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我们太阳系的行星:木星 – 译学馆
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我们太阳系的行星:木星

Our Solar System's Planets: Jupiter

大家好呀 我是Alex McColgan. 欢迎收看《未知太空》
Hi I’m Alex McColgan, and welcome to Astrum.
经过长时间的制作并结合大量的建议
It’s been a long time coming and after a lot of requests,
本视频可以让你全方位地了解木星
here is everything you could want to know about Jupiter.
木星是一颗质量巨大的行星
It is a massive planet.
是太阳系中最大的行星
The largest in our Solar system.
它的质量之大
It is so massive,
约为太阳质量的千分之三
its mass is 3/1000th that of our sun
听起来可能没什么
that might not seem a lot,
但一旦你知道太阳质量
once you realize that sun contains 99.86%
占整个太阳系总质量的99.86%
of all the mass in the solar system
你将明白木星质量约等于太阳系其它天体质量的总和
you’ll realise that Jupiter equals almost the remainder.
木星的质量是太阳系中
Its mass is two and a half times that of all
其它所有行星总质量的2.5倍
the other planets in the solar system combined.
这产生了一个有趣的现象
And this brings about an interesting phenomenon,
木星和太阳之间的质心
the barycentre between Jupiter and the Sun is actually
竟然在太阳表层之外
above the surface of the Sun,
在太阳中心外半径的1.068倍处
at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun’s centre.
你可能会问什么是质心?
What is a barycentre I hear you ask?
当一个星体绕着另一个星体运行
you see, when we think of an object orbiting another object,
我们通常认为
we don’t necessarily think
小星体对大星体产生的引力作用可以忽略不计
that the smaller object has a gravitational influence on the bigger object.
所以质心就是
So the definition of a barycentre
两个星体共同的质量中心
is the centre of mass between these two objects.
由于木星具有很大的质量
With Jupiter being the size it is,
所以它并未围绕太阳中心附近任何一点运行
it doesn’t orbit anywhere close to the centre of the Sun.
实际上 它们的运行轨道更接近于
The orbit in fact looks more like this
太阳和木星一同围绕质心旋转
with Jupiter and the Sun rotating around the barycentre.
由此可见 质心是在太阳表层之外的地方
in this case the barycentre is above the surface of the Sun.
还是不相信我?
Still don’t believe me?
看看这个
Have a look at this.
我将为大家简单地解释一下何为质心
I want to give you a really crude representation of what a barycentre is.
这边是太阳 这边是木星
So here we have the Sun and Jupiter,
我们发现它们的质心
and we find that the centre of mass
距离太阳更近 距离木星则远得多
is much closer to the Sun than it is to Jupiter.
尽管木星是太阳系中质量最大的行星
While Jupiter has the greatest mass of any planet in the solar system,
它的密度却不是最高的
it’s not the densest planet.
成为最重的行星的原因 在于它最大的体积
It is the most massive only because it is the biggest.
如果海王星和木星的体积一样
If Neptune was the same size as Jupiter,
海王星将是质量最大的行星
it would be the most massive.
如果地球具有同木星一样的体积
And if Jupiter was the same size as Earth
地球将会比现在重五倍
Earth would be over 4 times more massive.
然而事实是
As it is though,
木星的直径是地球的11倍
the diameter of Jupiter is 11 times that of Earth,
质量是地球的318倍
and its total mass is 318 times more than Earth.
众所周知 质量产生引力
As we know, mass affects gravity.
这意味着 木星有巨大的引力
This means that Jupiter has a huge gravity,
木星表面重力加速度为2.528g 是地球的两倍多
over twice that of Earth at 2.528g at its surface.
木星引力在不同程度上影响着其他行星
The gravity of Jupiter affects every planet toone degree or another.
它的引力之强足以撕裂小行星
It is strong enough to tear asteroids apart
它捕捉了至少67颗卫星
and capture 67 moons at least.
有些科学家认为
Some scientists think that
远古时期 木星摧毁了很多天体
Jupiter destroyed many celestial objects in the ancient past
并且还阻止过其他行星的形成
as well as preventing other planets from forming.
但在某个时刻
At the moment though,
木星成为了四个内行星的英雄
it could be the hero of the inner 4 planets.
木星扮演着“清道夫”的角色
Without Jupiter acting as a “cosmic vacuum cleaner ”,
它吸收了像长周期彗星这样的危险星体
it wouldn’t be sucking up dangerous objects like long-period comets,
扰乱彗星的轨道 或者给彗星们提供能量
or perturbing their orbit enough or giving them a little kick of energy
借此彗星可以从太阳系逃离
so that they leave the solar system altogether.
儿时 有一个问题一直困扰着我
And a question I always had as a child,
木星会成为一颗恒星吗?
could Jupiter become a star?
只要有人往木星里扔进一根火柴
Surely someone just needs to throw a match in
就会发现木星是由可燃氢构成的
seeing as it’s made of flammable hydrogen.
可惜的是 目前的观点是木星的质量
Sadly, anyway,current thinking is that Jupiter would need to be
需要是现在重量的大约75倍
roughly 75 times more massive than it is now
才能够成为一颗恒星
to be massive enough to be a star,
尽管它的体积与最小的恒星 红矮星 相差不大
although its volume isn’t too far off from the smallest known red dwarf.
木星是围绕太阳的第五颗行星
Jupiter is the 5th planet from the Sun,
它距太阳的距离是地球的5倍
and it’s 5 times further away from the Sun than Earth.
即便如此 它却是夜空中第三亮的行星
Even so, it can be the 3rd brightest object in the night sky
仅次于月亮和金星
after the moon and Venus.
我要展示一下它有多亮
I just want to show you how bright that is.
只需一个手持摄像机
Just using a handy cam,
我们就能轻松地在夜空中看到它
we can see Jupiter quite easily in the night sky.
木星最大视星等为-2.94
With a maximum apparent magnitude of -2.94,
它会投射下阴影
it can actually cast shadows.
木星在天空中很明显
As a result of it being so obvious in the sky,
因此对于业余天文爱好者 它是个好的观测目标
it makes a very nice target for amateur astronomers.
我的一个订阅者非常热心地向我展示了
One of my subscribers was kind enough to show what he saw
他观测到的木星掠过月球的画面
when Jupiter pass by the moon.
合理放大之后
With good magnification,
能清楚地看到它表面的图案
you can see its patterns quite clearly.
这些图案是怎么形成的呢?
And what makes these patterns?
木星云层本身厚约50千米
The cloud layer itself is only about 50km thick
含有氨晶体 这和土星很像
and contains ammonia crystals much like on Saturn,
但木星云层的颜色却是由于
but the colouration comes from compounds
木星深层的化合物被加热后上升形成的
heating up from deep within Jupiter and then rising.
这些化合物被称为色团
These compounds are known as chromophores
它们抵达云层后
and when they reach the clouds,
与太阳的紫外线产生相互作用
they interact with the UV light of the Sun
于是就形成了这些壮观的多彩的色带
to create these spectacular multi-coloured bands.
这是一个环形的色带
This is quite the cycle though,
但木星的表面会随着时间发生巨大的变化
and the face of Jupiter can change dramatically over time.
即便它们的颜色发生了改变
Even if their colours do change though,
但纬度对应的色带却保持一致
the actual latitude of these bands
这让我们可以利用色带给它们命名
remains consistent enough to be given identifying designations,
但宽度又会随着时间的推移发生变化
but they can vary in width over the course of time.
许多风暴和湍流发生在色带交汇处
Lots of storms and turbulence occur where the bands meet
这就是木星形成著名的大红斑的原因
and it is the reason Jupiter has the very famous great red spot.
大红斑风暴非常大
This storm is huge.
它可以轻易地将地球卷入其中
It can easily fit the diameter of Earth within it.
自17世纪被首次发现以来
It has existed for as long as we know
它便一直存在
since it was first discovered in the 17th century.
这或许是木星的一个永恒特征
It might very well be a permanent feature of the planet,
但有趣的是 自观测以来
but interestingly it has decreased in size
它的规模已经有所缩小
since observations began.
它泛红的原因尚不清楚
The reason for its reddish colour is unknown,
但其颜色会发生巨大的变化
and the colour of the spot can vary greatly
——从砖红变成几乎全白
– from brick red to almost white.
最新的理论认为 木星的颜色
The most recent theory for its colour
是太阳紫外线分解化合物的结果
is chemical compounds being broken up by the UV light of the Sun,
这个过程同样也会发生在木星的其它地方
much in the same way as the process that happens on the rest of the planet.
事实上 风暴位置比周围云层高出很多
The storm is actually much higher up in the atmosphere than the surrounding clouds
这样它就能和太阳光产生更多的反应
and as a result can interact with the sunlight a lot more
这就能解释为什么
This would explain why its colour
它的颜色会比周围的要鲜艳
can be much stronger than anything else around it.
另一个叫“小红斑”的风暴
Another storm, known as “ Red Spot Jr ”,
由三个风暴合并形成
formed when three storms merged into one
目前为止 它还未受到邻近大风暴的影响
and it has so far passed unscathed by its bigger neighbour
现在它也成为了木星的一个显著特征
and is now quite a prominent feature of the planet.
和它相似的一个红斑正好穿过了
It could last for another couple of hundreds of years
大红斑的中心 若它能避免相同的命运
if it avoids the same fate of a similar storm
未来几百年 它可能还会存在
which passed right through the heart of the Great Red Spot.
所以木星是由什么组成的
So what do we think Jupiter is made of?
和土星类似 大气层的下面是气态氢
or much like Saturn, under the atmosphere are gaseous,
然后是液体 再就是金属氢形态了
then liquid, then metallic forms of hydrogen.
越深入木星
The further into the planet you go,
气压越大
the greater the pressure becomes.
在强大的气压下 氢的性质变得类似金属
under immense pressure, hydrogen acts as a metal.
再下面就是冰层或岩核
And beneath that is an ice or rocky core.
因为地球上无法模拟出木星上的巨大气压
Because we can’t recreate on Earth the immense pressures Jupiter experiences,
因此我们尚不清楚
we don’t really know what properties
岩核中存在什么物质
these materials have at the core.
一般认为木星上约90%是氢气
Roughly 90% of Jupiter is thought to be hydrogen,
10%是氦气 还有微量的甲烷
10 % helium, and then trace amounts of methane,
氨和一些其它物质
ammonia and others.
是的 你或许注意到了这张图片
And yes, you may have noticed on this picture,
木星是有光环的
Jupiter does indeed have rings.
虽没有土星的规模
Nothing on the scale of Saturn,
木星也有四个光环
but there are 4 planetary rings.
主光环很薄 但很亮
The main ring is very thin but bright,
其余的虽然宽 但却特别暗
the rest quite wide but exceptionally faint.
主环宽约6500千米
The main ring is about 6,500km wide,
它独有的显著特征是
and the only distinctive feature you will see
著名的墨提斯裂口
is what is known as the Metis notch.
关于木星 还值得一提的是
Something else of note about Jupiter
它的强大磁场
is its remarkably strong magnetosphere.
它的磁场比地球的强14倍
It is 14 times stronger than Earth’s,
木星的液态金属氢核
due to the planet’s liquid metallic hydrogen centre.
使木星成为太阳系中磁场最强的行星
This makes it the strongest magnetosphere of any planet in the solar system
只有太阳黑子才能将其打败
and it’s beaten only by the Sun’s sunspots.
这之所以这么有趣 是有几个原因的
There are a couple of reasons why this is really interesting.
首先是
The first being that
磁场将太阳风引到木星两极
magnetospheres channel solar wind to the planet’s pole
进而产生壮丽的极光
which produce magnificent aurorae.
再者是 木星有四个大卫星
The second is that the four biggest moons of Jupiter
它们可以免受太阳风的影响
are protected from this solar wind
因为它们的轨道在磁场内部
because they orbit within the magnetosphere.
这意味着 它们自己并不需要有强大的磁场
This implies they don’t need their own strong magnetospheres
因为木星会提供给它们
because Jupiter is doing that for them.
我将快速简略地讲一下木星的卫星
And I’ll just very quickly talk about the Moons,
因为我想将它们留到下次视频中
because I want to save them for a futurevideo.
已知的木星的天然卫星有67颗
Jupiter has 67 known natural satellites.
其中有51个直径小于10千米
51 are under 10km in diameter
但最大的 即“伽利略卫星”
but the largest,”the Galilean moons”
是整个太阳系中最大的卫星
are some of the biggest in the solar system.
它们分别是艾奥 欧罗巴
They are Io, Europa,
加尼美得和卡里托斯
Ganymede and Callisto,
它们只在它们自己的轨道上运行
and they are all interesting in their own right.
加尼美得实际上是整个太阳系最大的卫星
Ganymede is actually the biggest moon in the solar system
其直径比水星还要大
and has a greater diameter than that of Mercury.
很可惜 我们的视频要接近尾声了
We’re almost at the end of this video sadly,
所以最后我们要讲一下木星的轨道和自转
but we’ll just finish by talking about the orbit and rotation of Jupiter.
我前面提到过
Jupiter like I mentioned before
木星是太阳的第五个行星
is the 5th planet from the Sun,
它是在小行星带的外围被发现的
it’s found on the outskirts of the asteroid belt
木星位于火星和土星的轨道之间
and sits in between the orbits of Mars and Saturn.
与太阳平均距离77.8亿千米
It is 778 million km away from the Sun on average
即5.2个天文单位
or 5.2AU,
绕日一周要12个地球年
it completes its orbit from the sun every 12 Earth years.
它的轴向倾角很小 只有3度
The axial tilt of the planet is small, only 3 degrees.
这就意味着它和地球 火星不一样
This means it doesn’t experience much change in seasons,
它的四季变化不大
unlike Earth and Mars.
木星和土星很像 它的赤道半径
And very much like Saturn, its radius at the equator
也比极半径大
is greater than at the poles.
它的自转速度非常快 比其他所有行星都快
It rotates very fast, faster than any other planet,
自转一周只需10个小时
completing a rotation in only 10 hours.
但由于它不是固体行星
But due to it not being solid,
它的整体并不是按照一个速度自转
it doesn’t rotate the same speed all over,
赤道的自转比两极快5分钟
The rotation at the poles taking 5 minutes longer than at the equator.
最后一点
And with this final thought
我们通过用紫外线观测木星
take a look at Jupiter through the infrared.
证实了木星拥有庞大的体积和巨大的能量
Demonstrating the immense size and power of this planet,
木星底部的这一点
this dot at the bottom of the planet
是某个宇宙物质撞击产生的
is the impact of an object from space,
若这个物体撞击地球
which if it had hit Earth,
正如我们所知道那样 会造成地球毁灭
could have spelled the end of our planet as we know it.
我们应该庆幸有木星的存在
We can be glad Jupiter is there,
不仅是因为它的美丽
not only for its beauty,
而且是因为在很多方面
but also because in so many ways
它都是我们太阳系的一块瑰宝
it is an asset to our solar system.
非常感谢收看
Thank you so much for watching this far.
今天你学到了一些关于木星
Did you learn something today about Jupiter
你之前从不知道的事了吗
you never knew before?
你还知道哪些
What other things do you know
我在视频里没提到的吗?
that I didn’t include in this video?
诚挚地邀请大家
I would most humbly ask that
将本视频分享给朋友 家人 邻居或者熟人
you share it with friends, family, neighbours and acquaintances
制作这些视频花了很长时间
as I put a lot of time into these videos,
如果栏目能成功
and if this channel really takes off
我就会全职做栏目
I would be able to do it full time
这意味着 大家能看到更多的视频
which mean for you a lot more videos
下期视频 大家想看什么内容呢
And what would you like to see next on this channel?
请在评论区留言
Post in the comments below,
我们下次见
and I’ll see you next time.

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译制信息
视频概述

这个视频为我们科普了太阳系的行星之木星,而且分别从木星的外周环境和其内部结构分析了木星。非常清晰地为我们科普了木星的一系列小知识。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

虚无海上一虚舟

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFnNCwTkYo8

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