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让退伍军人归途难行的孤独社会 – 译学馆
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让退伍军人归途难行的孤独社会

Our lonely society makes it hard to come home from war | Sebastian Junger

做了十五年战地记者后
I worked as a war reporter for 15 years
我才意识到自己出了问题
before I realized that I really had a problem.
我整个人都不对劲
There was something really wrong with me.
这事大概发生在9/11事件前一年 当时美国还没处于战乱中
This was about a year before 9/11, and America wasn’t at war yet.
人们尚未谈及PTSD
We weren’t talking about PTSD.
也未提及伤痛和战争
We were not yet talking about the effect of trauma and war
给人带来的心灵创伤
on the human psyche.
我在阿富汗待过几个月
I’d been in Afghanistan for a couple of months
同北部联盟 正值阿富汗与塔利班交战
with the Northern Alliance as they were fighting the Taliban.
当时 塔利班有一支空军部队
And at that point the Taliban had an air force,
他们还有战斗机 坦克和大炮
they had fighter planes, they had tanks, they had artillery,
有好几次 我们着实遭到了重创
and we really got hammered pretty badly a couple of times.
我们看见了一些非常丑陋的事情
We saw some very ugly things.
但我确实没想过这事会影响到我
But I didn’t really think it affected me.
我没怎么去想过它
I didn’t think much about it.
我返回纽约 回到居所
I came home to New York, where I live.
然后有一天 我走进地铁
Then one day I went down into the subway,
这辈子第一次
and for the first time in my life,
我感受到了真正的恐惧
I knew real fear.
我受到了大规模的恐慌袭击
I had a massive panic attack.
我可比当时在阿富汗要来得惶恐得多
I was way more scared than I had ever been in Afghanistan.
眼前所见的一切似乎都想要我的命
Everything I was looking at seemed like it was going to kill me,
但我不能解释为何
but I couldn’t explain why.
列车开得飞快
The trains were going too fast.
周围太多人
There were too many people.
灯光过于亮
The lights were too bright.
万物喧闹着 飞快晃动着
Everything was too loud, everything was moving too quickly.
我倒退回来倚靠一个支撑柱 然后只是等待着
I backed up against a support column and just waited for it.
当我感觉无法忍受时 我跑出了地铁站
When I couldn’t take it any longer, I ran out of the subway station
然后 走到我要去的地方
and walked wherever I was going.
之后我才知晓 当时自己患上的是短期PTSD——
Later, I found out that what I had was short-term PTSD:
创伤后压力心理障碍症
post-traumatic stress disorder.
我们从动物、人猿演化而来 在危险情境中生存了下来
We evolved as animals, as primates, to survive periods of danger,
而且 如果你生活在危险中
and if your life has been in danger,
你会对不熟悉的噪音作出反应
you want to react to unfamiliar noises.
你会浅眠 而且很容易惊醒
You want to sleep lightly, wake up easily.
你就会做噩梦并回忆起
You want to have nightmares and flashbacks
那些差点把你杀掉的事情
of the thing that could kill you.
你很易怒 因为它使你倾向于战斗
You want to be angry because it makes you predisposed to fight,
或是沮丧 因为它会让你有些脱离社交圈
or depressed, because it keeps you out of circulation a little bit.
你会时时刻刻的注意你自己的安全
Keeps you safe.
它让人很不高兴 但是也比被杀掉好
It’s not very pleasant, but it’s better than getting eaten.
大多数人能很快走出这个阴影
Most people recover from that pretty quickly.
大概需要几个星期 或是几个月
It takes a few weeks, a few months.
我一直有恐慌症 但是他们最终还是消失了
I kept having panic attacks, but they eventually went away.
我不知道这与我看见过的战争有关
I had no idea it was connected to the war that I’d seen.
我只是觉得我变得有些疯狂
I just thought I was going crazy,
然后 我觉得 很好 现在我不再疯狂
and then I thought, well, now I’m not going crazy anymore.
然而 大约有20%的人
About 20 percent of people, however,
最后演变成慢性、长期的PTSD
wind up with chronic, long-term PTSD.
他们不是要去面对短期的危险
They are not adapted to temporary danger.
而是不能适应日常的生活
They are maladapted for everyday life,
除非有人能帮他们一把
unless they get help.
我们都知道那些容易转变为长期PTSD的人
We know that the people who are vulnerable to long-term PTSD
这些人也许是童年时 蒙受过非人虐待、
are people who were abused as children,
也许是年幼时遭到精神创伤、
who suffered trauma as children,
也许是没有受过高等教育的人
people who have low education levels,
也许是有精神病的家庭遗传
people who have psychiatric disorders in their family.
如果你在越南服役
If you served in Vietnam
而你的兄弟是精神分裂病患者
and your brother is schizophrenic,
你很有可能因越南的经历而患上PTSD
you’re way more likely to get long-term PTSD from Vietnam.
因此我开始以记者的身份 来对这个问题进行调查研究
So I started to study this as a journalist,
并且意识到 确实这其中有所异常
and I realized that there was something really strange going on.
“人数”似乎朝着错误的方向不断发展
The numbers seemed to be going in the wrong direction.
每一次我们国家参与的战争
Every war that we have fought as a country,
——从独立战争开始
starting with the Civil War,
战争的强度开始下降
the intensity of the combat has gone down.
所以 伤亡率也开始下降
As a result, the casualty rates have gone down.
但伤残率却开始上升
But disability rates have gone up.
它们本该是朝同一方向进发
They should be going in the same direction,
但是却朝着不同的方向进行
but they’re going in different directions.
感谢上帝 最近在伊拉克和阿富汗的战争仅造成
The recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have produced, thank God,
越南战争伤亡率的三分之一
a casualty rate about one third of what it was in Vietnam.
但是 它们也导致了——
But they’ve also created —
多达三倍的伤残率
they’ve also produced three times the disability rates.
将近有 10% 的美国军人正陷于战争中
Around 10 percent of the US military is actively engaged in combat,
或者说是10%以下
10 percent or under.
他们在战场上开枪杀人
They’re shooting at people, killing people,
中弹、或者看着他们的战友倒下
getting shot at, seeing their friends get killed.
这是令人难以置信的创伤
It’s incredibly traumatic.
这仅仅是10%的军人
But it’s only about 10 percent of our military.
然而从政府的档案中 我们看到有一半的军人
But about half of our military has filed
正在领取 PTSD 的救济金
for some kind of PTSD compensation from the government.
从逻辑看来 自杀人数根本不符合这个数据
And suicide doesn’t even fit into this in a very logical way.
我们都听说过一个不幸的统计数据 平均每天 有22个退伍军人
We’ve all heard the tragic statistic of 22 vets a day, on average,
就在这个国家 选择自杀
in this country, killing themselves.
大部分人还没发觉
Most people don’t realize
这些自杀案例大多数是从越南战争回国的老兵
that the majority of those suicides are veterans of the Vietnam War,
是那一辈的人
that generation,
他们想要自我了断的决定 事实上 可能不会
and their decision to take their own lives actually might not be related
与他们50年前所打的战争有关
to the war they fought 50 years earlier.
实际上 目前没有战争与自杀是有关连性的统计数据
In fact, there’s no statistical connection between combat and suicide.
假如你在军队中参与过很多场战役
If you’re in the military and you’re in a lot of combat,
而你并没有被杀 那么你更不可能自杀
you’re no more likely to kill yourself than if you weren’t.
一项研究显示
In fact, one study found
假如你参与过伊拉克或者阿富汗战争
that if you deploy to Iraq or Afghanistan,
实际上 你不太可能会自杀
you’re actually slightly less likely to commit suicide later.
我在大学时期研究人类学
I studied anthropology in college.
到纳瓦霍人保护区做过实地调查
I did my fieldwork on the Navajo reservation.
写过当地长跑运动员的相关论文
I wrote a thesis on Navajo long-distance runners.
而最近 在我研究PTSD时
And recently, while I was researching PTSD,
突然有了这样的想法
I had this thought.
我想起我年轻时做过的研究
I thought back to the work I did when I was young,
我在想 我敢说纳瓦霍人 阿帕契族人 科曼奇人
and I thought, I bet the Navajo, the Apache, the Comanche —
我的意思是——这些好战的民族——
I mean, these are very warlike nations —
我打赌他们不像我们这样会患上PTSD
I bet they weren’t getting PTSD like we do.
当他们的战士从抵抗美国军队的战争中回到家乡
When their warriors came back from fighting the US military
或者是彼此抵抗
or fighting each other,
我敢说他们肯定很容易就重新融入部落生活
I bet they pretty much just slipped right back into tribal life.
也许
And maybe what determines
决定长期 PTSD 的因素
the rate of long-term PTSD
不是在外面发生了什么
isn’t what happened out there,
而是你回到了什么样的社会
but the kind of society you come back to.
要是回到一个紧密联系的、团结的、部落化的社会,
And maybe if you come back to a close, cohesive, tribal society,
你能很快度过创伤期
you can get over trauma pretty quickly.
但假如你回到的是一个人与人疏远的现代社会
And if you come back to an alienating, modern society,
或许会以郁郁终生结尾
you might remain traumatized your entire life.
换句话来说 也许问题不出在他们、那些退伍军人身上;
In other words, maybe the problem isn’t them, the vets;
而有可能是我们社会自身的问题
maybe the problem is us.
的确 无论用什么标准衡量
Certainly, modern society is hard on the human psyche
现代社会对人类心理造成的压迫都很大
by every metric that we have.
在一个财富上升的社会
As wealth goes up in a society,
自杀率不减反增
the suicide rate goes up instead of down.
如果你生活在现代社会中
If you live in modern society,
那么你的一生中
you’re up to eight times more likely
患抑郁症的可能性要比
to suffer from depression in your lifetime
居住在农耕社会高八倍
than if you live in a poor, agrarian society.
现代社会产生的自杀
Modern society has probably produced the highest rates of suicide
抑郁 焦虑 孤独以及虐待儿童的比率
and depression and anxiety and loneliness and child abuse
可能是人类历史上最高的
ever in human history.
我曾看过一项研究
I saw one study
它把尼日利亚的妇女
that compared women in Nigeria,
也就是非洲最混乱、暴力、堕落、
one of the most chaotic and violent and corrupt
最贫穷的国家之一
and poorest countries in Africa,
和北美的女性进行比较
to women in North America.
北美的城市女性是抑郁症患病率最高的
And the highest rates of depression were urban women in North America.
她们同样是最富有的一群人
That was also the wealthiest group.
那么 我们回头来看美军的状况
So let’s go back to the US military.
10% 的军人正处于战争中
Ten percent are in combat.
约乎50%的人申请PTSD补偿金
Around 50 percent have filed for PTSD compensation.
所以大概 40% 的退伍老兵 并不是在海外受到精神创伤
So about 40 percent of veterans really were not traumatized overseas
而是回到家后发现他们被孤立
but have come home to discover they are dangerously alienated
这会让他们很沮丧
and depressed.
在这些人身上到底发生了什么?
So what is happening with them?
他们遭遇了什麽?
What’s going on with those people,
我们让40%的人患上PTSD却不清楚成因?
the phantom 40 percent that are troubled but don’t understand why?
或许是这个原因:
Maybe it’s this:
也许当时他们在海外
maybe they had an experience of sort of tribal closeness
经历过部队亲密的战友关系
in their unit when they were overseas.
他们一起吃饭 一起睡觉
They were eating together, sleeping together,
一道完成任务和使命
doing tasks and missions together.
以生命为担保 相信彼此
They were trusting each other with their lives.
待他们回到家
And then they come home
曾经的一切都必须舍弃
and they have to give all that up
他们回到社会 这个现代社会
and they’re coming back to a society, a modern society,
这个甚至对非军人都苛刻至极的社会
which is hard on people who weren’t even in the military.
所有人在这社会都活得艰苦
It’s just hard on everybody.
而我们却一直关注创伤 PTSD
And we keep focusing on trauma, PTSD.
但对大部分人来说
But for a lot of these people,
也许这不是精神创伤
maybe it’s not trauma.
我的意思是 当然了 士兵的确是受过精神创伤
I mean, certainly, soldiers are traumatized
也有士兵接受过治疗
and the ones who are have to be treated for that.
但是这之中许多人——
But a lot of them —
也许困扰他们的只是一种疏离感
maybe what’s bothering them is actually a kind of alienation.
我的意思是 也许我们只是错用了词语去形容他们
I mean, maybe we just have the wrong word for some of it,
只要调整我们的语句 改变我们的想法
and just changing our language, our understanding,
可以对他们有一点帮助
would help a little bit.
“战后异化障碍”
“Post-deployment alienation disorder.”
甚至可能只要对他们换成这个称呼方式
Maybe even just calling it that for some of these people
就会让他们停止联想
would allow them to stop imagining
试图想象一个没有真正发生过的创伤
trying to imagine a trauma that didn’t really happen
这是为了解释一种他们正在经历的感受
in order to explain a feeling that really is happening.
而事实上 这是一种非常危险的感觉
And in fact, it’s an extremely dangerous feeling.
疏远和抑郁有可能导致自杀
That alienation and depression can lead to suicide.
这些人身处险境
These people are in danger.
最重要的就是了解到为什么会这样
It’s very important to understand why.
以色列军人患 PTSD的概率是1%
The Israeli military has a PTSD rate of around one percent.
有一种理论是说 因为以色列的所有人都需要服兵役
The theory is that everyone in Israel is supposed to serve in the military.
当士兵从前线回归
When soldiers come back from the front line,
他们不是要从军队环境回到文明社会
they’re not going from a military environment to a civilian environment.
他们是从每个人都了解的军队环境回到
They’re coming back to a community where everyone understands
一个社区中
about the military.
每个人都已经在那 或者是即将去那
Everyone has been in it or is going to be in it.
每个人都了解其中的形势
Everyone understands the situation they’re all in.
就好像他们都在一个部落中
It’s as if they’re all in one big tribe.
我们都知道 如果拿做实验用的小白鼠
We know that if you take a lab rat
折磨它 把它单独关在笼子里
and traumatize it and put it in a cage by itself,
你可以永无止境地让它保持在精神创伤的状态
you can maintain its trauma symptoms almost indefinitely.
但假如你把同样的实验鼠放在有其他老鼠的笼子里
And if you take that same lab rat and put it in a cage with other rats,
在两周之后 它会很好
after a couple of weeks, it’s pretty much OK.
在9/11之后
After 9/11,
纽约的谋杀率下降了40%
the murder rate in New York City went down by 40 percent.
自杀率也下降了
The suicide rate went down.
纽约的暴力犯罪率 随9/11之后也下降了
The violent crime rate in New York went down after 9/11.
甚至在之前战役中 饱受 PTSD 之苦的老兵都说
Even combat veterans of previous wars who suffered from PTSD
他们的症状在9/11之后有所缓和
said that their symptoms went down after 9/11 happened.
原因是 如果你使整个社会受到精神创伤
The reason is that if you traumatize an entire society,
我们并不会因此瓦解崩溃 彼此针锋相对
we don’t fall apart and turn on one another.
我们会融为一体 团结统一
We come together. We unify.
大致来说 我们产生了集体意识
Basically, we tribalize,
团结一起的过程让人感觉很好也对我们有益
and that process of unifying feels so good and is so good for us,
甚至可以帮助那些
that it even helps people
还在苦苦与精神健康问题缠斗的人
who are struggling with mental health issues.
在二战伦敦被德国轰炸的期间
During the blitz in London,
精神病医院的患者减少了
admissions to psychiatric wards went down during the bombings.
一时之间 美国军人回到了
For a while, that was the kind of country
一个团结一心的国家
that American soldiers came back to — a unified country.
我们紧紧相依
We were sticking together.
想知道到底是什么威胁着我们
We were trying to understand the threat against us.
试着自我帮助 加益于世界
We were trying to help ourselves and the world.
但是 那已经变了
But that has changed.
现在 美国的在役军人、
Now, American soldiers,
美国老兵 正在回到一个有着巨大分歧的国家
American veterans are coming back to a country that is so bitterly divided
两党互相指控对方叛国、
that the two political parties are literally accusing each other
作为一个国家的敌人
of treason, of being an enemy of the state,
或者暗中颠覆国家的国土安全和福利
of trying to undermine the security and the welfare of their own country.
贫富差距达到前所未有之大
The gap between rich and poor is the biggest it’s ever been.
而且只是变得更糟
It’s just getting worse.
种族关系恶劣
Race relations are terrible.
街上有人示威游行、甚至引发暴乱
There are demonstrations and even riots in the streets
就是因为种族的不平等
because of racial injustice.
退伍军人知道任何一个部落或者连队
And veterans know that any tribe that treated itself that way — in fact,
以这样的方式对待自己的战友 都不会存活
any platoon that treated itself that way — would never survive.
我们却已经习惯了
We’ve gotten used to it.
退伍军人离开战地 回到国内
Veterans have gone away and are coming back
用全新的眼光 看待自己的国家
and seeing their own country with fresh eyes.
目睹一切的发生
And they see what’s going on.
这就是他们为之浴血奋斗的国家
This is the country they fought for.
也难怪他们会抑郁
No wonder they’re depressed.
他们会害怕
No wonder they’re scared.
有的时候 我们问自己 是否能够拯救那些老兵
Sometimes, we ask ourselves if we can save the vets.
我反倒认为 真正的问题在于 我们能不能拯救我們的社會
I think the real question is if we can save ourselves.
如果能
If we can,
我想他们就会有所好转
I think the vets are going to be fine.
这个国家是时候该团结起来了
It’s time for this country to unite,
只为帮助那些为保护我们而奋勇斗争的人
if only to help the men and women who fought to protect us.
非常感谢大家的倾听
Thank you very much.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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译制信息
视频概述

退伍军人从战争中返乡,所要经历的疏远与沮丧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

半颗心broken

审核员

Ah~Qiu

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o9DNWK6WfQw

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