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数字时代如何能集中注意力

Paying Attention in the Digital Age

[引入音乐] [打字声]
[intro music] [typing noises]
[火箭爆破声]
[rocket blasting-off sound]
有时候最简单的问题却有最让人惊讶的答案
Sometimes the simplest questions have the most amazing answers.
如果奖励你,很好
And if that rewarded you, great-
[许多人同时说话]
[bunch of people talking at once]
我们上网的时候,很容易感觉到被各种声音淹没,就像在一个非常有趣的鸡尾酒会
When we go online, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed. It’s like a really fun cocktail party, only
每个人都同时试图同时引起你的注意
everyone’s trying to get your attention at the same time.
在充满干扰的世界里,我们如何才能知道注意什么?
In a world full of distractions, how do we figure out what to pay attention to?
我知道我不是唯一一个有时会有这样感觉的人。
I know I’m not the only one who sometimes feels like-
[人们喊叫声][爆炸响声]
[people yelling] [explosion noise]
我意思是,你一定想知道,我们的大脑真的准备好处理所有的这些东西?
I mean, you have to wonder, are our brains really ready to deal with… all of… this?!
Sherry Turkle说到,无论在任何时候,独自或者相聚,这些小盒子总能创造一个新世界
Sherry Turkle says that these little boxes have created a world where we are alone, together.
人们总是一直在上网,开车时,走路时发信息
People are wired ALL the time, texting while they’re driving, or walking, while they
你是否注意到之前的那个大猩猩?额……
Internet. Did you notice the gorilla earlier? Well…
不止一个,你可能是看过这个视频的8百万人中的一个,
there wasn’t one, but you might be one of the 8 million people who watched THIS video,
这个著名的实验表明我们的注意力是有选择性的。
the famous experiment showing that our attention is selective.
当我们的大脑忙于关注某个特定事物,比如一个弹力球,他们就会漏掉
While our minds are busy focusing on one specific thing like a bouncing ball, they can miss
某些很明显的东西,比如一个身着大猩猩套装在晃悠的人。
something as obvious as a person strolling by in a gorilla suit.
而且我们会完全忽视我们没留意到的东西,但并不会那么快!
And we can be completely blind to what we aren’t paying attention to, but not so fast!
选择性注意同样是一件很好的事!我是说,想想看。当你集中
Selective attention can be a very good thing too! I mean, think about it. When you focus
你的注意力现在在我身上,隔壁的狗依旧在汪汪叫,交通拥挤也没有
your attention on me right now, that barking dog next door and the traffic outside doesn’t
停止,你只是不再注意它们。想象一下,如果你不能过滤掉海啸
go away, you just stop noticing them. Imagine if you couldn’t filter out the tsunami
的信息,你的五感每天每时每刻都接受到猛烈的信息轰炸。你会失去你的
of information, assaulting your five senses every minute of every day. You’d lose your
思想的!而现在,就在两耳之间,你拥有
MIND! Right here, between your ears, you possess
世界上最牛逼的信息加工装置。它加上神经也才仅仅3磅
the world’s most powerful information processing device. It’s three pounds of brilliantly
你的大脑可以表演一些小魔术
evolved neurons. Your brain is able to perform small miracles
比如算数,拉小提琴或者做手术
like calculus, playing the violin, or performing surgery on itself!
我们只用了大脑的10%的观点是错误的。我们使用了100%!只是
The idea that we only use 10% of our brains is just… wrong. We use a 100%! It’s just
我们没有意识到我们的大脑实际在做什么!就像过滤掉所有
that we aren’t aware of all that our brains are actually doing! Like filtering out all
自身之外的信息一样!我让一些朋友帮我展示给你
of life’s extra information! I asked a couple of friends to help me show you just how good
你的大脑正在做这些不需要思考的思考
your brain is at doing all that thinking without thinking.
如果你看着屏幕中间
[Hank and Mike talking at once] If you were looking at the center of the screen,
你可能不知道你刚刚看到了什么。这是大脑的一个小花招
you probably don’t have any idea what you just watched. This is a little brain trick
叫做鸡尾酒会效应。在酒会中你知道你能集中于
called the cocktail party effect. At a party, you know how you can zoom in on
十几个对话中的一个吗?这证明了你只是知道要看哪儿。
one conversation in the midst of dozens? It turns out you just have to know where to look.
再试一次,这次,眼睛盯着他们中的一个
Try it again, only this time, keep your eyes on just ONE of them.
[和汉克、麦克一起闲聊]
[Chatter starts up with Hank and Mike]
我赌这次会好一点。好吧,倒回去
I’m betting it worked a little better that time. Well, feel free to rewind and try it
再试一次;我在这等着
again; I’ll just wait right here.
[蜥蟀鸣叫的声音]
[cricket chirping noises]
现在,如果我们你看到你的脑内活动,当你的注意力在汉克和
Now, if we could see the activity inside your brain while you pay attention to Hank and
迈克身上时,你大脑中参与听觉过程的区域会响起两个声音
Mike, regions of your brain involved in hearing would be responding to both voices, but the
但你大脑的语言编码区只能回应其中一个
parts of your brain that decode language would only be responding to ONE.
我们的大脑是进化过程中的真正的奇迹。当提到集中精力在重要的事上时
Our brains are true wonders of evolution. When it comes to focusing on what’s important,
我们的外耳,这个形状有趣的东西,其实形成了一种
our outer ear, this funny shaped thing, is actually shaped in a way that amplifies the
放大人类说话频率的方式!它帮助我们的大脑提取出重要的东西
frequencies of human speech! It helps our brains pluck out what’s important.
你知道吗?甚至在这个信息过载的时代,我觉得我们的大脑也证明了它
You know what? Even in this age of information overload, I think our brain has proven itself
相当给力,当涉及到选择听什么和忽略什么时,
to be pretty freakin’ awesome when it comes to choosing what to listen to, AND what to
我的意思是,现在越来越多的人
ignore. I mean, more and more people today are being
被诊断有注意力障碍,因为他们不能长时间专注于
diagnosed with attention disorders because they have less than perfect ability to focus
一个任务,但这是数字世界,专注不一定
on one task for long periods of time, but this is the digital future, and focused doesn’t
与效率相等,我是说,现今的工作者平均每3分钟改变一次任务
necessarily equate to efficiency. I mean, today’s average worker changes tasks every
这就是为什么Howard Rheingold把注意力称为
three minutes! This is why Howard Rheingold calls attention
我们的新基本的认知能力。我们的注意力时间有一定限制,但他们也有
our new fundamental literacy. Our attention spans have certain limits, but they also have
大量潜力!如果一些人被标记
so much potential! What if some of the people were labeling with
为注意力混乱怎么办?真的有不同的策略来解决这些信息吗?
attention disorders, really just have different strategies for dealing with all this information?
他们也许以新的方式去注意事物!是的,有事我们被注意力蒙骗
They might be paying attention in new ways! Sure, sometimes we can be blinded by our attention,
但还有时候,集中和过滤注意力的能力是我们的好朋友。
but other times, the ability to focus and filter can be our best friend.
事情是,我们的大脑不是设置在石头里的,而且就像
Here’s the thing. Our brains are not set in stone, and like
我们不适应的技术一样,我们会继续改进,我们的思想仍有
the technology that we’re adapting to, we will continue to evolve. Our minds still have
存储的把戏,因为毕竟这是大脑最擅长的。
some tricks in store for us because, above all, that’s what our brain is best at.
适应。这也是为什么你不该对
Adapting. Which is also why you shouldn’t feel bad
订阅和观看我们的视频感觉不好。
about subscribing and watching all of our videos.
谢谢观看!下次见!
Thanks a lot for watching, and we’ll see you next time.

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