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平行宇宙:更多的世界 – 译学馆
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平行宇宙:更多的世界

Parallel Universes: Many Worlds

物理中最大的秘密之一就是我们仍然没有从根本上明白
One of the biggest secrets of physics is that we still don’t fundamentally understand what
当最小的事物和最大的事物反应时到底会发生什么 这就是
happens when the smallest things interact with big things – that is, when quantum mechanics
量子力学和我们日常生活的碰撞
meets our everyday world.
你可能听说过一个叫“薛定谔的猫”的实验
You’ve probably heard of the “Schrodinger’s Cat” experiment where a particle (in this
这个实验是一颗粒子(这里指的是一只猫)在两种状态下立刻重合(生与死)直到
case a cat) is in a superposition of two states (both dead and alive) at once, until it interacts
它与外面的世界相反应 通常我们放一个光子进去看接下来会发生什么
with the outside world – normally a photon of light that we send in to see what’s going
(但它也可以是没有跟我们有反应的任意的粒子)
on (but it could also just be a random particle that has nothing to do with us).
这只猫通过与外界接触 我们可以一眼看到它的状态是死还是活
Upon interaction with the outside world, the cat is observed as being either dead, or alive,
但死生不能共存
but not both.
那么问题来了 物理学家无法解释猫或粒子是怎样
The problem is, physics can’t explain how the cat, or particle, goes from being in a
在一瞬间从生死两种状态变为“这一种”或者“另一种”
combination of two states at once to being in “just one”, or “just the other”; nor do
我们也都不知道这个“决定”是怎样来完成的
we know how the “decision” is made.
这不仅仅时一个关于猫的问题 它困扰着每一个著名的或者非著名的量子力学实验
This isn’t just a problem with cats, either – it plagues every single quantum mechanics
从双缝实验和量子传送
experiment, famous or otherwise, from the double slit experiment and quantum teleportation
到施特恩 格拉赫实验和贝尔不平等式
to the Stern-Gerlach experiment and tests of the Bell inequalities.
在每一个实验中 我们都可以推断量子是怎样成为一种状态或者另一种状态
In every case, we can predict how likely it is for a particle to be in one state or another,
但是它是怎样最终形成的我们还没有头绪
but have no clue how it actually ends up that way.
这就是量子力学的多重世界图景 从根本上来说
That’s where the many-worlds picture of quantum mechanics comes in – basically, “many-worlds”
这种多重图景证明量子系统还没有真正确立下来 当然啦
proposes the idea that the quantum system doesn’t actually decide – rather, at every
在每一个地方都有大量的日常物质和量子系统相互作用
junction where large everyday stuff interacts with a quantum system, the timeline of history
历史的时间轴是分裂的 在两种可能性都都发生在不同的分支上
splits and both possibilities happen on different, alternate branches.
你知道的 每一个可能发生的故事都是你自己选择的冒险
You know, a choose-your-own-adventure where every possible story happens.
在这种情况下 我们认为只有一种可能性会发生
In this scenario, we’d think that only one possibility happened because we’d be stuck
因为我们被困在其中一种分支下了 在我们自己的眼里只能看到一种可能性的发生
on one of the branches, in a version of ourselves that only sees one possibility happen.
从某种程度上来说 这听起来很可疑 我的意思是 我们很难对宇宙进行真实性测验
In some ways, this sounds pretty fishy – I mean, it’s hard to test the reality of a universe
因为它隐藏着 不允许我们去测试或观察它最真实的本质
that hides its true nature from us by not allowing us to test or observe its true nature.
但是不论怎么样 在量子力学的多重世界图景中
But anyway, in the many-worlds picture of quantum mechanics, “branch-points” are predicted
分支点被预测会在每时每地发生
to happen all the time, everywhere.
几乎大部分时候 亚原子粒子都相互作用或者和其他的事物发生反应
Pretty much any time subatomic particles interact with each other, or with anything else, anywhere
在宇宙中有各种可能的结果发生
in the universe, there are multiple possible outcomes.
这就意味着历史有很多分支
Which means a LOT of branching of history.
甚至可能有无限多的分支
There may even be infinitely many branches.
所以说多重世界的假设是正确的吗?
So is the Many Worlds hypothesis true?
我们也无从得知 毕竟现在还没有实验来验证过
We don’t know – it hasn’t yet been tested experimentally.
不过有一些数学运算来支撑这个假设
There’s a bit of mathematics that supports it, and there are also a number of mathematical
还有许多的数学模型不需要这样一个挥霍无度地大而复杂的宇宙图像
models that don’t require such an extravagantly big & complex picture of the universe.
但幸运的是 物理是科学而不是投机活动 最终总有一个人
But luckily, physics is science, not speculation, and eventually, someone, maybe even you, will
可能那个人是你 将进行一次试验来帮助我们
perform an experiment that helps us
发现真理
discover the truth.

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视频概述

量子力学 薛定谔的猫 多重世界图景等你来探索!!!!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNwKPfOKipk

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