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兰花——谎言、作弊和偷窃 – 译学馆
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兰花——谎言、作弊和偷窃

Orchids: The Masters Of Lying, Cheating & Stealing

地球上分布最广的生物往往是多面手——
Earth’s most ubiquitous life-formstend to be generalists –
这些物种能适应任何生长条件
species whose individuals can adapt to eating just about anything, anywhere.
而兰花家族则凭绝活在全球生长
But the flowering plant family known as orchids have gained a global presence by being specialists,
每种兰花会自选独特的栖息地
with each species customizedto a very specific habitat.
道貌岸然的野兰花们都是小气鬼
And behind orchids’ wild variety of looks and behaviors are the same few stingy strategies.
例如 其它开花植物给种子提供养料供其生长
For one, while other flowering plants send their seeds off with a supply of victuals to get them growing,
兰花却不是
orchids don’t.
相反 兰花种子必须诱骗真菌喂养
Instead, their seedlings must trick fungiinto feeding them
直到自己足够成熟 能通过光合作用获得养分
until they’re old enough to photosynthesize their own food.
那时 有些品种的兰花开始回馈
At that point, some species start giving back,
但有些品种的兰花则哄骗真菌伙伴 使其继续单方面付出
but others hoodwink their fungal partners into lifelong one-way relationships.
其实有些兰花品种致力于捡便宜
In fact, several are so dedicated to mooching that
因为它们甚至没有自产糖分的能力
they don’t even have the ability toproduce their own sugar.
而且很多兰花还欺骗传粉昆虫
And many orchids also cheat their pollinators.
几乎所有的花朵都给传粉昆虫提供食物
Almost flowers offer snacks to the critters who transfer their pollen,
而兰花则利用很多伪装技巧欺骗传粉昆虫
orchids have a rich array of disguises
如打扮成传粉昆虫的潜在伴侣或它们最喜欢的含糖花朵
that make them look or smell like the pollinator’s potential mates or their favorite sugar-filled flowers.
例如 澳州铁锤兰的色味像静态雌性黄蜂
For example, Australian hammer orchids look and smell like flightless female wasps.
但当雄蜂试图与它交配时
But when a male tries to carry her off to mate,
却被弹向花朵的性器官
he catapults instead into the flower’s sex organs,
有时会粘到黏稠的花粉
sometimes picking up a sticky packet of pollen.
接下来谈一下兰花的择居原则
Then there’s the orchid’s choice of real estate.
它们没有栖息于肥沃土地
Instead of setting down roots in a patch of rich soil,
不必花费能量与其它植物争阳光养料
and then having to waste energy competing with other plants for light and nutrients,
多数兰花长在贫瘠荒凉的地方
most orchids settle in inhospitable low-rent locations
如裸露的岩石 湿润的沼泽或树木的枝丫上
like bare bedrock, soggy bogs,or the branches of trees.
兰花自带吝啬伎俩
Orchids have customized these miserly habits-
如哄骗真菌和传粉昆虫 选择劣等居住地
mooching off of fungi, cheating pollinators, and choosing cheap real estate
从新西兰亚南极群岛到热带雨林 它们的栖息地无处不在
to habitats ranging from sub-Antarctic islands to tropical rainforests.
并在这过程中 兰花的品种竟多达25000个
And in the process, they blossomed into an astounding 25,000 species.
多数兰花擅于适应特定的地理环境
most of which are specialized to live in only one particular place with its particular conditions.
引人注意的还有野生品种和奇异外表
And their wild variety and exotic looks have not escaped our notice.
19世纪的英国掀起了一股兰花狂热风
During the so-called Orchideliriumin 19th century England,
贵族派遣兰花猎人去热带地区搜寻珍品兰
Rich aristocrats sent orchid hunters off to scour the tropics for rare, valuable finds.
兰花猎人有时为了独占珍品 甚至烧毁身后的森林
The hunters even sometimes touched or razed the forests behind them in a quest for exclusivity.
如今 倒卖野生兰花是犯法的
Today it’s illegal to collect or trade wild orchids,
但每年仍有成千上万花朵在黑市上出售
but tens of thousands of flowers are soldon the black market each year,
甚至能卖到成千上万美元
some for tens of thousands of dollars.
尽管兰花猎人不再砍伐整座森林
And, while orchid hunters themselves no longer chop down whole forests,
但每年仍有大量兰花原始栖息地因砍伐森林而丧失
vast swaths of prime orchid habitat are lost to deforestation each year,
使数千兰花品种濒临灭绝
putting thousands of orchid species at risk of extinction.
但是兰花多样的美丽似乎拯救了自己
And yet, orchids’ diverse splendor may actually help save them,
这多亏了全世界兰花爱好者的奉献
Thanks to the devotion of a global network of orchidphiles.
2010年 在英国警察昼夜保卫下
In 2010, police in England stood guard around the clock
世界上最后一株野生仙履兰免于被偷
to protect the country’s last wild lady’s slipper orchid from thieves.
而且在兰花之乡厄瓜多尔
And in Ecuador, home to some of the highest densities of orchids in the world,
自然资源保护者建立了雨林保护区来保护奇特的德古拉兰花
conservationists established rainforest reserves to save the remarkable-looking Dracula orchids.
同时 澳洲人民建立栅栏
Meanwhile, Australian citizens are building fences
来保护蜘蛛兰免受兔子和袋鼠的侵害
to protect threatened spider orchids from grazing rabbits and kangaroos,
美国科学家在实验室里培育珍稀的雪茄萼足兰
and scientists in the US are breeding rare cigar orchids in the lab
并把它们种到原栖息地南佛罗里达
and planting them in their native habitat in South Florida.
这么做都是为了拯救撒谎欺骗偷盗的兰花
All to save a bunch of plants that lie, cheat, steal, and –
哦 也是美丽的兰花
ooooooh, that one’s pretty!
嘿!艾米丽在此
Hey! Emily here
感谢科廷大学和西澳大利亚大学对视频的支持
Thanks to Curtin University and University of Western Australia for sponsoring this video.
并且特别感谢金斯利·迪克森
Also, special thanks to Kingsley Dixon
还有世界自然保护联盟物种存续委员会兰花专家组
and the rest of the folks in the Orchid Specialist Group of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission
给予我们专业指导
for sharing their expertise with us.
此专业团队致力于帮助全世界兰花爱好者
The special is great dedicated to helping the orchidphiles around the world
进一步了解世界上最具多样性的兰花家族
learn more about Earth’s most diverse plant family,
并保护兰花 恢复它们的栖息地
in order to protect and restore orchids and their habitats.

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兰花的习性和保护

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D94Oe0Vuh9U

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