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如何培养学生的沟通能力

Oracy in the Classroom: Strategies for Effective Talk

如果你们家
Put your hand up
有人是从别的地方来的请举手
if someone in your family comes from somewhere else
然后现在住在伦敦
in the world and hascome to live in London.
你们能转过去和旁边的人
Could you turn to the person next to you
讨论一下这个话题吗?
and have a discussionabout this talking point? >>Student:
我觉得生活在斯特拉特福德更好
I think Stratfordis a better place to live
因为他们不排斥任何人 而且……
because they’re not againstanyone and it’s– >>Student:
我能弄得明白点吗?
Can I just clarify you?
你说的“排斥” 是什么意思
What do you mean by, like, against? > > Teacher:
语言表达能力是课上一切活动的基础
Oracy is the keystone to everything that happens in the curriculum.
我们对交流的期望值很高
There are such high expectationsfor talk
而且这确实很有用
and it does really make a difference
对孩子来说 就是能表达的清楚 表达的自信
in the children, how articulate and how confident they are.
21世纪学校的展望是为世界输送
The vision of School Twenty-One is to prepare young people for the world
将要步入21世纪的年轻人
that they’re going to go intoin the twenty-first century.
我们教的这些孩子面临的最大障碍实际上是
of the biggest barriers to the students we serve really getting
在生活中缺乏有效的沟通技巧
on in life is lack ofgood communication skills.
我们需要把口语提升到和阅读写作相同的水平
We need to elevate speaking to the same level as reading and writing. >>Milo:
因此我们进行了投票
So we have a vote.
让我最喜欢交谈的原因是
what makes me enjoy talking the most is that
每个人都在听你说话
everybody’s listening to you
你就像世界的一部分
and you’re like part of the world, and
你感受到了尊重和重视
you feel respected and important.
当我说话的时候 他们都在听我说
When I’m talking, they’relistening what I’m saying,
有时他们会向我提问 有时我向他们提问
and sometimes they give me questions, or maybe I give them questions.
我们期待每个孩子
Every child within this school
能抓住学校里每节课上的
is expected to speak in every lesson
每个发言机会
in every opportunity throughout their school day,
同时我们也尝试营造多种不同的情境
and we try and create lots of different context
来帮助年轻人磨炼表达能力
for young people to hone their skills as speakers
现在我希望我们能开展一个关于
so what I want us to do now is to have a discussion about
不同文化的讨论
about different kinds of culture
我希望我们讨论:
and I want us to discuss this:
一些文化比其他文化更好
some cultures are better than others.
我想如果你问每个老师 “你在课堂上交流吗?”
>>I think every teacher, if you say tothem,”Do you talk in your classroom?”
他们肯定会回答是的
of course they’re talkingin their classroom.
但区别在于这其中的深意
But what’s different hereis the deliberateness of it. >>Beccy:
每位教师都需要有个工具箱
Every teacher needsto have that toolkit of things
来帮助他们在练习时进行有效的交流
that they can draw on to bring effective talk into their practices. >>Amy:
我们做了很多工作来介绍
We’ve done a lot ofwork introducing sentence stems
孩子们可以在不同场合中使用的句子结构
that children can use for differentsituations
来赞同别人的观点
so for agreeing with somebody
来礼貌地反对别人的观点
for disagreeing politely with someone
或者来反驳别人
for challenging someone
当我们做这些时
And while we’re doing that,
我希望你们能
I want you to make sure that
用到这其中的一些句子结构
you’re using some of the sentence stems
这样你就能表达与别人的想法有关的观点
so you might set linking to someone’s points
或者以别人的想法为基础的观点
or build on something that somebody has said.
以此为基础 我同意 因为也许……
Building on there, I agree, because maybe…
对我的练习影响最大的是交流指导方针
The thing that’s had the biggest impact on my practice is probably discussion guidelines.
我们将要讨论为什么信念很重要
We are going to be discussingwhy beliefs were important,
或者为什么信念在古希腊中不重要
or why they weren’t importantin ancient Greece.
有人能告诉我们交流指导的内容吗
Could anybody remind me aboutany of our discussion guidelines? >>Student:
其中一条是 当有人没有参与交流时
One of them is whensomeone’s not contributing,
你可以通过向他们提问来邀请他们加入谈话 或者喊他们的名字
you have to invite them by asking them a question, or saying their name. >>Amy:
非常好 你为什么那样做 阿兰姆
Excellent, whywould you do that, Aram? >>Student:
那样每个人都有主意了
Then everyone has an idea. >>Amy:
每个人都会分享他们的观点 对吗 非常好
Everyone gets toshare their idea, don’t they. Well done.
因此交流指导方针是和学生们共同制定的
>>So discussion guidelines were createdin conjunction with the children.
六个要点中的五个 是我们认为进行顺利谈话的必要条件
These are the five of six key things that we think make a really good discussion.
我会在课堂中居于次位
I’ve been able to take a step back and
我认为这样能让孩子在课堂中起主导作用
and I think that the children take on a larger role within the classroom
我想应该是阿瑞斯和雅典娜 因为他们都是战争之神
> > Student: I think it should be Ares and Athena, because they’re both the god of war.
嗯 但是那里有很多渔民
> > Student: Yeah, but to challenge you Debar,
这让你的观点站不住脚
there are lots of fishermen — > > Amy:
所以在课堂上提升口语能力的另一个重要方法是
So another key way of promoting oracy in the classroom is
仔细思考你使用的分组形式
to think carefully aboutthe groupings that you use.
所以不管你是安排学生两人一组
So whether you’re gettingthem to talk in pairs
还是三人一组 或者是更大的小组
or in trios, or in larger groups. >>Beccy:
有时三人一组最好
Sometimes it’s bestto have students in threes.
有时我们观察他们如何在讨论中站住脚 反驳其他人的观点
Sometimes we look at how they can stand in the traverse, opposite each other.
每个小组都可以产生一种不同的对话模式
Each of those differentgroupings enables a different type of conversation. >>Students:
如果你能想得更深入 我们都是人类
If you see inside them, we’re all human beings .
我们都是人
and we’re all people.
我们的口语能力训练系统是综合性的
Our oracy programis comprehensive.
我们可以看到数学课科学课
it has to be seen in maths and science
和别的课程 通常不注重交流
and those subjects that traditionally haven’t had a talk focus.
这里一共有24块饼干
There are twenty-fourcookies altogether.
一共有24块饼干
There aretwenty-four cookies altogether. >>Kate:
有3个孩子
There’re three children
这里有3个孩子
There are three children
好的 我们来听听埃里克的观点
All right Let’s see what Alex says
我以前在数学课上总会鼓励学生发言
I would say that I’d always encouraged talk in my Master’s before,
但和之前不同的是
but what’s changed
我真的在认真地为交流做准备
is that I really plan very carefully for talk,
并且我明确地组织了交流的内容 好了
and also I structure thetalk very explicitly. >>Okay,
现在我们要开始我们的交谈任务了
so we’re going togo and do our talk task.
交谈的任务让他们在完成新课程的学习过程中得到练习
> > The talk task, they get to practice what they’ve done in the new learning,
他们互相交流他们做了什么
and they’re talking throughwhat they’re doing
这是关于扩展词汇和提升语言能力的说明
So it’s about developing theirvocabulary and language of explanation.
我们在讨论分数(除法)
We were talkingabout fractions.
我们做成四个圆圈
we done like 4 circles
然后我们需要将二十四个人分组
and then we needed to share twenty-four in each group. >>One,
一 二 三 四 五 六
One, two, three, four, fix, six.
到你了 我们用一些句子来帮助我们理解
Your turn. >>We were using sentences to help us. >>Students:
24在4个小朋友中平分 每人能得到6个
Twenty-four shared equallybetween four children is equal to six. >>Alexia:
我们做另一个吧
Let’s do another one.
有很多各种各样的原因使学生
There are lots ofdifferent reasons why we get students
意识不到这是交流的地方
who may not feel it’salmost their place to speak.
因为这些原因 口语能力是关于平等
So for all those reasons,oracy is an issue of equality,
公平 社会流动性的问题
of equity, of social mobility.
我刚刚在讨论中听到一些很棒的观点
Wow, I heard some pretty amazing discussions going on just now.
我们来听听一些小组的反馈
So let’s get some feedbackfrom some groups. >>Beccy:
因为专注于对口语能力的培养
Because of the focus on oracy,
我们看到学生对自己的想法更有信心了
we’ve seen our students becomemuch more confident in their ideas.
而通过创造让他们开口的情景和机会
By creating the context and theopportunities for them to speak,
他们也顺应环境 变得能说会道 成为一个有吸引力的讲话者
they’ve just flown, and becomeeloquent, engaging speakers. >>Teacher: Hayden?
海登
> > Hayden:
我们的达成的结论是我们不赞同这个观点
We came to a decision and said that we disagree with the text.
每个人都是独特的 每个人又是一样的
Everyone is unique, everyone’s the same,
只不过他们用不同的方式做自己的事情
but they do their thingsin different ways.
21中 斯特拉特福德 伦敦 英国2016年初等阅读写作数学课程胜过当地其他学校 2015年英国教育部赞誉其在提高学生勇气和适应力上做的贡献 并颁发的个性奖 2014年在英国政府制定的各项标准中均获优
学校工作21中 斯特拉特福德 伦敦 英国
从这所学校探索更多 学会更多沟通技巧 看更多学校工作

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视频概述

对于孩子们来说,沟通能力非常重要。本视频中,我们会了解到21世纪学校的老师们是如何有效地培养学生们的沟通能力的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ADAY9AQm54

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