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金星的独特之处 – 译学馆
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金星的独特之处

Our Solar System's Planets: Venus | in 4K Resolution

Hi!I’m Alex McColgan, and you’re watching Astrum.
嗨! 我是艾利克斯·麦考根 你现在观看的是《未知太空》
Now today we are going to be looking at
今天我们将探究一下
the beautiful yet hellish planet of Venus.
这个美丽的地狱之星 金星
We’re going to be delving into
我们将会深入了解
what makes this planet so unique in our solar system,
究竟是什么 让这颗行星在太阳系中如此独特
so get ready to find out everything you could want to know about Venus.
所以 准备去了解你想知道的关于金星的一切吧
Visually, it is a very beautiful and elegant planet.
金星看上去是一颗非常美丽优雅的行星
Seemingly very calm and almost tranquil on the surface.
表面似乎非常平和 仿佛静止不动
From an outsider’s perspective,
从太空中去看
it’s clear why it’s named after Venus, the Roman god of Love.
很容易就能理解 金星为什么用爱神维纳斯来命名
But go beneath the cloud layer, and you’ll find quite the opposite.
但是走进它的云层之下 你就会发现恰恰相反
Scorching temperatures, volcanism and a crushing atmosphere
灼热的温度 激烈的火山活动和毁灭性的大气
are what you’d actually find on the surface.
才是金星表面真实的样子
But let’s step back a bit,
但先让我们后退一步
and see where this planet fits into our solar system.
看看金星在我们的太阳系中处在什么位置
Venus is the 2nd planet from the Sun and is our closest neighbour.
金星是距太阳第二远的行星 也是离我们最近的行星
Its average orbital radius around the Sun is 0.72AU or roughly 108 million km.
其绕太阳的平均轨道半径为0.72天文单位 约1.08亿千米
It doesn’t vary much at all from this mean orbital radius,
其轨道半径的变化一点也不大
as it’s the planet with the least eccentric orbit,
因为它有着偏心率最小的轨道
orbiting nearly in a perfect circle.
几乎是围绕一个正圆进行轨道运动的
At Venus’closest approach to us,
金星在近地点时
it is the closest of any other planet, being only 41 million km away.
比任何行星都更靠近地球 距离仅有0.41亿千米
Interestingly though,
有趣的是
this is not when it’s brightest in our sky.
此时并不是金星在我们天空中最亮的时候
As when it’s closest to us,
因为当金星距我们最近时
we only see the night side as it’s between us and the sun.
由于它在地球与太阳之间 我们只能看到其阴影面
It is still visible though, as the sunlight refracts through the atmosphere.
但是通过阳光在大气上的折射 它还是可见的
It’s actually brightest when it’s a thinner crescent shape in the sky,
实际上 当金星在天空中是一个较薄的新月形时 这是它最亮的时候
and when this happens,
当这种情况发生时
it is the brightest object in the night sky after the moon.
金星就是夜空中除了月亮以外最亮的天体
As such, Venus is a commonly misreported “unidentified flying object”.
因此 金星经常在美国被误报为不明飞行物
US President Jimmy Carter reported having seen a UFO in 1969,
曾有报道说美国总统吉米卡特在1969年看见了UFO
which later analysist suggested was probably Venus.
后来分析师提议很有可能是金星
Countless other people have mistaken Venus
由于它惊人的亮度
for something more exotic due to its startling brightness.
不计其数的人把金星误认为是更怪异的天体
I recently had the pleasure of looking at Venus through a telescope,
最近我有幸透过望远镜观察过金星
and remarkably, the crescent shape of it was very visible.
神奇的是 当金星在地球和太阳间运行时
With Venus orbiting between us and the Sun,
它的新月形状十分明显
it may make you wonder
你可能会好奇
if Venus ever eclipses the Sun from our viewpoint on Earth,
从地球的视角看 金星否遮挡过太阳
and the answer is yes, but surprisingly, very rarely.
答案是肯定的 但这种情况出乎意料的少见
Transits happen in pairs, the pairs being 8 years apart,
金星凌日成对出现 每对相隔8年
but every pair only happens once every 100 or so years.
但是每组要过差不多100年才能发生
The last transit we had was in 2012,
最近一次金星凌日是在2012年
but if you didn’t see that,
但如果你这次没看见
I’m afraid the next one won’t be until 2117.
那么下一次恐怕你得等到2117年了
The reason for this rarity is because
金星凌日现象很少见 这是因为
the orbiting plane of Venus is not exactly the same as Earth’s.
金星的轨道平面与地球并不完全相同
Also, Venus only catches up with Earth every 584 or so days.
另外 金星每次追上地球差不多要隔584天
These two things combined ensure that
结合这两点 我们可以肯定的是
although a spectacular and predictable sight,
虽然这个天文现象神奇又易预测
it also means we’ll probably only ever have the chance to see it twice in our lifetimes.
但我们一生仅有两次观看金星凌日的机会
All the planets orbit anticlockwise around the Sun,
所有的行星都是绕着太阳逆时针运动的
and with this, Venus is no different.
在这点上 金星也不例外
But unlike all the other planets, it rotates clockwise,
但和其它行星不同的是 它是顺时针自转的
or in other words, in a retrograde rotation.
换句话说 它是反着自转的
Not only that, but it has an extremely slow rotation,
不仅如此 它还自转得极慢
rotating once every 243 Earth days
每243个地球日自转一圈
– slower than any other planet.
——比其它所有行星都慢
This makes a sidereal day longer than a Venusian year,
这使金星的恒星日比金星年还要长
a Venusian year lasting 224 Earth days.
一个金星年持续224个地球日
A sidereal day, if you remember from the Mercury episode, is one rotation of the planet.
如果你还记得水星那期的话 恒星日是行星自转一周的时间
Because of this retrograde rotation,however,
然而 因为它是反着自转的
a solar day (which is sunrise to sunrise) is considerably shorter,
一太阳日(从日出到日出)相对来说较短
at 117 Earth days.
只有117个地球日
This means you’d only experience just less than 2 days on Venus in one year.
这意味着你在金星一年就只能过不到两个白天
I just want to give some perspective as to how slowly it rotates,
我只是想让你们有点概念 到底它自转得有多慢
at the equator, the planet is only rotating at 6.5km/h!
金星在赤道的转速只有6.5千米/小时!
This slow rotation makes it the second most spherical object in the solar system after the Sun.
缓慢的自转使它成为了太阳系中仅次于太阳的第二个最接近球形的天体
It is unclear why Venus rotates backwards compared to the rest of the planets,
人们还不太清楚 为何金星与其他行星自转方向相反
but it could be due to a big impact with another object billions of years ago,
可能是由于数十亿年前它受到了其他天体的撞击
or tidal locking with the Sun,
或者受到了太阳的潮汐锁定
or tidal effects on the Venusian atmosphere.
也可能是来自金星大气的潮汐影响
Its mass and size are very similar to Earth,
它的质量和体积与地球非常相似
hence why it’s often referred to as our sister or twin planet.
因此 它常被称为我们的“姊妹星”或“孪生行星”
Venus is one of the four inner terrestrial planets and it is a rocky planet.
金星是太阳系的四颗类地行星之一 而且是一颗岩石行星
Its diameter is slightly smaller than Earth’s, at 12100km compared to Earth’s 12740km.
金星的直径是12100千米 比地球的直径12740千米稍微小一点
and its density is 5.3 g/cm3 compared to our 5.5 g/cm3.
它的密度是5.3克每立方厘米 而地球则是5.5克每立方厘米
This means the gravity on Venus is only a tenth weaker than that on Earth,
这意味着 金星的引力比地球弱十分之一
surface gravity being 8.9m/s2.
重力加速度为8.9米每平方秒
But this is where the similarities end.
但它们的相似之处就到此为止了
because on the surface of Venus,
因为在金星表面
the atmosphere’s pressure is 92 times greater than on Earth’s.
大气压强是比地球大91倍
That’s an equivalent of 1km under Earth’s oceans.
相当于地球海面往下1千米的压强
The reason for this is because
(金星大气压强很大的)原因是
the density of Venus’atmosphere is 93 times greater than Earth’s.
金星的大气密度比地球大92倍
And fit that amount of gas into a space slightly smaller than what we have here on Earth,
把这么气体放进一个比我们地球所拥有的还要稍微更小的空间
and you can understand why it’s so densely packed.
你就可以理解为什么金星的大气压强如此之大了
The atmosphere consists mainly of CO2 gas,
金星的大气成分主要由二氧化碳气体组成
and combined with sulphur dioxide clouds,
再加上二氧化硫云团
you’re left with the strongest greenhouse effect in the solar system,
金星当之无愧作是太阳系中温室效应最严重的行星
with temperature’s 462℃ at the surface on average.
地表平均温度高达462摄氏度
This makes the surface’s temperature greater than Mercury’s,
这使金星的地表温度比水星的还高
even though Mercury is the closest to the sun,
——就算水星是离太阳最近的行星
and Venus only gets 25% of the solar radiation the Mercury does.
金星受到的太阳辐射只有水星的百分之二十五
The difference is that the Mercury doesn’t have an atmosphere to retain the heat,
这些差异源于水星没有大气来留住热量
whereas Venus certainly does.
但是金星有呀!
This means at night time and even at the poles, the temperature remains fairly constant.
这意味着在夜晚 甚至是在两极 金星的温度保持得相当的稳定
Venus really is cooking,
金星 你在做饭吖?
it absorbs so much heat but like a thermal flask it retains.
你吸收如此多的热量 却像热水杯一样保温
and doesn’t let much escape.
一点热量都不多放出来
With an axial tilt of only 3 degrees,
金星的轴倾角只有3度
it also means seasonal changes in temperature are also very minimal.
这也意味着季节性的温度变化很小
Wind speeds aren’t very high on Venus’s surface,
金星地表的风速并不高
being only a couple of kilometres an hour,
每小时只有几千米
but because of the thickness of the atmosphere,
但由于大气比较稠密
it applies a very strong force on obstructions, moving small rocks and dust across the surface.
它对其表面的障碍物施加了很强的力量 将其地表的小岩石和灰尘吹动
On the other hand,
另一方面来说
wind speed at the cloud layer is much faster, reaching speeds of 300km/h.
云层的风速就要快多了 达到了每小时300千米
These winds at the cloud tops circle the planet about every four to five Earth days,
云顶的这些风 每四到五个地球日就会绕金星一圈
which makes the planet look like it’s rotating a lot faster than it actually is.
这让金星看起来比它实际的自转速度快多了
The cloud layer itself sits above the thick CO2,
云层本身位于浓稠的二氧化碳之上
and consists mainly of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid droplets.
(云层)主要是二氧化硫和硫酸小液滴组成的
Sulphuric acid, just as a side note,is highly corrosive,
多说一句 硫酸有很强的腐蚀性!
and this acid rain just adds to the hellish nature of Venus,
这酸雨给金星的地狱天性更添一笔
although it does evaporate before it hits the surface.
——尽管酸雨的确在落地前都蒸发了
The clouds on Venus are highly reflective,
金星的云层具有很强的反射性
only allowing about 10 % of the sunlight through,
只允许百分之十的阳光通过
and because they cover the entire planet,
还因为它们覆盖了整个金星
it obstructs a visual view of the surface from space.
所以我们无法从太空中观察金星
These clouds are also capable of producing lightning much like on Earth,
尽管没那么频繁
although it’s not as common.
这些云团也能像在地球上一样产生雷电
Recently it has been discovered that
最近有人发现
Venus has a large vortex at the South Pole much like on Saturn.
金星就像土星一样 在南极有个大漩涡
Venus is the image on the left, and Saturn on the right.
左边的图像来自金星 右边的则来自土星
They are shaped quite differently,
它们的形状很不相同
and Venus only has the one storm,
金星只有一个风暴
whereas incredibly, every single black dot in the Saturn image is a separate storm,
而难以置信的是 在土星图像上 每个黑点就是一个风暴
with the main vortex being on the center.
而在其中心则是主漩涡
The vortex on Venus is at an altitude of 59km,
金星上的漩涡位于59千米的高度
which is just above the cloud deck,
刚好在云盖上方
It leads on to an interesting point about the atmosphere of Venus.
这就出现了有关金星大气的一幕有趣图像
Becuase at about 50km up,
因为在50千米左右
the air pressure and temperature are tolerable for Earth standards.
气压和温度是我们地球人可以承受的
Even the gravity would feel very much like Earth.
甚至是对引力的感觉也跟在地球上一样
The only problem with a person actually being there is the air itself.
人类无法在金星上生存的唯一原因 在于其空气本身
But if you were to have an airtight plane or something like this,
但如果你处于一个封闭的飞机或者类似的空间内
the conditions would be very Earthlike.
条件会和地球上非常相似
Now, I want to head back down to the surface of Venus a little bit,
现在 我想退回去聊一聊金星的表面
as we actually have some real photos of the surface,
因为我们其实已经有了一些金星表面的真实图像
thanks the pioneering efforts of the Russian’s back to the 60s to 80s.
这多亏了俄罗斯人60到80年代的开创性努力
The probe Venera 7 in 1970
1970年的金星7号行星探测器
was the first probe to ever land on another planet and send data back.
是第一个在其他星球着陆并将数据发回的探测器
The previous attempts resulted in the probes signal terminating before touchdown.
之前数次尝试中 探测器都在着陆前失去了信号
The Venera 7 probably fell over on an impact,
金星7号很有可能在一次撞击中翻倒过
and so, the only reading it gave was the temperature at the surface,
因此 它发回的唯一信息就是金星地表温度
which was 475 degrees.
——475度
Venera 8 confirmed that at the surface the visibility was quite clear,
金星8号证实 金星地表的能见度是相当高的
with a visibility range of about one kilometer.
它的能见度范围大约为1千米
as the cloud layers end at quite a high altitude,
金星的云层在相当高的海拔才消失
meaning it was suitable for cameras in future missions.
这意味着 (我们)在未来的任务中可以使用摄像机
Venera 9 sent back the first ever image of the surface of Venus.
金星9号发回了史上第一张金星地表的图像
Venera 10, 13 and 14 over the course of 6 years
在六年内的时间内 金星10 13和14号
sent back more imagery, this time in color.
发回了更多的影像 而且还是彩色的
as well as a lot of data regarding the conditions of the planet.
以及许多与金星条件有关的数据
Since then, there have been a number of probes that have mapped out the surface of Venus.
从那时起 已经有许多探测器绘制出金星的表面
Using radar, they were able to see through the cloud cover and see the planet’s landscape.
利用雷达 他们能够透过云层看到金星的景观
in very high definition.
并且有着很高的清晰度
The surface of Venus is dotted with a lot of big, but not necessarily active volcanos.
金星的表面点缀着许多规模很大的火山 但不一定是活火山
It has 167 volcanos which are over 100km in diameter.
它有着167座直径超过100千米的火山
The only complex of this size on Earth is the big island of Hawaii.
地球上规模这么大的火山 只有夏威夷这座大岛
This doesn’t mean Venus is more volcanically active than Earth,
这并不意味着 金星的火山运动比地球的更活跃
but this is due to the fact that Venus has a much older crust than on Earth.
但是这是因为金星的地壳比地球的古老得多
Earth has plate tectonics releasing heat.
地球上 板块之间的相互作用会释放热量
and renewing the surface fairly regularly, regularly at least being 100 million years.
而且还会相当频繁地重塑地貌 频繁到至少1亿年一次
Venus, on the other hand, doesn’t have any plate tectonics.
另一方面 金星没有任何的版块运动
Instead, its crust is estimated to be about 300 to 600 million years old,
然而 据估计金星的地壳大概是3到6亿年前形成的
when a global resurfacing event likely occurred.
那时很有可能发生了全球性的地貌重塑
The theory is that the mantle under the crust heated up so much
此推测的依据是 地壳下的地幔被加热得如此厉害
that it forced its way out through the crust,
以至于其冲出了地壳
covering most of the surface with lava.
把金星地表的大部分都覆盖上了熔岩
An incredible 80 % of Venus’ surface is made up of cooled lava plains,
令人吃惊的是 金星地表的80%都是由冷却的熔岩平原构成
and there are literally hundreds of thousands of volcanos in one form or another.
事实上 成千上万的火山以这样或那样的形式存在
There are 900 impact craters also to be found on Venus,
人们在金星上还发现了900个撞击坑
although none less than 3 km in diameter.
——尽管没有一个直径小于3000米
This is because anything smaller than 50m in diameter
这是因为任何直径小于50米的物体
would fragment and burn up before it even hit the surface.
甚至还未到达地表 就会破碎或燃烧殆尽
And finally let’s have a look at the magnetosphere.
最后 让我们看看金星的磁场
Venus doesn’t have its own magnetic field,
金星没有自己的磁场
which surprised everyone when it was first discovered
这件事刚被发现时 让所有人都吃了一惊
as Venus’ composition is very similar to Earth’s.
因为金星的构成和地球很相似
But without more data,
但缺乏数据的情况下
it’s hard to say why this might be.
很难说清为什么会这样
As a result of this,
因此
solar and cosmic radiation interacts a lot with the upper atmosphere of the planet,
太阳和宇宙的辐射和金星上层大气的相互作用十分激烈
producing lightning and an induced magnetosphere.
因而产生闪电和感应磁层
Solar wind also strips off the low density molecules out of the upper atmosphere
太阳风也从高层大气中剥离出低密度分子
meaning that Venus has a tail, similar to a comet.
意味着金星像彗星一样也有一条尾巴
Under certain conditions, this tail can tickle Earth
在特定条件下 这条尾巴会给地球挠痒痒
when they’re in conjunction with each other.
当它们连接在一起的时候
Unfortunately this tail isn’t visible with the naked eye.
很遗憾 只凭肉眼并不能看见这条尾巴
Sadly,we’ve come to the end of the video.
难过的是 本期视频也快要结束了
But I’d just like to say thank you so much for watching this far.
但我只想说 非常感谢你能坚持看到了这里
And if you enjoyed it,
如果你喜欢本节目的话
I have a lot of other videos about our other planets which may be of interest to you as well.
我们还有更多关于其他行星的视频哦!说不定其中就有你感兴趣的呢
So be sure to check those out!
别忘了去看看哦
And if you find space generally interesting, please subscribe!
如果你觉得太空是有趣的 请订阅我们频道吧!
As this channel is dedicated just to that.
因为我们频道正是致力于此方面的!
Thanks again for watching and I’ll see you next time.
再一次感谢你的观看 下期再见

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视频概述

简洁介绍了太阳系中的金星,通过和地球的对比,初步介绍了金星上的火山、地形与大气等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

玄玄

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqbN6z8ncc

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