies in.
幸运的是 全世界的大学都有一些共同的要求
Fortunately, there are some common requirements worldwide.
我在这里提到了获得博士学位
And here I mention the minimum required achievements
所需要的最低成就
in order to get a PhD:
1-发表至少两篇分类为ISI的研究论文
1- Publish at least two research papers classified as ISI.
也许我会在以后的视频中解释这项该如何完成
Maybe I will explain in future videos how this can be done;
2-至少参加
2- Participate, at least,
两次国家或国际科学会议
at two national or international scientific conferences.
3-撰写论文进展报告
3- Make reports about the progress of the proposed thesis.
4-撰写毕业论文或论文
4- Write your final dissertation or thesis;
最后 捍卫你的作品 捍卫你的最终论文
Finally, defend your work, defend your final thesis.
我想我需要几个小时来解释
I think I need hours just to explain the basics
如何获得博士学位的基本知识
of how to get a PhD.
所以如果你对这一点有任何疑问 可以留下评论
So you can leave a comment if you have any question about this point.
好 现在我们来回答“什么时候”的问题
OK, now let’s answer the “when” question.
理想情况下 你可以在获得硕士学位后开始你的博士课程
You ideally can start your PhD program after getting the master degree.
然而 有些大学允许你
However, some universities accept to let you
在本科毕业后直接攻读博士学位
start your PhD program directly after the bachelor degree.
所以你当然需要学士学位
So you need to have a bachelor degree for sure,
但是你是否需要硕士学位
but whether you need a master degree or not,
这取决于你就读的大学
it depends on the university.
没有年龄限制
There is no maximum limit of age,
但最好在30岁之前开始
but it’s preferred to start before 30 year-old.
如果你想获得奖学金或赞助
If you are thinking to get a scholarship or sponsorship
你需要尽早开始
you need to start as young as possible
因为这样你会有更多机会
because this will increase your chances.
此外 你必须在硕士学位的最后一年
In addition, you have to start looking for a scholarship
即2月至3月之前开始申请奖学金
in the last year of your master, before February-March;
因为申请截止日期通常在6月份
because there is a deadline for application, usually in June.
现在让我们来看看哪里可以拿到你的博士学位
Let’s see now where to get your PhD degree.
正如我之前所说的 首先
As I said earlier, first,
我强烈建议你去申请奖学金
I highly recommend to search for a scholarship.
我的建议是
My advice is to look
寻找你专业领域内最好的大学
for the best universities in your domain
这些大学都位于
which are located in the countries where you
你可以完成论文实践部分的国家
can perform the practical part of your thesis.
别忘了一定要找到合适的导师
And do not forget to make sure you find the right scientific supervisor.
最后一点提示 要将这个国家的语言考虑在内
And one last note here, take into account the language of the country.
获得博士学位至少需要3年时间
To get a PhD degree, it takes you minimum 3 years.
通常不会设置最长时限
Usually there are no maximum time limits,
除非你有奖学金
unless you have a scholarship.
一般人要花5年时间才能拿到博士学位
The average person spends five years to get his PhD degree,
但这也取决于国家
but it also depends on the country.
例如 统计数据显示
For example, the statistics show
在美国和英国获得博士学位的平均时间
that the average period to get a PhD degree
大约为8年
in the United States and the United Kingdom is about 8 years.
简而言之
In short, you will get your PhD degree
当你达到国家和学校的要求时 你就能获得博士学位
when you accomplish the requirements imposed by the country and the university.
那么成本呢?
Now what about the cost?
博士项目通常由大学资助
PhD programs are usually supported financially by the university
这意味着在大多数情况下
which means that in most
你可以获得奖学金或实习
of the cases you can get a scholarship or internship.
在一些国家 你不接受任何财政援助
In some countries you will not receive any financial aid,
但也不用花钱纳税 这就是人们说的免税项目
but neither will you pay, in so called program tax-free.
不幸的是 在某些特殊情况下
Unfortunately, in some special cases you have
你别无选择 只能缴纳巨额税款
no option but to pay huge taxes.
就讲这么多
That’s all.
我希望我能尽可能清楚地回答这些问题
I hope I could answer these questions as clear as possible
我希望你们喜欢这个视频
and I hope you enjoyed the video.
如果你有任何问题 请在下方留言
If you have any question, please leave a comment below.
当然你可以尽情分享这个视频
And of course you can share this video as much as you like.
谢谢观看
Thank you for watching!

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视频概述

想取得博士学位需要了解的7个问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

GreenT

审核员

审核员_LL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dgaAuxXQ6Y

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