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第4部分:多巴胺:成瘾分子 | 大脑关于色情的部分 – 译学馆
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第4部分:多巴胺:成瘾分子 | 大脑关于色情的部分

Part 4: Dopamine: The Molecule of Addiction | Your Brain on Porn | Animated Series

Here’s the normal pattern of dopamine release.
这是多巴胺释放的常规模型
It looks something like a roller coaster
它看起来像是过山车
because in biology ‘what goes up must come down’.
这是因为在生物学中有升必有降
It could be food, sex, even water when you’re thirsty.
它可以是食物 性 甚至是口渴时想喝的水
So let’s say, you’re starting to get hungry,
比方说当你感到饥饿时
dopamine starts rising
多巴胺水平开始上升
and then you think about a burger and it rises more.
接着你想到汉堡 它会上升得更快
When the burger is sizzling,
当汉堡发出咝咝声时
dopamine is going away up it.
多巴胺水平持续上升
It peaks right about your first bite,
吃第一口时多巴胺水平达到峰值
then you take some more bites and it starts to drop off,
但等你再吃几口 它就开始下降
and finally drops back down to normal levels and you’re full.
直到最后它会回归正常水平 这时你感到吃饱了
This graph could also represent masturbating or having sex
这个曲线图也可以演示自慰或做爱时的快感变化
and the peak would be right about the orgasm.
图中的多巴胺水平在性高潮时达到峰值
However I really want to point out
但我真的想要指出
that the experience of orgasm is probably driven by other neuro chemicals,
性高潮体验可能由其他神经化学物质引起
called opiate, not dopamine.
被称之为阿片剂的物质 而不是多巴胺
So dopamine drives you toward orgasm,
多巴胺引起性高潮
but the feeling of orgasm arrives from something else.
但性高潮的快感来自其他物质
The rise of dopamine levels
多巴胺水平的升降
could also represent anything new or novel.
也体现在所有新颖的事物上
Because dopamine loves novelty:
因为多巴胺喜爱新事物:
a new car, a just released movie, the latest gadget.
像新车 刚上映的电影和最新出的小玩意
We’re all hooked on dopamine,
我们都对多巴胺着迷
you can have a spike of dopamine just by ordering dessert,
下单甜点就可以让你的多巴胺飙升
even though you haven’t finished what’s on your plate.
即便你还没吃完盘子里的东西
Dessert is something new.
甜点是新端上来的食物
In fact, dopamine surging in your reward circuitry
实际上 奖励回路中多巴胺的激增
can override your feelings of what’s called satiety or fullness,
会盖过你的满足感和饱腹感
regardless of what your rational brain may be thinking about
不管你理性的大脑如何看待
overeating or even watching porn.
进食过量或甚至是观看色情作品
As with everything new,
就所有新事物而言
the thrill fades as dopamine levels drop.
兴奋感都会随着多巴胺水平的下降而退却
Now back to the Coolidge effect.
让我们回到柯立芝效应
So, dopamine is what is behind the Coolidge effect.
多巴胺是柯立芝效应的潜在影响因素
If you look at our little graph here,
再用小图表来看看
we have female rat number one and female rat number two,
图表中我们标有雌鼠一号和雌鼠二号
and dopamine level.
以及多巴胺水平
What’s happening is
图中变化的曲线表明
that the reward circuitry of the male squirting less and less dopamine
雄鼠每次与雌鼠一号交配
in each copulation with female number one,
奖励回路中分泌的多巴胺越来越少
and then eventually the male can no longer copulate. Because there’s not enough dopamine,
最后雄鼠无法继续交配 因为没有足够的多巴胺
dopamine is behind libido.
多巴胺是性欲背后的影响因素
Then you drop in female rat number two,
接着放入雌鼠二号
and the male gets another squirt of dopamine that surges his libido,
雄鼠会重新开始分泌多巴胺 激起性欲
and he goes back to work.
它能继续交配了
This’s what’s behind the Coolidge effect.
这就是柯立芝效应背后的原理
And it’s also why you click on two new videos
这也是为何当你观看色情片时
while you’re watching porn,
会连点两个新视频
to get another big squirt of dopamine with something novel.
通过新的东西来刺激分泌大量多巴胺
Okay, let’s give another nickname to dopamine,
好 让我们给多巴胺另起一个昵称
let’s call it the ‘molecule of addiction’.
让我们称之为“成瘾分子”
It’s because changes in your brain that lead to addiction
这是因为导致成瘾的大脑变化
caused by changes in dopamine level.
是由多巴胺水平变化引起的
Cocaine, alcohol, nicotine,
可卡因 酒精 尼古丁
they all feel different,
虽然给人的感受不同
but all of them flood the reward circuitry with dopamine.
但它们都让奖励回路充盈多巴胺
All addictive chemicals and activities raise dopamine levels,
所有成瘾的化学物质和活动都会提升多巴胺水平
it’s what makes them potentially addictive.
这是它们使人成瘾的潜在因素
Of course, you need continued use of the addictive substance or activity
当然 你需要持续使用成瘾物质或进行成瘾活动
to cause physical changes that lead to addiction.
才会引发身体上的成瘾变化
Here’s an odd thing, we’ve mentioned it before,
奇怪的是 我们之前提到过
dopamine is released in response to expectations
多巴胺的释放是对期望的反应
rather than actual levels of pleasure.
而不是实际的快感水平
It’s the drive to get it,
它是达成目标的动力
it’s the craving.
是渴望
But as I’ve mentioned,
但正如我提过的
the actual pleasure of heating orgasm is probably opioids,
真正给性高潮带来快感的可能是阿片类物质
those are morphine like chemicals being released in the brain.
它们是在大脑内分泌的类似吗啡的化学物质
Dopamine is wanting it, opiates are liking it.
多巴胺代表欲望 阿片类物质代表喜欢
Addictions are basically chasing after dopamine,
成瘾实际上就是对多巴胺的追逐
so what happens is addiction is wanting more but liking it less.
成瘾就是欲望越来越重但喜爱值越来越低
Speaking of wanting and the power of the reward circuitry,
说到欲望和奖励回路的支配力
here’s an experiment.
这儿有一个实验
We have a rat and you can see there’s a wire,
我们有一只老鼠 一根电线
and then there’s this electrode,
还有一个电极
that’s actually going to the reward circuitry of the rat,
实际上这是给老鼠的奖励回路
and the rat has its little paw on a lever,
老鼠把小爪子放在控制杆上
and whenever it hits that lever,
每当它碰撞控制杆
it sends just enough electricity to the reward circuitry to stimulate it.
奖励回路就会发出恰当的电流来刺激它
Now, what will happen is this rat will just keep hitting the lever
接下来 这只老鼠会不断地触碰控制杆
and hitting the lever thousands of times an hour until it drops.
一小时触碰达数千次 直到控制杆掉下来才罢休
It won’t stop to eat, sleep, have sex
它不会停下来去进食 睡觉 交配
or even take care of the pups.
甚至不会理会它的幼崽
It’ll give up everything just to press that lever.
它放弃一切只为按下那个控制杆
As we know, this behavior is not unlike some serious drug addicts.
正如我们所知 这种行为和一些严重的吸毒者一样
Here’s another experiment.
这还有另一个实验
They take the same rat
还是那只老鼠
and they have an electric grid between the lever and the rat,
这次他们在杠杆和老鼠之间放了电网
so the rat has to feel painful shock in its little paws
在老鼠走到控制杆那儿并按下杆之前
to go over to the lever and press it.
它的小爪子会感到电击带来的痛苦
Well, the rat actually cross the grid and injure the shocked,
好吧 老鼠竟然会穿过电网并受到电击
but if you take the rat and put an electric grid between them and food,
但如果在老鼠和食物之间放一张电网
they will not cross the electric grid.
它们则不会穿过电网
They will not undergo shocks to eat food,
它们不会为了进食而忍受电击
they would rather starve.
它们宁愿挨饿
Here’s more experiment to show the power of dopamine in your reward circuitry.
还有更多证明多巴胺支配奖励回路的实验
If you take rats and block their dopamine,
如果阻断老鼠的多巴胺分泌
they have absolutely no motivation, not even eat.
它们会完全丧失动力 甚至不想进食
They won’t walk over to the food dish
它们不会窜到食物盘子上
and they’ll starve to death.
它们会饿死
But they still like food,
但它们仍然喜欢食物
if you drop food into their mouths,
若把食物放进它们嘴里
they eat it and show little rats smiles.
它们会吃并露出小老鼠的微笑
They just have no motivation to go get it.
它们只是没有动力去获取食物
They lie around,
它们懒懒散散
they won’t have sex either.
而且都不交配
The male rats show no signs of libido.
雄鼠也没有任何性欲
The key point is
关键的是
you need the right level of dopamine to function normally.
你需要有适量的多巴胺才能正常运转
It has lots of important jobs,
面对大量重要工作时
dopamine gives you that positive outlook,
是多巴胺使你积极
good attitude,
保持好心态
keeps you motivated,
保持动力
keeps you happy.
保持快乐的心态
Incidentally, many psychological problems involved dopamine imbalances, including addictions.
另外 许多心理疾病都与多巴胺失衡有关 包括上瘾
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Let’s make Medical Education Universal,
让我们一起助力
Free, State of the Art and Available to every human being
普及免费先进的医疗教育给每个人
to enable the best medical facilities for everyone.
让每个人都能接触到最好的医疗知识

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视频概述

适量多巴胺是人们正常工作所需,如果没有多巴胺我们就会失去做任何事的动力,但过量的多巴胺则会导致成瘾。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Shirley

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdiMFQk_aW8

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