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兔狲:原版的暴躁猫 – 译学馆
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兔狲:原版的暴躁猫

Pallas’s Cat: The Original Grumpy Cat

本期节目由共享技能赞助播出
This episode was brought to you by Skillshare.
兔狲也许看起来像可爱而慵懒的家猫
Pallas’s cats may look like cute, lazy house cats,
但别被牠们的外表欺骗了
but don’t let that fool you,
牠们在世界上最难生存的地方之一
they’ve made home to one of the most difficult places to live
—喜马拉雅山安家
in the world – the Himalayas.
[音乐]
[MUSIC]
动物逻辑由Danielle Dufault主持 插画
ANIMALOGIChosted and illustrated by Danielle Dufault
嗨 我是Danielle 而你正在收看动物逻辑
Hi, I’m Danielle, and you’re watching Animalogic.
兔狲 或洋猞猁
Pallas’s cats, or manul,
是欧亚大草原上的
are a species of small cat
一种小型猫科动物
found in the Eurasian steppes,
牠们散布于蒙古沙漠
living everywhere from the Mongolian deserts,
与喜马拉雅山之间
to the Himalayas.
牠们是兔狲属之中
They are the only living members
硕果仅存的成员
of the Otocolobus genus,
而现存与牠们血缘最接近的是豹猫
and their closest living relatives are leopard cats
他们最后的共同祖先
with their last common ancestor
生活在将近600万年前
living just under 6 million years ago.
大家最常问关于兔狲的问题—
A common question asked about Pallas’s cats is –
我可以养一只么?
can I own one?
答案是
The answer is,
一如既往地 不可以!
as always, no!
虽然兔狲长得挺像家猫
And while Pallas’s cats may resemble domestic cats,
他们最后的共同祖先
their last common ancestor
生活于620万年前
lived 6.2 million years ago.
牠们以第一位正式描述牠们的
They get their name from the German naturalist
德国自然学家
who first formally described them –
彼得·西蒙·帕拉斯命名
Peter Simon Pallas.
不过他们的学名Otocolobusmanul的
Though their scientific name Otocolobusmanul
含义更有趣
has a much more interesting meaning.
Otocolobus的意思是拥有丑耳朵的
Otocolobus means, ugly eared,
我实在无法完全认同这个评价
an assessment that I can’t say I entirety agree with.
牠们那些所谓的“丑耳朵”
Their so called “ugly ears”
是有一定用处的—藏匿
do serve a purpose, though – hiding.
不同于其他猫科动物
Unlike most other cats
又大又尖的耳朵
which have big, pointed ears
兔狲的耳朵既短且圆
Pallas’s cats’ ears are short and round.
当你一天之中大部分的时候
This comes in handy when you spend most of your day
都在躲避猎食者和猎物 短圆耳朵
hiding from both predators and prey,
就很实用 因为它不像尖耳朵那般引人注目
as pointy ears would be all too conspicuous.
牠们的毛发
Living in the steppes,
也是专门为了融入大草原而生的
their coats are also designed to blend in.
冬天的时候 他们的毛色偏灰
In the winter, their fur is more gray
而夏天的时候 它会更趋向于橙褐色
and in the summer, it becomes more of an orange brown.
你能找到那只兔狲吗?
Can you find the Pallas’s cat?
噢 牠就在那儿
Oh, it’s right there.
兔狲被誉为
Pallas’s cats have been called
世界上表情最丰富的猫科动物
the most expressive cats in the world.
虽然这个名声某程度上来自于牠们的暴牙
And while part of that reputation may come from their snaggly teeth,
但让牠们的脸显得表情丰富的主要原因
the main reason for their seemingly expressive faces
是另一个与其他小型
is another feature that is different
猫科动物不同的特征—牠们的瞳孔
from other small cats – their pupils.
如果你仔细观察
If you look closely,
你将会发现 与其他小型猫科动物不同
you’ll notice that unlike other species of small cats,
兔狲的瞳孔并不是呈垂直缝隙状的
Pallas’s cats don’t have vertical slits for pupils,
而是像我们一样 呈圆形的
and instead, have round ones, just like us.
这某程度上让牠们看起来更像人类
This gives them somewhat of a more human look
而这也许就是有些网民称牠们
and is probably why people on the internet
为他们的精神动物的原因
call them their spirit animal.
我觉得牠们有时候 算是
I guess they kinda, sometimes,
看起来好像牠们同样不喜欢周一
do look like they also don’t like Mondays.
一定程度上 说他们是
If anything, this makes them
野生的加菲猫也不为过
the Garfield of wild cats.
但兔狲圆瞳孔的存在并不是为了
But Pallas’s cats don’t have round pupils
让流行新闻网站
so that reputable news sites
可以写一篇标题为
can put together a listicles about
《兔狲14次比碧昂丝
The 14 times Pallas’s cats
翻更多白眼》的清单体文章
threw more shades than Beyonce.
兔狲是用它们来猎食的
They have them for hunting.
一般来说 大多数有直瞳孔的猫科动物
Generally speaking, most cats with vertical pupils
都是伏击捕猎者
are ambush hunters.
垂直的瞳孔让猫科动物
With vertical pupils, cats can control
可以控制进入牠们眼睛的光线
the amount of light that enters their eye,
因为牠们的瞳孔可以放大300倍
because they can expand their pupils 300 fold
对比之下 圆瞳孔只能放大约15倍
compared to round pupils which can only expand about 15 fold.
垂直瞳孔能造就极佳的Y轴视野
Vertical pupils provide excellent vision along the y-axis
与非常好的深度知觉—
and very good depth perception –
两个对伏击捕猎者至关重要的东西
two things key to ambush predators.
直瞳孔一般出现在较小的动物身上
They also tend to be found on smaller animals.
家猫的瞳孔是直的
Domestic cats have vertical pupils,
但狮子和老虎的不是
but lions and tigers don’t.
这与光线进入直瞳孔的方式有关
This is due to how light enters the vertical pupil.
当直瞳孔更贴近地面的时候
When vertical pupils are closer to the ground,
牠们的视野模糊程度较低
there’s less blur in their vision,
而捕猎者的视野越清晰
and the sharper the predators’ vision
牠们捕获晚餐的概率就越高
the more likely they are to nab dinner.
但这就奇怪了
But, here’s where it gets weird,
圆瞳孔的猫科动物都是搜寻捕猎者
cats with circular pupils are foragers,
意思是 他们会追逐猎物
meaning they chase their prey.
但兔狲是伏击捕猎者
But Pallas’s cats are ambush hunters,
却没有牠们亲戚的直瞳孔
yet don’t have the vertical slit pupils found on their relatives.
我们不完全确定
We’re not entirely sure
为什么兔狲有圆瞳孔
why Pallas’s cats have round pupils,
但目前最受认可的猜测是
but the leading theory is that,
因为兔狲的领地
since Pallas’s cats’ territory
对比起其他小型猫科动物更多元化
is so much more varied than other small cats,
从沙漠 到平原 到高山
ranging from deserts, to plains, to mountains,
牠们需要靠圆瞳孔来提供 更好的整体视野
they need the better overall vision that round pupils provide
以便在不同的海拔高度找寻猎物
for finding prey at different elevations
同时密切关注牠们的捕食者 例如:老鹰
and for keeping an eye on their predators, like eagles.
兔狲是日捕食者
Pallas’s cats are diurnal predators,
也就是说他们在白天活动
meaning that they are active during the day.
他们主要以捕食啮齿动物为生
When hunting, they feed primarily on rodents,
例如:沙鼠和鼠兔
like gerbils and pikas,
菜单上偶尔也会加入小鸟或年幼的土拨鼠
with occasional small bird or young marmot thrown into the mix.
但牠们最喜欢的猎物还是鼠兔
Their prey of choice though, is the pika.
那是牠们能持续捕捉到最大的动物
They are the largest animal they can consistantly catch
捕捉一只大的猎物
and it’s much more efficient
比捕捉几只小的
to catch one large prey
来得更有效率
than a couple small ones.
兔狲并不擅于奔跑
Pallas’s cats aren’t fantastic runners,
这可能与他们居住的险峻地形有关
perhaps due to the difficult terrain they live in,
牠们更擅于在离开
and are much better at pouncing on prey
牠们的巢穴时突袭猎物
as they exit their dens.
兔狲或许看起来像肥猫
Pallas’s cats may have look like they are fat cats,
但那其实全是毛
but it’s all fluff.
尽管外表看起来大只 牠们其实挺小的
Despite appearances they are quite small,
最大的大约4.5公斤
with the largest weighing around 4.5 kilos,
跟一只常见的家猫差不多
about the weight of an average domestic cat.
牠们蓬松的皮毛让牠们在
Their poofy fur coat is to keep them warm
牠们生活的酷寒天气里能保持温暖
in the extreme temperatures that they live in,
而牠们的毛发
and their fur is actually
其实是世界上所有猫科动物里最厚的
the densest fur of any cat in the world.
由于牠们生活在酷寒的气候里
Due to the extreme temperatures that they live in,
发情期 或是说雌性可受孕的时间
oestrus, or the period in which the female is fertile,
一年里只有让人头皮发麻的一到两天
lasts a mind numbing 1 to 2 days a year.
靠边站吧熊猫
Move over pandas,
新的一个不擅于繁衍的物种粉墨登场了
we have a new worse at reproducing species entering the arena.
兔狲的分布密度非常低
Pallas’s cats live in very low densities
每一百平方公里
with only 4 to 8 cats
只有四到八只兔狲
per hundred square kilometers,
如果搁多伦多这里就是
that would be like if you were here in Toronto,
大概全市就只有
there would only be about 25 to 50 people
大概25到50人
in the entire city.
啊…那样不错啊!
Ahhh… Would be nice!
由于牠们幅员很广
Since their ranges are so huge
而牠们有那么爱独居
and since they are so solitary,
这使牠们要在这么有限的时间里找配偶
it makes it incredibly difficult for them to find a mate
变得难于登天
in this limited time window.
当牠们找到了
If they do,
牠们的妊娠期是10到11周
their gestation period is 10 to 11 weeks.
之后猫妈妈会筑巢
After which, mum would make a den,
并在巢穴里垫上毛 羽毛和树叶
lining it with fur, feathers, and leaves
以在酷寒天气下保护猫宝宝们
to protect the kitties from the extreme temperatures.
猫宝宝们出生时体重只有一百克
The kittens weigh only a hundred grams when born,
而且牠们可能是我见过最可爱的小东西了
and they are quite possibly the cutest things I’ve ever seen.
要找到兔狲很难
Pallas’s cats are very difficult to find,
更别说在野外研究牠们了
let alone study in the wild.
牠们幅员广阔
Their territory is huge,
并且擅于藏匿
they’re very good at hiding,
加之牠们数量稀少
and their numbers are small.
然而 偷猎者依然有办法捕捉到牠们
Yet despite this, poachers still manage to catch them
并把皮毛与内脏作为商品和传统药物出售
and to sell fur and guts for use and traditional medicine.
兔狲几近濒危
Pallas’s cats are near threatened,
而每一年 我们发展到牠们的栖息地
and every year, life gets a little harder
并驱逐了牠们的猎物
as we develop into their habitat
使得生活变得越发艰难
and drive out their prey.
一些温和如畜牧的行为
Something as docile as herding,
对兔狲来说都是个大问题
can be a big problem for Pallas’s cats.
因为牧羊人需要狗
As herders need dogs,
而狗会杀害很多兔狲以及牠们的猎物
which kill a lot of Pallas’s cats and their prey.
这是一个很难解决的难题
It’s a hard problem that’s difficult to solve,
但第一步就是把话放出去
but the first step is getting the word out.
你可能不知道
In case you didn’t know
每一期节目背景里的插画是谁画的
who does all the illustrations in the background of every episode,
是我 白天 我是一名在皇家安大略博物馆的
I do. By day, I’m a scientific illustrator
科学插画师
at the Royal Ontario Museum.
所以如果你路过博物馆 你很有可能
So chances are, that if you stop by,
会看到我的作品
you’ll see some of my art work,
尤其是如果你去参观恐龙区
especially if you go and visit the dinosaurs.
如果你对画动物感兴趣
If you’re interested in getting started drawing animals,
建议你去看看一个在
you should check out “Drawing Animals:
技能共享上 的课程
From Anatomy to Rendering”,
叫“画动物:从剖析到表现”
a course on Skillshare.
一个由专业插画师杰弗利·雅各布斯
A course, taught by professional illustrator Jeffrey Jacobs,
教授的课程 由浅入深地
guides you through the process of
一步步引导你画动物
drawing animals from the ground up.
你会学到所有关于动物
You’ll learn all about animal anatomy
解剖学的知识 从肌肉
from muscles to skeletons,
到骨骼 并把那些知识
and then apply that knowledge
应用于改善你的插画上
to improve your illustrations.
这个课程会教你一些很多动物
The course teaches you about anatomical features
解剖学上共通的特征
that are common in a lot of animals,
这会使你在画任何动物都更得心应手
which will make it easier for you to draw any animal.
共享技能是一个网上学习社区
Skillshare is an online learning community
它网罗了超过两万个课程
with over 20,000 courses
课程涉及各个领域 从插画
in everything, from illustration,
到大自然摄影 到动画 这一切对于
to natural photography, to animation,
一个在运营一个关于
all things super useful
野生动物的油管频道的人来说都很实用
when you’re running a YouTube channel about wildlife.
使用共享技能的高级功能
With Skillshare’s premium feature,
你将可以无限次存取
you’ll get unlimited access
超高质量的课程
to super high quality courses,
以改善你的技能并学习一些新东西
so that you can improve your skills and learn something new.
头一千个透过链接注册的人
And the first thousand people to sign up with the link
将免费获得首两个月的会籍
will get their first 2 months free.
接下来我该查看什么动物呢?
What animal should I check out next?
请在评论区里告诉我
Please let me know in the comments,
并记得要关注
and be sure to subscribe
以观看动物逻辑每隔一周的更新
for new episodes of Animalogic every other week.
感谢收看!
Thanks for watching!
[音乐]
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视频概述

简介兔狲的生活环境、习性、生理特征等

听录译者

天天心旷神怡

翻译译者

天天心旷神怡

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNLtreZkkL0

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