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修复崩溃的难民处置体系的方法

Our refugee system is failing. Here's how we can fix it | Alexander Betts

有时候我真的为我是欧洲人
There are times when I feel really quite ashamed
而感到羞愧
to be a European.
去年
In the last year,
超过一百万的人来到欧洲求助
more than a million people arrived in Europe in need of our help,
但我们的反应坦白地说让人觉得悲哀
and our response, frankly, has been pathetic.
存在着太多自相矛盾的地方
There are just so many contradictions.
一方面我们为惨死的
We mourn the tragic death
两岁孩童艾伦库尔迪而悲痛
of two-year-old Alan Kurdi,
另一方面从那以后超过两百个孩童
and yet, since then, more than 200 children
最终丧命于地中海
have subsequently drowned in the Mediterranean.
一方面我们的国际公约
We have international treaties
明文规定难民是国际社会共同的责任
that recognize that refugees are a shared responsibility,
另一方面我们又心安理得地接受国土狭小的黎巴嫩
and yet we accept that tiny Lebanon
接收的难民数量比整个欧洲接收的还多
hosts more Syrians than the whole of Europe combined.
一方面我们为人口走私现象的存在而深恶痛绝
We lament the existence of human smugglers,
另一方面我们却致使难民别无他选
and yet we make that the only viable route
只能通过偷渡的方式向欧洲寻求庇护
to seek asylum in Europe.
一方面我们劳动力短缺
We have labor shortages,
但另一方面我们却将恰能满足我们经济与人口需求的人们排斥在外
and yet we exclude people who fit our economic and demographic needs
不让他们前往欧洲
from coming to Europe.
我们声称我们的自由主义与原教旨主义伊斯兰教相反
We proclaim our liberal values in opposition to fundamentalist Islam,
但是另一方面
and yet —
我们的压制性政策
we have repressive policies
却滞留了儿童政治避难者
that detain child asylum seekers,
将儿童与他们的家庭分离
that separate children from their families,
还扣押了难民的财产
and that seize property from refugees.
我们究竟在干些什么
What are we doing?
事情为何沦落至如此田地
How has the situation come to this,
面对人道主义危机我们居然采取了如此不人道的反应
that we’ve adopted such an inhumane response to a humanitarian crisis?
我不相信这是因为人性冷漠
I don’t believe it’s because people don’t care,
至少我不想相信这是因为人性冷漠
or at least I don’t want to believe it’s because people don’t care.
我相信这只是因为我们的政府缺乏远见
I believe it’s because our politicians lack a vision,
来改编创造了已50年之久的
a vision for how to adapt an international refugee system
国际难民机制
created over 50 years ago
以适应日新月异的世界
for a changing and globalized world.
所以我想退一步
And so what I want to do is take a step back
来问两个非常基本的问题
and ask two really fundamental questions,
两个我们必须发问的问题
the two questions we all need to ask.
首先为什么当前体制不起作用
First, why is the current system not working?
其次我们该如何修复它
And second, what can we do to fix it?
现今的难民机制
So the modern refugee regime
是这些人在第二次世界大战之后创造出来的
was created in the aftermath of the Second World War by these guys.
它的首要目的是确保
Its basic aim is to ensure
当一个国家垮台或者更糟糕的时候国家与人民为敌时
that when a state fails, or worse, turns against its own people,
人们能有处可依
people have somewhere to go,
安全并且享有尊严地活着直到他们能回家
to live in safety and dignity until they can go home.
它恰是被创建来应对叙利亚现在所处的情形
It was created precisely for situations like the situation we see in Syria today.
由147个国家签署的国际公约
Through an international convention signed by 147 governments,
《关于难民地位的1951公约》
the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees,
国际组织联合国难民署
and an international organization, UNHCR,
签署国承诺让难民进入他们的国土
states committed to reciprocally admit people onto their territory
逃离冲突和迫害
who flee conflict and persecution.
但是今天这个体系正在崩溃
But today, that system is failing.
理论上难民有权利寻求政治避难
In theory, refugees have a right to seek asylum.
但事实上,我们的移民政策阻断了这条通往安全的途径
In practice, our immigration policies block the path to safety.
理论上难民也有权利通过一些途径融入当地
In theory, refugees have a right to a pathway to integration,
或者重返家园
or return to the country they’ve come from.
但事实上他们深陷两难之境
But in practice, they get stuck in almost indefinite limbo.
理论上而言他们是全球共同的责任
In theory, refugees are a shared global responsibility.
但是实际上从地理位置上来说邻国
In practice, geography means that countries proximate the conflict
往往会成为难民们蜂拥而至的地方
take the overwhelming majority of the world’s refugees.
这个系统并非因为这个规则是错误的而失灵
The system isn’t broken because the rules are wrong.
实质上是我们没有让规则随不断变化的世界而变
It’s that we’re not applying them adequately to a changing world,
这是我们应该重新思考的
and that’s what we need to reconsider.
所以我想向你解释一点当前的体制是如何运作的
So I want to explain to you a little bit about how the current system works.
难民机制实际上又是如何运作的?
How does the refugee regime actually work?
但并不是从自上而下的政策视角来看
But not from a top-down institutional perspective,
而是从难民的视角出发
rather from the perspective of a refugee.
假设有一个叙利亚妇女
So imagine a Syrian woman.
让我们暂且称她阿米拉
Let’s call her Amira.
阿米拉对我而言代表着很多我曾经在难民区遇见的人
And Amira to me represents many of the people I’ve met in the region.
和世界上其他25%的难民一样
Amira, like around 25 percent of the world’s refugees,
阿米拉是有孩子的母亲
is a woman with children,
她无家可归因为她来自这座城市
and she can’t go home because she comes from this city
就是你眼前的这座城市霍姆斯
that you see before you, Homs,
一座曾经美丽的历史悠久的城市
a once beautiful and historic city
现在却到处都是残垣瓦砾
now under rubble.
所以阿米拉回家无望
And so Amira can’t go back there.
但是阿米拉也没有希望被安置到第三国
But Amira also has no hope of resettlement to a third country,
因为这就像开彩票
because that’s a lottery ticket
幸运只会落到世界上1%的难民的头上
only available to less than one percent of the world’s refugees.
所以阿米拉和她的家庭
So Amira and her family
面临着几乎不可能的抉择
face an almost impossible choice.
他们有三个基本选项
They have three basic options.
第一个选项是阿米拉带着她的家庭去难民营
The first option is that Amira can take her family to a camp.
在难民营中她可能会获得援助
In the camp, she might get assistance,
但是在那里她们一家前景渺茫
but there are very few prospects for Amira and her family.
难民营在荒凉的不毛之地
Camps are in bleak, arid locations,
通常是沙漠
often in the desert.
在约旦的扎塔利难民营
In the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan,
夜间你可以听见叙利亚边界的炮弹声
you can hear the shells across the border in Syria at nighttime.
这里的经济活动受限制
There’s restricted economic activity.
教育水平较低
Education is often of poor quality.
大约世界上
And around the world,
80%被安置在难民营里的难民
some 80 percent of refugees who are in camps
必须至少得在难民营生活5年以上
have to stay for at least five years.
这是十分堪忧的生活状态
It’s a miserable existence,
可能正因如此现实中
and that’s probably why, in reality,
只有9%的叙利亚难民选择这个选项
only nine percent of Syrians choose that option.
或者阿米拉也可以前往邻国的城市地区
Alternatively, Amira can head to an urban area
就像安曼约旦首都贝鲁特黎巴嫩首都
in a neighboring country, like Amman or Beirut.
这是被大约75%的叙利亚难民所接受的选择
That’s an option that about 75 percent of Syrian refugees have taken.
但是这个选择同样很艰难的
But there, there’s great difficulty as well.
城区的难民通常没有权利工作
Refugees in such urban areas don’t usually have the right to work.
他们通常得不到有效介入的援助
They don’t usually get significant access to assistance.
所以当阿米拉和她的家庭耗尽大部分积蓄后
And so when Amira and her family have used up their basic savings,
仅存的微薄的积蓄可能会让他们陷入极度贫困
they’re left with very little and likely to face urban destitution.
这里还有第三种选择
So there’s a third alternative,
也是越来越多的叙利亚难民接受的
and it’s one that increasing numbers of Syrians are taking.
阿米拉带着家人冒着生命危险开始一段险象环生的旅途
Amira can seek some hope for her family
希望在他国能为
by risking their lives on a dangerous and perilous journey
自己和家人寻得一丝希冀
to another country,
这便是我们如今所目睹的发生在欧洲的情景
and it’s that which we’re seeing in Europe today.
非要从这三个选项中选的话无异于
Around the world, we present refugees with an almost impossible choice
将难民置于无路可走的情形下:
between three options:
投奔难民营地沦为城市贫民踏上危险旅途
encampment, urban destitution and dangerous journeys.
对难民来说这些选项就是如今的全球难民机制
For refugees, that choice is the global refugee regime today.
但我认为这是错误的选择
But I think it’s a false choice.
我认为我们需要重新考虑这样的选择
I think we can reconsider that choice.
我们局限于这些选项
The reason why we limit those options
的原因是因为我们认为
is because we think
这些对难民来说是唯一有用的选择
that those are the only options that are available to refugees,
但事实上并不是
and they’re not.
政客将这类危机定位为零和问题
Politicians frame the issue as a zero-sum issue,
如果我们让难民受益我们就会给公民强加负担
that if we benefit refugees, we’re imposing costs on citizens.
我们倾向于一种设想
We tend to have a collective assumption
难民对社会来说是不可避免的成本或负担
that refugees are an inevitable cost or burden to society.
其实不然他们也能贡献自己的一份力
But they don’t have to. They can contribute.
所以我想说的是
So what I want to argue
有很多方法能扩大我们的选择范围
is there are ways in which we can expand that choice set
同时也能让所有人受益
and still benefit everyone else:
包括难民收容国和社区
the host states and communities,
以及我们的社会和难民自身
our societies and refugees themselves.
我有四条建议
And I want to suggest four ways
来改变我们看待难民的思考模式
we can transform the paradigm of how we think about refugees.
这四条建议都有一个共同点
All four ways have one thing in common:
他们都是我们抓住全球化
they’re all ways in which we take the opportunities of globalization,
流动性和市场化的机遇
mobility and markets,
来改变我们看待难民问题的方式
and update the way we think about the refugee issue.
第一种我想提出的建议是
The first one I want to think about
创造一个有利环境
is the idea of enabling environments,
这个想法起始于一个非常基础的认知
and it starts from a very basic recognition
难民是与我们其他人一样的
that refugees are human beings like everyone else,
只是他们处在不同寻常的情形下
but they’re just in extraordinary circumstances.
我和我牛津的同事
Together with my colleagues in Oxford,
一起参与了一个关于乌干达的研究项目
we’ve embarked on a research project in Uganda
调查研究当地难民的经济生活
looking at the economic lives of refugees.
我们选择乌干达不是因为他是所有难民收容国的典型代表
We chose Uganda not because it’s representative of all host countries.
原因并非如此而是因为它的与众不同
It’s not. It’s exceptional.
不像世界上大多数的难民收容国
Unlike most host countries around the world,
乌干达所做的
what Uganda has done
是给难民营生的机会
is give refugees economic opportunity.
它给了他们工作的权利给了他们自由移动的权利
It gives them the right to work. It gives them freedom of movement.
并且这样做的结果也是非同凡响的
And the results of that are extraordinary
无论是对难民还是难民收容国来说
both for refugees and the host community.
在乌干达的首都堪培拉
In the capital city, Kampala,
我们发现有21%的难民有自己的生意和雇员
we found that 21 percent of refugees own a business that employs other people,
而在这些员工中有40%
and 40 percent of those employees
是难民收容国的本地人
are nationals of the host country.
换句话说,难民们在给难民收容国的公民
In other words, refugees are making jobs
提供就业岗位
for citizens of the host country.
甚至在难民营中我们也找到了很多
Even in the camps, we found extraordinary examples
生机勃勃的欣欣向荣的创业者创业的事例
of vibrant, flourishing and entrepreneurial businesses.
举例而言在一个叫纳基瓦莱的安置处
For example, in a settlement called Nakivale,
我们发现刚果难民
we found examples of Congolese refugees
在进行数字音乐交换生意
running digital music exchange businesses.
我们发现一个卢旺达人在经营一家游戏厅
We found a Rwandan who runs a business that’s available
让年轻人在回收的游戏机和电视机
to allow the youth to play computer games
上玩电脑游戏
on recycled games consoles and recycled televisions.
不满于当前极端困境的约束
Against the odds of extreme constraint,
难民不断地在创新
refugees are innovating,
你现在看到的这个小伙子是丹缪尔凯是刚果人
and the gentleman you see before you is a Congolese guy called Demou-Kay.
丹缪尔凯来到安置处的时候还很小
Demou-Kay arrived in the settlement with very little,
但是他梦想成为一名电影制作人
but he wanted to be a filmmaker.
所以在朋友和同事的帮助下他创办了一个社区广播站
So with friends and colleagues, he started a community radio station,
他租来摄影机
he rented a video camera,
然后现在他在拍电影
and he’s now making films.
他已经为我们团队
He made two documentary films
制作了两个纪录片了
with and for our team,
他白手起家现在获得了成功
and he’s making a successful business out of very little.
就是以上这类例子
It’s those kinds of examples
应该成为我们如何应对难民的指导
that should guide our response to refugees.
而不是认为难民
Rather than seeing refugees
只能依赖着人道主义援助
as inevitably dependent upon humanitarian assistance,
我们应该提供机会给他们来达成人类的繁荣
we need to provide them with opportunities for human flourishing.
是的衣物毛毯避难处食物
Yes, clothes, blankets, shelter, food
在应急阶段都是重要的
are all important in the emergency phase,
但是我们需要看的更长远
but we need to also look beyond that.
我们需要给难民提供联通网络电力网
We need to provide opportunities to connectivity, electricity,
教育和工作的权利
education, the right to work,
获得资金和银行的渠道
access to capital and banking.
所有我们认为我们可以理所当然地
All the ways in which we take for granted
在全球经济中享有的
that we are plugged in to the global economy
都应该同样适用于难民身上
can and should apply to refugees.
我想讨论的第二个想法是建立经济区
The second idea I want to discuss is economic zones.
不幸的是不是世上所有东道国
Unfortunately, not every host country in the world
都会采取乌干达所使用的方法
takes the approach Uganda has taken.
大部分难民收容国都没有采用同样的方法
Most host countries don’t open up their economies to refugees
将他们的经济对难民开放
in the same way.
但是这里仍然存有可用的务实的选择
But there are still pragmatic alternative options that we can use.
去年四月我和同事发展经济学家保罗
Last April, I traveled to Jordan with my colleague,
去了约旦
the development economist Paul Collier,
在那里我们和国际社会和当地政府
and we brainstormed an idea while we were there
集思广益提出一个想法
with the international community and the government,
这个想法在给叙利亚难民提供就业机会
an idea to bring jobs to Syrians
同时也能支持约旦的国家发展战略
while supporting Jordan’s national development strategy.
这个关于建立经济区的想法
The idea is for an economic zone,
能潜移默化地将难民的求职机会
one in which we could potentially integrate the employment of refugees
与难民收容国人的求职机会整合为息息相关的一体
alongside the employment of Jordanian host nationals.
离扎塔利难民营15分钟路程远的地方
And just 15 minutes away from the Zaatari refugee camp,
是83000位难民的家
home to 83,000 refugees,
那里也有经济区
is an existing economic zone
叫侯赛因宾塔拉国王发展区
called the King Hussein Bin Talal Development Area.
政府已经投入了上亿美元
The government has spent over a hundred million dollars
为它接上电网建立交通网络
connecting it to the electricity grid, connecting it to the road network,
但它还缺少两样东西
but it lacked two things:
劳动力和对内投资
access to labor and inward investment.
所以如果难民们能够在这工作
So what if refugees were able to work there
而不是困于难民营中
rather than being stuck in camps,
在他们回叙利亚之前
able to support their families and develop skills through vocational training
他们能养家糊口并且通过职业训练掌握一门技能
before they go back to Syria?
我们意识到这样做能使约旦受益
We recognized that that could benefit Jordan,
约旦的经济发展战略需要它来实现飞跃
whose development strategy requires it to make the leap
从一个中等收入国家到制造业大国
as a middle income country to manufacturing.
也能使难民受益
It could benefit refugees, but it could also contribute
因为这有利于叙利亚的灾后重建
to the postconflict reconstruction of Syria
人们会认识到我们应该逐渐将难民培养成
by recognizing that we need to incubate refugees
最终重建叙利亚的最好资源
as the best source of eventually rebuilding Syria.
我们在外交季刊发表了这个想法
We published the idea in the journal Foreign Affairs.
阿普杜拉国王接受了这个想法
King Abdullah has picked up on the idea.
并在两周前伦敦叙利亚人道主义捐助会议上宣布了
It was announced at the London Syria Conference two weeks ago,
会在暑假开始试点
and a pilot will begin in the summer.
掌声雷动
(Applause)
我想说的第三个建议
The third idea that I want to put to you
是接收国与难民间的偏好匹配
is preference matching between states and refugees
会产生一些愉悦的效果就像你看到的这张自拍照
to lead to the kinds of happy outcomes you see here in the selfie
拍下的安吉拉默克尔和叙利亚难民
featuring Angela Merkel and a Syrian refugee.
我们几乎不征询难民他们想要什么想去哪里
What we rarely do is ask refugees what they want, where they want to go,
但我认为这是我们应该做的
but I’d argue we can do that
也会让所有人受益
and still make everyone better off.
经济学家艾文劳斯提出的配对市场的理论
The economist Alvin Roth has developed the idea of matching markets,
就是将各方的偏好进行排列最终形成配对
ways in which the preference ranking of the parties shapes an eventual match.
我的同事威尔约翰和艾利克斯
My colleagues Will Jones and Alex Teytelboym
探索出一些可以施行在难民身上的方法
have explored ways in which that idea could be applied to refugees,
让难民排列出他们偏好的目标
to ask refugees to rank their preferred destinations,
但是同时也允许难民收容国排列出他们想要的难民
but also allow states to rank the types of refugees they want
的技能水平和语言水平
on skills criteria or language criteria
然后再让他们进行配对
and allow those to match.
当然你得在像传输性和漏洞等方面
Now, of course you’d need to build in quotas
建立配额
on things like diversity and vulnerability,
以提高匹配成功可能性
but it’s a way of increasing the possibilities of matching.
这种匹配方法被成功地应用在很多方面
The matching idea has been successfully used
比如学生与大学
to match, for instance, students with university places,
比如肾脏捐助者和病人
to match kidney donors with patients,
它还构成了存在于交友网站的运算法则
and it underlies the kind of algorithms that exist on dating websites.
应用致力于给难民更好的选择何乐而不为呢
So why not apply that to give refugees greater choice?
它也可以被用于国际层面
It could also be used at the national level,
我们如今正面临的巨大挑战
where one of the great challenges we face
说服当地政府接收难民
is to persuade local communities to accept refugees.
同时在我的国家例如
And at the moment, in my country, for instance,
我们送工程师去乡村地区送农民去城市
we often send engineers to rural areas and farmers to the cities,
根本毫无道理可言
which makes no sense at all.
所以配对市场提供了一种可能的方式将难民与收容国的偏好都聚集起来
So matching markets offer a potential way to bring those preferences together
倾听东道国的需求和人口要求
and listen to the needs and demands of the populations that host
以及难民的
and the refugees themselves.
第四个方法是人道主义的通行证
The fourth idea I want to put to you is of humanitarian visas.
我们见到的悲剧和混乱
Much of the tragedy and chaos we’ve seen in Europe
是完全可以避免的
was entirely avoidable.
究其根本 是因为欧洲难民庇护政策的基本矛盾
It stems from a fundamental contradiction in Europe’s asylum policy,
如下所示
which is the following:
为了在欧洲寻求政治避难
that in order to seek asylum in Europe,
你身不由己地选择危险的旅程
you have to arrive spontaneously by embarking on those dangerous journeys
我所描述的
that I described.
但是为什么在这个廉价航空领事能力强的时代
But why should those journeys be necessary in an era of the budget airline
这样的旅途还能成为必经之路
and modern consular capabilities?
它们完全是没有必要的旅程
They’re completely unnecessary journeys,
并且去年已经导致了超过3000人的死亡
and last year, they led to the deaths of over 3,000 people
在英国的边界和地域上
on Europe’s borders and within European territory.
如果难民能被允许
If refugees were simply allowed
直接前往欧洲并寻求庇护
to travel directly and seek asylum in Europe,
我们将会避免这一切
we would avoid that,
有方式能达成
and there’s a way of doing that
通过人道主义的通行证
through something called a humanitarian visa,
让难民在大使馆获取通行证
that allows people to collect a visa at an embassy
或领国的领事馆
or a consulate in a neighboring country
然后他们用自己的方式
and then simply pay their own way
选择乘船或坐飞机通往欧洲
through a ferry or a flight to Europe.
它花费一千欧元
It costs around a thousand euros
带偷渡者从土耳其抵达印度半岛
to take a smuggler from Turkey to the Greek islands.
但人道主义通行证发放之后 坐飞机从博德鲁姆(土耳其城市)到法兰克福(德国城市)只要两百欧元
It costs 200 euros to take a budget airline from Bodrum to Frankfurt.
如果我们允许难民这样做会有很多优点
If we allowed refugees to do that, it would have major advantages.
会拯救生命
It would save lives,
会给整个走私市场沉重一击
it would undercut the entire market for smugglers,
能减少我们前面所看到的欧洲的混乱程度
and it would remove the chaos we see from Europe’s front line
在像印度岛的地域上
in areas like the Greek islands.
政治阻碍了我们做理智的决策
It’s politics that prevents us doing that rather than a rational solution.
这个想法已经被应用了
And this is an idea that has been applied.
巴西采取了首创的方法
Brazil has adopted a pioneering approach
超过2000叙利亚难民能够得到人道主义通行证
where over 2,000 Syrians have been able to get humanitarian visas,
进入巴西并且承认了他们滞留巴西的难民身份
enter Brazil, and claim refugee status on arrival in Brazil.
在这个计划中每个叙利亚难民都能顺利度过这场灾难
And in that scheme, every Syrian who has gone through it
有难民身份 并且被认为是真诚的难民
has received refugee status and been recognized as a genuine refugee.
同时这也是一个历史性的先例
There is a historical precedent for it as well.
在1922到1942年间
Between 1922 and 1942,
南森护照被用于通行登记
these Nansen passports were used as travel documents
允许了450,000亚述人 土耳其人 车臣人
to allow 450,000 Assyrians, Turks and Chechens
穿越欧洲
to travel across Europe
并在欧洲的其它地方也承认了难民身份
and claim refugee status elsewhere in Europe.
南森国际难民总部
And the Nansen International Refugee Office
获得了诺贝尔和平奖
received the Nobel Peace Prize
说明难民通行证的确是可行策略
in recognition of this being a viable strategy.
我说的所有的四点想法
So all four of these ideas that I’ve presented you
都能拓宽阿米拉的选择集
are ways in which we can expand Amira’s choice set.
他们是我们能提供给难民们更好的机会
They’re ways in which we can have greater choice for refugees
远超那基础的毫无可能的三个选项
beyond those basic, impossible three options
我所解释给你的
I explained to you
也能让他人更好
and still leave others better off.
总之我们真的需要一个新的视角
In conclusion, we really need a new vision,
来增加难民的机会
a vision that enlarges the choices of refugees
并且意识到他们并不是负担
but recognizes that they don’t have to be a burden.
难民是一种负担的想法是完全站不住脚的
There’s nothing inevitable about refugees being a cost.
对他们是人道主义的必须承担的责任
Yes, they are a humanitarian responsibility,
但他们也是有能力天赋精神品质的人类
but they’re human beings with skills, talents, aspirations,
有能力做出贡献如果我们
with the ability to make contributions — if we let them.
在这个新世界
In the new world,
移民现象不会消失
migration is not going to go away.
我们在欧洲所见之景会伴随我们很多年
What we’ve seen in Europe will be with us for many years.
人们会继续旅行
People will continue to travel,
他们会继续无家可归
they’ll continue to be displaced,
我们需要找到合理的现实的管理方法
and we need to find rational, realistic ways of managing this —
不是建立在古老的逻辑学的人道主义的援助上
not based on the old logics of humanitarian assistance,
也不是慈善的基础上
not based on logics of charity,
而且建立在提供机会
but building on the opportunities
全球化市场移动性
offered by globalization, markets and mobility.
我恳请各位意识到并且敦促我们的政府
I’d urge you all to wake up and urge our politicians
也意识到这个挑战
to wake up to this challenge.
谢谢你们
Thank you very much.
掌声响起
(Applause)

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视频概述

人们总认为难民是一种负担,但其实不然,难民也能做出自己的贡献……

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

?skye

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLIfeGflNp8

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