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太阳系笫二大行星:土星

Our Solar System's Planets: Saturn | in 4K Resolution

[Music playing]
[音乐播放中]
Hi,I’m Alex McColgan,
大家好 我是Alex McColgan
and you’re watching Astrum,
你正在收看的是《未知太空》
and today I am super excited.
今天我很激动
Why?
为什么呢
Because I get to show you the amazing planet.
因为我要为大家介绍一颗美丽的行星
That is Saturn.
土星
As far as planets go, this is my favourite one which isn’t Earth.
就行星而言 我喜欢的是土星而不是地球
and I think by the end of this video, you may agree with me.
看完视频 你可能会同意我的说法
because thanks to the Cassini probe
多亏了卡西尼号探测器
we have some astonishing imagery
我们拍到了一些土星的
of this beautiful planet.
惊艳的图片
I’m going to give some insights into these pictures,
我将对这些图片进行一些解读
as well as explain everything you could want to know
并解释你想知道的
about the 6th planet from the Sun.
关于这太阳系第六颗行星的一切事情
A Saturn is big.
土星很大
It’s a gas giant with an average radius
它是个巨大的气态行星
about nine times that of Earth
平均半径是地球的9倍
making it the senond biggest planet in our solar system.
它是太阳系第二大行星
I say average radius though
因为它的赤道半径和极半径相差近10%
because its equatorial and polar radii differ by almost 10%.
所以用平均半径来表示它的大小
The radius is sixty thouand kilometers at the equator.
它的赤道半径长60000km
It is only fifty-four thousand kilometers from pole to pole.
而极半径却只有54000公里
The Saturn is only one-eighths the average density of Earth,
土星平均密度仅是地球的八分之一
being 0.7 g/cm3
约0.7g/cm³
compared to Earth’s (very dense) 5.5 g/cm3
相比之下地球密度很大 为5.5g/cm³
but because Saturn is so much larger,
但因为土星体积远大于地球
it has a mass over 95 Earth’s.
所以质量超过地球95倍
Interestingly, Saturn is the only planet of the solar system
有趣的是 土星是太阳系唯一一个
that is less dense than water
密度比水还小的行星
about 30% less in tight
小了近30%
which means if you’re to have a bath big enough,
这意味着 若你有个足够大的浴缸
it would float.
土星会飘浮在上面
Saturn is classified as a gas giant
土星之所以被归类为气态巨行星
because the part of the planet we see is just gas.
是因为我们看到的那部分只有气体
It doesn’t have a surface that we know of,
虽然没有为人所知的地表层
although it may have a solid core.
但是可能会有一个坚硬的内核
But although Saturn is called a gas giant,
土星虽然被称为气态巨行星
it’s not entirely made of gas.
但它并不完全是由气体构成
It’s got just too much mass for that.
只不过是气体体积更大
Especially when we know that it consists primarily of hydrogen,
特别是 我们知道 土星含有大量氢气
which becomes liquid under high pressures.
在高压条件下 氢气会变成液态
Saturn has a very hot interior, reaching 11,700 °C at the core
土星内部非常热 中心温度高达11700℃
which is twice as hot as the surface of the Sun
是太阳表面温度的两倍
and the planet radiates 2.5 times more energy into space than it receives from the sun
且土星向外的辐射能量是吸收太阳能量的2.5倍
but if we look at Saturn through the infrared,
但如果我们通过红外线看土星
we see Saturn’s glow, represented in brilliant
就能看到土星美丽绝伦的
shades of electric blue, sapphire and mint green.
磁蓝 蔚蓝和青绿相交织的幽光
On the night side, with no sunlight, Saturn’s own thermal radiation lights things up.
夜晚没有阳光 土星自身的热辐射会照亮一切
This light is generated deep within Saturn,
这种光产生于土星内部
and works its way upward, eventually escaping into space.
然后逐渐向外传递 最终逃逸到太空中
Scientists predict that Saturn’s interior is probably made of a core of iron, nickel, and rock,
科学家们预测 土星内部可能由铁 镍 岩石组成
surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen,
被一层厚厚的金属氢层包围着
a middle layer of liquid hydrogen
中间层是液态氢和液态氦
and liquid helium and an outer gaseous layer.
最外层则是气体
But seeing as we can’t even land on the
但是很明显 我们无法在不被压碎的情况下
surface,obviouslly,for an extended period of time without being crushed
长时间地着陆土星表面
actually testing this theory for Saturn
因为土星上的压力和重力非常大
where pressures and gravity are huge
所以 实际上要检验这个理论
is a bit of a ways off
还有很长的路要走
Saturn’s atmosphere has a banded pattern similar to Jupiter’s,
土星大气层有着与木星相似的带状图案
but Saturn’s bands are much fainter and much wider near the equator.
但土星赤道附近的带状图案更淡更宽一些
And the reason why Saturn is yellow?
为什么土星是黄色的
It has ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.
因为土星高层大气含有氨晶体
But while the surface of Saturn may appear calm,
虽然土星表面看起来很平静
the planet is actually very active.
但实际上它非常活跃
The winds on Saturn are the second fastest
土星表面风速在太阳系中
among the solar system’s planets, after Neptune’s.
排名第二 仅次于海王星
They can be blistering in 1800 km/h.
风速可达1800km/h
Visible storms are also known to appear on Saturn,
土星上的可见风暴也为人们所熟悉
like this one that lasted just under a year in 2011
2011年 一场可见风暴 持续了近一年时间
Every 30 Earth years,
每30个地球年
the planet produces what is called a “Great White spot”
土星就会产生所谓的“大白斑”
which is a unique but short-lived phenomenon
这是一种独特而短暂的现象
that occurs once every Saturnian year.
每个土星年才出现一次
If the storm that we see here
如果我们现在看见的风暴
wasn’t the early rendition of Great White Spot
不是大白斑的早期表现的话
the next one we expect to see is in 2020.
那么可见风暴下一次出现会在2020年
In storms on Saturn, lightning is also produced.
土星风暴也会产生闪电
Cassini has even detected the sound of thunder.
卡西尼号甚至还探测到了雷声
But while this may sound weak,
尽管听起来微弱
the power of lightning on Saturn is about 1,000 times stronger than that on Earth.
但闪电的威力却比地球的大1000倍左右
Still talking about storms, but moving on to the planet’s poles,
我们接着谈风暴 把目光转移到南北两极上
we find that each pole has giant, permanent storm.
我们发现两极都有巨大的 持续性的风暴
NASA reported in November 2006 that Cassini had observed a hurricane-like storm
2006年11月 NASA报道 卡西尼号探测到了类飓风风暴
located to the south pole that had a clearly defined eyewall.
探测地点位于出现了被定义为眼壁的南极
Eyewall clouds had not previously been seen on any other planet than Earth.
在此之前 除了地球 其它行星从未发现过眼壁
The ring is similar to the eyewall of a hurricane, but much much larger.
此环和飓风眼壁相似 但是要大得多
The clear air there is warm, like the eyewall of hurricane,
和飓风眼壁一样 那里的晴空是暖的
but on Saturn it is locked to the pole,
在土星上 眼壁总是固定地在极地出现
whereas a hurricane on Earth would drift around.
与此相反 地球上的飓风则漂移不定
The north pole is even more unusual.
土星北极的风暴更不寻常
There is a permanent hexagon-shaped storm
那里持续性的六边形风暴
that rotates with the planet
会与土星一起旋转
but it doesn’t change longitude like the rest of the clouds on the planet.
但不会像土星的其他云层一样改变经度
The straight sides of the polar hexagon
极地六边形风暴
are each about 13,800 km long,
边长约13800km
making them larger than the diameter of the Earth.
比地球的直径还要大
And why does this happen and to such a big scale?
为什么会出现规模如此巨大的风暴呢
Well, no one really knows.
没有人知道原因
Nature seems to have a thing for 60 degree angles though.
大自然似乎对60度角的事物情有独钟
Anyone seen Giant’s Causeway ?
有人见过巨人堤道吗?
But like the south pole,
但就和南极一样
the north pole also has an eyewall vortex in its center.
北极中心也有眼壁漩涡
Now, while not anyway near as strong as Jupiter’s,
虽然磁气圈远没有木星的那么强
Saturn does have a magnetosphere
但土星确实存在磁气圈
which is strong enough to deflect the solar wind from the sun.
其磁力之强足以使太阳风发生偏转
And Saturn’s magnetosphere, much like Earth’s, produces aurorae.
像地球一样 土星的磁气圈也产生极光
Their location and brightness strongly depend on the solar wind pressure:
它们的位置和亮度很大程度上取决于太阳风压
the aurora becomes brighter and move closer to the poles
当太阳风压增强时
when the Solar wind pressure increases.
极光更亮且距两极更近
The same process produces auroras on both Earth and Saturn.
地球和土星产生极光的过程相同
Electrons stream along the magnetic field lines of the planet into the upper atmosphere.
电子流沿着磁场线进入土星高层大气
There, they collide with atoms and molecules,
在那里 电子流与原子分子发生碰撞
excite them to higher energies.
刺激它们爆发出更强的能量
The atoms and molecules release this energy
通过放射不同颜色和波长的光
by radiating light at different colors and wavelengths
分子和原子释放出这种能量
On Earth, this light is mostly from oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules.
在地球上 这种光主要来自于氧原子和氮分子
On Saturn, it is from hydrogen.
在土星上它却源自于氢
Now the rings for me are one of the highlights of the planet.
于我而言 土星环是这颗行星的亮点之一
Saturn has a prominent ring system that consists of
土星拥有出色的光环系统
nine continuous main rings,
由九只连续的主环组成
made mostly of ice particles
光环主要由冰粒子
and smaller amounts of rock debris and dust.
少数岩石残骸以及尘土组成
While they are mainly named after letters of the alphabet,
尽管光环主要按照字母顺序命名
the naming conventions are still a little confusing,
不过规则有点复杂
so bear with me here
所以这里请多见谅
Now the first 5 rings, from the closest to the planet outward are, the D ring, which is very faint,
前五环中靠近土星最近的是D环 光线很暗
C ring, B Ring which is the brightest and widest of all the rings
然后是最亮最宽的C环和B环
the A ring, which is the last of the bright rings, and then the F ring.
A环是最后的明亮的光环 随后是F环
The D ring starts from 66,000 km from Saturn’s center
D环距离土星中心66000km
and last to the bright rings’ finish as 140,000 km above Saturn’s center.
亮环向外延伸到距土星140000km的位置
These rings are mostly made up of
光环主要由冰组成
water ice, with traces of rocks.
还含有少量的碎石
If we look in the ultraviolet at a section of the brightest rings,
如果观察最亮光环中的紫外线
it shows there is more ice towards the outer part of the rings than in the inner part.
我们会发现亮环外侧的冰比亮环内侧的多
The red in the image represents sparser ringlets made of
屏幕中红色部分表示稀疏环
dirty and possibly smaller particles,
是由泥土以及有可能更小的粒子组成
than in the icier turquoise ringlets.
这些粒子比冰质绿松石环中的粒子还小
If we look at a picture representing radio occultation,
如果观察用无线电掩星技术显示的照片
we can judge the size of the individual particles
我们可以推测出
that make up the rings.
组成环的单个粒子的大小
Color is used to represent information about ring particle sizes
照片中的颜色表示有关环粒子大小的信息
based on the measured effects of the three radio signals.
这些颜色基于三种无线电信号的测量效果而绘成
shades of red indicate regions where there is a lack of particles
红色表示该区域缺少直径小于5厘米的粒子
less than 5 centimeters in diameter, so, generally quite big particles.
因此该区域通常是很大的粒子
Green represents particles of sizes smaller than 5 centimeters
绿色则表示小于5厘米的粒子
and blue represents particles smaller than 1 cm.
而蓝色表示粒子尺寸小于1厘米
Overall, it’s thought that
总体来说 人们认为
the particles in the rings aren’t bigger than 10m and can be microscopic in size.
环粒子不超过10m 其大小可以用显微镜观测
The main rings are thought to be as little as 10 meters thick to 1 kilometer thick.
主环宽度10m至1km
Particularly in the B rings,
尤其是B环
we can see that the rings are not perfectly symmetrical.
可以看到该环不是完全对称的
During the planet’s equinox, the rings can get a bit wonky.
在土星昼夜平分线上 B 环有点不均匀
Look at the top of this video, where the B ring meets the A ring.
注意看屏幕上方 这个地方B环和A环靠到了一起
Zooming in on this structure reveals ridges and spokes a couple of kilometers tall.
放大来看 我们可以看到几公里高的山脊和辐条
Their presence is given away by their shadows.
阴影表明了有山脊和辐条的存在
Zooming out again, we can see the scale of
缩小看 我们可以看到
how many spokes there are during this period.
这段时间内辐条的数量
Oscillations happen all the time in the rings though,
土环内一直有振荡发生
perhaps due to the presence of a shepherd moon, or even just naturally.
这可能是牧羊犬卫星的存在 也可能是自然发生
The differences in these oscillations, which can be seen
我们能看到的这些振荡的各不相同
all in a day, can be up to 200 kilometers.
一天之内 振荡可以达到200km
So I’ve talked about the D, C, B,
前面我已经谈过D环 C环 B环
and the A rings and also mentioned the F ring.
和A环 同样也要谈一谈F环
The F ring can also get a bit wonky,
F环有点不稳定
and has a perfect example of
有一个非常典型的例子
what is called a shepherd moon.
即被称为
This one being Prometheus
牧羊犬卫星的Prometheus
that leaves a ripple in the ring as it orbits.
Prometheus会在轨道上留下波纹
Once during its 14.7-hour orbit of Saturn,
在长达14.7小时的土星轨道周期中
Prometheus, which it’s only 63 miles or 102 kilometers across,
只有63英里或102km宽的普罗米修斯
reaches the point in its eclipitical path,
会经过椭圆轨道中的最远点
where it is farthest away from Saturn and closest to the F ring.
那是距离土星最远 距离F环最近的点
At this point, Prometheus’ gravity is just strong enough
在这个点上 Prometheus的引力强到足以
to draw a streamer of material out of the core region of the F ring.
从F环的核心区域吸引拖拽出物质带
And that’s what caused these ripples which you can see.
这就是引起你所看到的这些波纹的原因
So what comes after the F ring?
那么 F环之外又是什么呢?
Well, the first after the F ring,
F环之外的第一个环带
is Janus or Epimetheus Ring,
是土卫士或者说是土卫十一环
then, the G Ring, the Pallene Ring, and then the E Ring.
然后是G环 帕勒涅环和E环
I know it’s a little bit confusing,
我知道 这有点让人困惑
but bear with me and I’ll go through it again.
但是暂时忍受下 我会把它重新说清楚
Now look at this picture, it’s absolutely amazing,
现在 看看这张图片 它是如此惊艳
and I might just do a separate video on this.
我可能会为它单独做一期视频
But for the sake of time,
由于时间限制 还是以后再说吧
this bright blue ring you see on the outside is the E ring,
你看到外面那层蓝色的亮环就是E环
And just below that you can see the faint Pallene Ring
在E环的下边 你看到的是暗淡的
at the top of the picture.
帕勒涅环 在图片中是上方的位置
The G ring is the next distinct ring, and you can just about see
G环是另一个清晰的环
the Janus or Epimetheus ring also at the top but just below it.
土卫十一环位于顶部 G环的下方
And can you see us?
你能看见我们吗
We’re also in this picture.
我们也在这张图片中
There, right in the corner, is Earth and its moon.
在右下角附近 这就是地球和月亮
So now you know a little bit about the rings.
所以现在你对土星环有了一些认知
I think you’ll agree they are so interesting in their own right.
我想你们也会认为土星环很有趣
Theories abound as to why they are there,
有足够的理论解释为什么它们会在那里
but we simply don’t know.
但是显然我们并不知道
We know that some of the moons are responsible for some of the material there,
我们知道某些卫星负责那里的某些物质
but we also know that some of the material there
我们也知道那里的某些物质
is responsible for some of the moons.
也对某些卫星负责
And talking of moons, I’m going to give you
说到卫星 我会在这个视频里
a brief rundown about those that belong to Saturn.
简单介绍土星的卫星
Again, I do plan to do a separate video or even videos about them
然后我打算另外做一个或几个关于它们的视频
as there are at least 150 moons and moonlets, 53 with formal names.
土星至少有150个卫星和小卫星 其中53个已命名
They come in all shapes and sizes, and most uniquely,
它们大小不同 形状各异 更独特的是
Saturn’s biggest moon Titan, which is even bigger than Mercury,
土星最大的卫星 提坦 比水星还大
is the only moon in the solar system with a thick atmosphere around it.
而且是太阳系中唯一拥有厚大气层的卫星
I’m also gonna throw in here that Saturn has the Death Star orbiting it,
我要说明的是 土星有一颗死亡之星环行
We call it Mimas.
我们叫它土卫一
Lastly, we are coming to the end.
最后 我们来到话题的结尾
I just got one last thing I want to talk about.
我想谈最后一件事情
I want to talk about Saturn’s orbit.
关于土星轨道
Saturn orbits about 9 to 10 times farther away from the Sun than Earth does.
日土距离约是日地距离的九到十倍
And one year on Saturn can take 30 Earth years.
一个土星年相当于三十个地球年
But funnily enough, a day on Saturn is different depending on
有趣的是 根据你在土星上的不同位置(不是说你真地站在上面)
where you stood (not that you could really stand on Saturn).
一天的时间也不尽相同
At the equator or at the poles,
赤道或者南北两极
a day lasts about 10 hours and 14 minutes.
一天大概有10小时14分钟
Elsewhere, so everywhere apart from the poles near the equator,
除开南北极 其它赤道附近的地方
a day lasts 10 hours and 38 minutes.
一天时长10小时38分
The issue is, because Saturn isn’t solid,
问题是 土星不是固态的
it’s not bound to rotate at the same speed all over.
它不是以同样的速度自转
I just want to leave you with this.
这部分的内容 以后我会进一步讲解
Few sights in the solar system
在太阳系中
are more strikingly beautiful than softly hued Saturn
很少有景致能与环绕土星的柔光相媲美
embraced by the shadows of its rings.
土星被它的环影笼罩着
And look at this beautiful change from gold to blue.
看 这是美丽的从金色到蔚蓝的渐变色
It’s a striking visual effect that scientists don’t fully understand.
这是一场极致的视觉盛宴 无法完全用科学解释
Current thinking says that it may be related to seasonal influences,
目前人们认为这和季节变化的影响有关
tied to the cold temperatures in the northern winter hemisphere.
也与北半球冬天的低温有关
And despite all that we have learned from the probe Cassini
尽管我们从卡西尼号得知了很多信息
Saturn remains a world of mystery.
但土星仍是个谜一般的世界
I really appreciate you watching this far,
感谢你的观看
and if you did find this video interesting
要是觉得视频有意思
then I’d ask you to please like and share it
希望你能喜欢并与他人分享
as it helps me a lot.
因为这会对我有很大帮助
It’s still a small channel and I would love to be able to grow
这个频道很小 我希望能把它做得更好
I plan to do a video for every planet in our solar system.
我还打算给太阳系里的每个行星做视频
I’ve already made videos for Mars and Mercury,
我已经做好了火星和水星的视频
and if you enjoy this video,
如果喜欢本视频
I’m sure you’d like those ones too,
我相信 你也会喜欢其它行星的视频
so you should definitely check those out.
所以 你一定要继续关注
and of course I would continue to keep making videos
当然 我会继续制作更多
about our solar system and beyond,
关于太阳系以及相关的视频
so really, please subscribe and you won’t miss any of the future things I got to show you.
所以 赶快订阅吧 别错过新的视频哦

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太阳系唯一的密度比水还小的行星,美丽绝伦的土卫环笼罩着一层层神秘诱人的色彩

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

悟舟

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AyFMPdHU1n0

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