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教育研究 | 互评互助:建立一种评论文化

Peer Critique: Creating a Culture of Revision

学生: 等会我应该清除这些吗?
>>Student: Wait should I clear out this?
Jodi: 我将你们颂赞诗的每一行编上了号
>>Jodi: I numbered the lines in your tribute poems.
Jodi: 以便有人给你们反馈意见时,他们将直接指定行号
When somebody is giving you feedback, they can name the specific line number.
学生: 我喜欢第一节 因为它有强烈的修辞语言
>>Student: I like stanza one, because it has really strong figurative language.
Jessica: 我们的学生参与到了评判教学当中
>>Jessica: Because our students participate in critique protocol,
Jessica: 而这令他们有机会真正明白质量意味着什么
they have the opportunity to really understand what quality looks like,
Jessica: 令他们明确他们自身对于高质量的追求
and to define for themselves their expectations for achieving it.
Elaine: 早在幼儿园开始 这种校订文化
>>Elaine: Starting as early as preschool, the culture of revision
Elaine: 和共同学习的文化 最终将会
and of learning together is better, is what sets up students
Elaine: 使学生们非常适应接受和给予
to be very proficient in their ability to receive critical feedback
Elaine: 批评性的反馈
and to give critical feedback.
Anne: 我有一些你们朋友的作业
>>Anne: I have a couple of your friends’ work.
Sylvia: 今天在课堂上我们互查了我们的作业
>>Sylvia: Today in class we looked at our work
Sylvia: 看看我们是不是能够改正一些错误
to see if we could fix anything.
Anne: 当我们对朋友的作业进行评判并帮助他们更好地
>>What are our rules when we are critiquing
Anne: 完成作业的时候 我们的规则是什么?
and making our friends’ work better.
Anne: 请讲
学生: 不要让别人认为你是讨厌他们的作品
>>Don’t feel like, “I hate your work.”
Anne: 非常棒
>>Very good.
Anne: 我们应该总是…?
We should always be…?
学生: 友好
Anne: 是的
Jessica: 评判的规则: 友好,具体, 有帮助
>>Jessica: The rules of critique, be kind, be specific and be helpful,
Jessica: 适用于于所有我们评判的工作
apply to all of the work we do with critique.
Anne: 首先我们将要看看杰西卡的作业
>>Anne: First we’re going to look at Jessica’s work.
Anne: 我们评判一个学生的作业
>>We looked at one student’s work.
Anne: 任务本身是用有度量的描述来描绘
The task itself was to use measurement descriptions to order a number
Anne: 一系列的动物,比如昆虫和蛛类节肢动物
of animals, like insects and arachnids.
Anne: 所以她认为它有玫瑰蜘蛛一半重
>>So she read that it was half the weight of the rose haired tarantula.
Anne: 我们一起看了她的作业并且讨论了它 哇 这作业真的是很厉害!
>>We looked at her work and we talked about, wow, how is this really strong?
Anne: 杰西卡做了什么?
>>What did Jessica do?
学生: 她画了画还给他们标上了标签
>>Student: She drew pictures and she labeled them.
Anne: 真有趣
>>Anne: Interesting.
学生: 你可以从中学到很多
>>Jonas: You can learn more about it
学生: 同时你也在教其他人你所学的
and you’re teaching others about what you learned.
Anne: 她可以怎样做令她的作业表述得更清楚?
>>Anne: What could she do to make that even clearer?
Anne: 我考虑的“评判”的方向是 它的输入和输出
>>The way that I think about a critique is, it’s back and forth.
Anne: 我会给你一些关于如何使你的作业更加清楚的意见
I’m going to give you some feedback on how you can make your work more clear,
Anne: 当然我也从你那里得到了一些好的想法
but I’m also getting really good ideas from you.
学生: 她可以……
>>Student: She could put…
Anne: 是……
>>Anne: Things that are…
学生: 在开头写上“更轻” 并将她必须写的
>>Student: Lighter and the top, and write the things
学生: 东西写在那里
that she needed to write up there.
Anne: 这向孩子们展现了 无论如何
>>Anne: It shows them that, no matter what,
Anne: 我们都应该从每一次作业中学习到什么
people should learn from their work.
Anne: 你可以在他人的作业中学习到东西
You can learn from other people’s work
Anne: 而且这些作业常常是有被完成地更好地潜力的
and there’s always the potential to make it even better.
Anne: 有度量的单词是什么?
>>And what are the measurement words?
学生: 更轻和更重
>>Students: Lighter and heavier.
Jessica: 我认为有很多评判的方法
>>Jessica: I think there are a number of ways that you could approach critique.
Jessica: 其中一个就是展示高质量的作品 让孩子们观察它
One is to use a high quality piece of work and have kids observe it
Jessica: 评论它
and make comments about it.
Jessica: 以及相互评判
And then there’s peer to peer critique.
学生: 我觉得我们需要在这里增加多一点的韵法
>>Student: I feel like we need to add a little bit more rhyming scheme to it.
Marcus: 自从我第一次年来到学校(Two Rivers)我就开始做评判工作
>>Marcus: I’ve been doing critiques since my first year at Two Rivers.
Marcus: 七年级的时候 你已经能够进行更深层次地评判了
In seventh grade, you’re on a deeper level of critiquing.
Marcus: 你的评论会更具体
You’re like, more specific.
Jodi: 马库斯,我们今天在做什么?
>>Jodi: Marcus, what are we doing today?
Marcus: 我可以通过给予和接收反馈
>>Marcus: I can give and receive feedback
Marcus: 来提高我同学和我的小组的赞颂水平
to improve my peers’ tribute and my group’s tribute.
Jodi: 好吧 让我们想想这个引导问题:这个诗歌使如何展现
>>Jodi: Okay, so think about the guiding question of, how can this poem show
Jodi: 和描述而不仅仅是告诉(读者的)?
and describe rather than just tell?
Jodi: 有一个非常详细的 具体的评论结构真的确保了
>>Having a very detailed, concrete structure really makes sure
Jodi: 孩子们投入到作业中并分析它
that students sit with the work and analyze it.
Wynne: 所以我的赞颂诗讲述的是奴隶制下的真实故事
>>Wynne: So my tribute poem is on the real story of slavery.
Wynne: 我的诗已经修订了两次
My poem’s in draft three.
Wynne: 我们现在正在评判它们 以便进行第三次修订 然后最终
We’re getting critique right now so we can move onto draft four and eventually,
Wynne: 我相信 第四次修订后将是我们最终的成果
I believe, draft five will be our final product.
学生: 我还在思考这首诗的通篇 你应该给出
>>Student: I still think throughout the poem, you should give like,
学生: 更多的细节 比如 她是谁 因为……
more detail about like, who she was, because–
Marcus: 我知道通过这样一个费力的工作
>>Marcus: I know that by the hard work,
Marcus: 我最终会得到一个高质量的作品
I’ll end up with a really high quality piece,
Marcus: 因为我的朋友在这里帮助我
because my friends are here to help me.
学生: 我们需要一个更强烈的结尾
>>Student: We need to make a stronger ending.
Jessica: 你让他们做大量的评论工作
>>Jessica: You’re asking them to do a lot more work.
Jessica: 你让他们不断思考 本质上来说 你使在改变他们关于
You’re asking them to keep thinking, and you’re basically changing the idea
Jessica: 什么才是“完成一件事”的观念
of what it means to be done with something.
学生: 增加连贯性
>>Student: It adds flow.
学生: 好的
>>Student: Okay.
Elaine: 我们的学生在学校(Two Rivers)非常努力 以确保
>>Elaine: Our students work very hard here at Two Rivers to ensure
Elaine: 他们的作品都在点上 用最好的方式传递他们的想法
that their craftsmanship is really on point, to best convey their ideas.
Elaine: 他们参与评论的能力也正在变得越来越好
And their ability to participate in critique just gets better and better.
Jodi: 看 你刚刚提了一个很好的建议
>>Jodi: See, you just came up with a great suggestion.