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我怎样处理绘画中遇到的细节?

Or, what do I do with all those details?

Everyone says you’ve got to simplify your paintings,
每个人都告诉你画画要简洁
but the whole world just seems to be details! It’s everywhere.
但是世界好像就是充满了细节!到处都是
So what do you leave out?
所以画画时要省略些什么呢?
Today I’m going to show you.
让我来告诉你
和伊安·罗伯特学习掌握构图艺术
Hi, Ian Roberts and Mastering Composition.
嗨 我是伊安·罗伯特 要来讲讲绘画构造
So today I want to take you through
所以今天我将带你感受
the process of how you can simplify paintings
如何简化绘画画面
and what it means to leave out detail.
同时领略删减细节的重要性
Because if you’re looking at a scene,
因为如果你去看一幅景的话
it’s, I don’t know,
它 具体我不知道
millions of blades of grass, thousands of flowers,
也许会有上百万根草 上千朵花
tens of thousands of bricks, 40 windows.
上万块砖 四十扇窗户
I mean, what’s important, what isn’t important,
我的意思是 什么是重要的 什么是不重要的
what do you leave out, what do you what do you put in?
你要舍弃什么 要留下什么呢?
Well, it really demands a different way of looking at the whole problem,
好吧 这确实要我们用不同方式来看整个问题
so I’m going to show you a diagram
所以接下来我将会展示一幅图解
that’ll help explain it.
这样我好解释
I’ve shown this diagram before, but I think it’s worth looking at again.
我以前展示过这幅图解 但它值得我们再次品析
This is the picture plane, right, this is your canvas,
这是绘画层 对吧 这是你的画布
and most people are thinking in terms of the canvas,
大多数人的思考也停留在那个画布上
and the details, and the subject matter,
还有那些细节 主题
and their brush work, and their color, and so on like that,
他们的笔触 画的色彩等等
and you’re putting everything on the picture plane
然后你再将所有的东西都放在画面中
hoping that it will add up to a painting.
指望着这些东西能组成一幅画
But my contention is,
但我想说
you really need to almost come around from the back, you could see.
你得从最后一层开始 你可以看到在里
That rather than thinking of your picture, you first think about the composition.
也就是你构思前 得先想想画的构造
What in the world you are looking at in terms of cropping and framing,
取景 简化后的画面应该是怎样的
the structure you find there, and then that’s on this plane,
还有画的结构 它在此层面
and then how that structure interacts with the value masses.
然后结构又是如何与那些主体色块相联系的
The design of the value masses, how it engages here.
对主体色块的设计又如何呈现在这
And then you’ll find that what happens here starts to sort of take care of itself,
然后你会发现画面将自然显现
because if the detail isn’t serving this,
因为如果这里的细节不适合
you leave it out.
你可以把它去掉
So everything is thought of first in terms of composition,
所以任何时候都要先考虑画的构造
that’s the structure, the design,
画的结构 画的设计
how they’re working here and here,
它们又是如何在这两个层面之间运作的
and when you take care of that,
当你注意到这些时
it lets you know that,
你就会明白
“Oh, that detail is unnecessary.
“哦 原来这个细节并不重要
That detail’s unnecessary. I don’t need that either.”
那个细节也不重要 我不需要画它”
You can eliminate a lot of things from here
你可以省很多花在第一层面上的功夫
when there’s a really good design structure here.
前提是后两层得有精妙的设计结构
So after the drawing course I taught this winter,
所以在我今年冬天的绘画课之后
we did a 30 day challenge doing a composition a day,
我们尝试了每天画一幅画 坚持了30天
and I did it with them.
我和学生们一起做的
And some of them were from life,
他们有些作品来源于生活
so I don’t have any photos from them,
所以我没有那些原照片
but many of them were were from photos.
但其中有很多画还是来源于照片
Now, these are not finished drawings.
现在 这些画并非成品
They’re really, um,
它们确实 呃
they’re not thumbnails either,
它们也不是缩略图
but I wouldn’t work on them anymore.
但我也不会再接着细化完善它们了
I mean they’re done,
这些画的创作都到此为止了
but they’re really a valuable way of studies for compositions,
但是这些画作提供了一个学习绘画的好方法
particularly images you’re not really sure about,
尤其是那些你不太确定的图像
ways to think about them before you begin to paint.
开始画画前 你能用此方法仔细揣摩
You can learn a lot by drawing them like this.
通过这样画画的方式 你能从中受益
So I’m going to show you five images,
所以我接下来会展示四幅图片
so an uncropped one, a cropped one,
每幅图都有裁剪前的 裁剪后的
and then the drawing in each case.
我还会给出每幅图相应的绘画
And you’ll see that I am breaking it down,
然后你将看到我如何将画拆分
i am looking thinking of structure
我构思的是结构
but I’m breaking it down into the design of the value masses.
但我做的是将画设计成明暗交错的阴影块
Simplified, value masses.
简化成阴影块
So we’ll look at four of them.
所以我们来看看这四幅图
So this is evening light
这是夜晚的风景
and we have some really nice shadows and shapes right in here
这里有些美丽的倒影 还有优美的轮廓
and some nice stuff going on in the foreground.
这前面也有漂亮的花花草草
And there’s a good structure of sort of the road coming this way and horizontals.
路的结构也不错 从这里延伸下去 这个是水平线
So we see that it’s got potential,
所以我们可见 这幅画是蕴含了些东西的
but there’s a lot of kind of stuff going on that is not very dramatic.
但是这幅图里还是有太多的无用信息了
If you really look at it,
如果你认真观察这幅画的话
the interesting part is kind of right there, isn’t it?
最有趣的部分在这里 对吧
So this is how I’d crop it.
所以这是我裁剪之后的图片
Now, when you look at it, you realize,
现在 当你看到这幅画时 你就会意识到
“Oh, now I’m looking at the actual shapes.
“哦 我看到的是真真实实的形状
I’m looking at some really strong lights and darks.”
我看到的是真实的明暗交错”
And even though there’s flowers everywhere,
到处都是花儿
and tall grasses, and telephone poles,
还有高高的树 电线杆
and individual trees, and little sky holes everywhere,
有一颗一颗的树 还有从树间缝隙中透出的天空
and boy, look at all those pine trees there,
看看这里还有许多松树
and little things here, and telephone lines,
还有这些小东西 电线
and telephone poles, and posts here,
电线杆 还有邮寄箱
and oh my god, seems to be so much stuff!
哦 天哪 这里面东西太多了吧
But the point is, if you’re going to draw this,
所以重要的是 如果你真要画这幅画
and the drawing process is just what allows you to simplify things down,
那你就得在绘画过程中简化画中元素了
then you realize all those trees,
然后你就会发现你可以把所有树
you can just create as a mass!
都画成一团阴影
That tree, just a shape.
那棵树就只有个轮廓
In the shadow side, and another mass,
在树的暗部以及另外一块阴影
you see if there’s only about four values in that thing,
你可以看到其中大约只有四个重要事物
and you see that I’m sort of running the… If it’s horizontal,
你可以看到我的笔触……如果这里是水平线
I run the marks this way, right?
我是这样划线的 对吧?
Really clear what’s going on.
确实很条理清晰
If it’s vertical, I tend to run them this way.
如果物体是竖直的 我会这样描画
“Oh, I see what’s going on. Those are trees.”
“哦 我明白怎么回事了 那些是树”
And you can see that I’m thinking in terms of the design and in terms of the structure.
你会发现我在意的是结构和设计
And you could imagine that this drawing,
你可以想象一下这幅画
which is about six inches across on the bottom,
它底部为六英寸长
you could translate the sets to say 10 by 12, or 12 x 16 or something like that,
你们大概可换算为10×12cm或12×16cm
and add color,
接下来上色
and you’d have a really nice little painting.
你将得到一幅漂亮的小画
Just using the shapes that are there, right,
仅仅只要利用这些轮廓 对吧
just simplifying it down so that it’s the design that tells you what to use,
只要简化画面 整体设计会告诉你画些什么
not being distracted by all the information.
不被所有的信息所扰乱
This is a photograph I took over 25 years ago,
我拍这张照片还是在25年前
it’s actually a print and you can see the masking tape
这其实是打印的 你可以看到这里的遮蔽胶带
that’s holding it down there.
已掉下一角
But I’ve always sort of resisted painting it.
但我对于画这幅画一直有些抗拒
It was a evening scene. I think the two waitresses I knew them,
这是个夜晚的场景 这两个服务员我认识
and I just said, “Hey could you stand there?”
我当时说:“嘿 你可以站那吗?”
sort of after work or something.
当时她可能刚刚完成一些工作
And I took some photographs and I’ve always thought it would make an interesting painting,
我拍了些照片 总想着能画幅有趣的画
but I was always reluctant to try it and I thought during the challenge,
但我又并不想尝试去画它 这是个很大的挑战
why don’t I just draw it and see?
我为什么不画来看看呢?
So my first thought was to get rid of this window here,
所以我们第一个想法便是将这儿的窗户去掉
because it kind of divides us between what we’re supposed to be looking at.
因为它会分散我们对要看的事物的注意力
And this is the way I cropped it.
这是我裁剪过后的
So now obviously, what you’re going to
现在 很明显 你需要做的
is the interaction here between the two people.
就是刻画出两人之间的交流感
There’s a narrative there, we can’t help but be attracted to that.
给人一种叙事感 不由自主被她们的交谈吸引
And then there’s this second thing of the light bringing us round to here.
光线还有个作用 它将我们引向这里
So it’s kind of nice movement within the picture plane
因此 在叙事方面
to what the narrative element would be.
她俩的交谈成为画里一道美丽的风景
And there’s the drawing. And it’s kept really simple.
这是对应的画 它相当简洁
I mean, that painting or whatever it is is up there,
我想说 无论画里有什么
the little plants are gone. There’s all kinds of things that I’ve eliminated.
如那盆植物就不见了 我还删去了里面许多东西
The bricks are gone, the floorboards are gone.
砖块不见了 地板不见了
I’m just thinking in terms of value masses,
我考虑的只是那些有价值的事物
and I mean, if you look at her face, there’s actually nothing going on at all,
还有 如果你去看她的脸 其实上面什么东西都没有
right? Just the tray and the girl holding the tray,
对吧?只能看见那个盘子 还有托着盘子的女孩
but you get this movement like this,
但你可以知道她的动作
bringing us round to what will be the narrative element.
此画展现了出了她俩交谈的样子
And everything else is just quiet and supporting that.
而没强调其他东西 只是为叙事服务
And you can see that it’s still it’s like
而且你会发现 画里还是只有
three four values, very simple,
三四个重要信息的 很简洁
and yet it sort of starts to have something,
这幅画已初步形成
you could say, I could make a painting out of that.
是的 我把照片画出来了
So the drawing process helped simplify the thinking
绘画过程也帮助我们简化我们的思路
into seeing where the strength of it was.
更好抓住其结构
The strength of the image was, without getting distracted by all the detail.
让我们理解画的结构 不被其余细节所干扰
This is a fairly typical scene of rural Ontario in the summer
这是张典型的夏天安大略湖边的农村景象照
and I really like the sort of simple iconic shapes of the barn.
我也很喜欢谷仓那种简约的外型
But the thing that I find is that you’ve got these cut grasses coming to this single tree here,
但我发现割草留下的线条与这棵树交汇
and these lines coming up to here.
并一直延伸到这里
That’s kind of creating a secondary pull,
这相当于创造出了第二种张力
compared to maybe a stronger design sense here.
但原本这里才有着更强的设计感
So I cropped it like that.
所以我把画裁成了这样
So we’re really coming in on these
所以我们可以把注意力放在这些
simple, beautiful, iconic shapes
简洁 漂亮 又有标志性的形状上
on the picture plane like that with a pathway probably leading back to here.
在这样的图层上 这里有条小路通往这边
But even now, I mean we have a tree here that has lots of information,
但即使是现在 我们还是有这样复杂的树木
there’s little sky holes, other trees back here,
还有树缝中的天空 还有后面这些树
this kind of funky looking tree like that,
还有后面这些有趣的树
and we’ve got all these cut grasses, and there’s cows in here,
我们还看到修剪后的草坪 还有奶牛
and all kinds of little fence pits, and doorways,
还有这种小篱笆坑 门
and trucks, and cut grasses.
还有卡车 割完的草
There’s still a lot of things.
还是有很多东西
There’s all these little lines going around here, and lines here,
画里全是这种小线条 还有这种线条
and boards, and there’s still a lot.
还有边界线 东西还是很多
How are we going to simplify that?
所以我们应如何简化它呢
And you can see by focusing on the big masses,
现在你只需将注意力放在这些主要的色块上
you see how simple those tree masses are now.
你看看这些树多简洁
Just sort of orchestrating the shape of the barn behind them,
只是在谷仓的背后描了个形
the same as here, right, that’s simple mass back there.
这边也一样 也是很简洁的色块
And each of like all those lines are gone
所有之前提到的线条都不见了
because, really, the important thing is that shape.
因为最重要的是形
And this shape, right, there’s no…
像这个形状 对吧 就没有……
And the cows are gone.
奶牛也不见了
But this thing kind of pulls us to this direction.
但这东西将我们的注意力拉向此方向
So you can see that there’s a little bit of information here
你可以看到这里也有细节信息
in terms of tall grasses perhaps,
如生长茂盛的草
but mainly, you’re just getting these simple, flat masses
但是主要还是用这些简洁的 单一的阴影块
that are giving us the sense of where everything is sitting in space,
它们给我们好像所有事物都是立体的感觉
and how we could simplify that right down
让人思考画者如何直接把它们
into value masses of light and dark
简化为具有明暗色调的色块
to create a really sort of tight iconic sense of a farm.
来创造浓浓的农庄风韵
And then finally, I’m driving north in Ontario.
最后 我在安大略向北行驶
It’s like, the very beginning of spring before the leaves have come in,
这就像 初春的景 叶子还没冒出来
and the evening light is just spectacular.
傍晚的景美极了
So I parked the car and I’m walking around.
我将车停下 下车散步
And again, I’m sort of the road attracts me in terms of structure.
又一次 这路的结构吸引了我
I can see what might work.
我好像找到了灵感
But the main thing that I’m seeing is the way this light is coming across here,
但我主要还是将注意到了这里横射入的阳光上
it’s just beautiful.
它很美
And again, like one of the others,
又一次 我喜欢上了另一块景
you realize that the interesting stuff is maybe here, right?
你发现了有意思的东西在这 对吧?
It needs to be cropped out.
所以这幅画需要裁剪
All this stuff is really just not necessarily that interesting.
其他这些东西并不是很有趣
So once you’ve cropped it in like this,
所以再一次裁剪 成这样
you know, you can see there’s good structure sort of bringing us back to here.
你看 这清晰的结构将我们带到这里
But the main thing is still this beautiful shaft of light there.
但主要的还是这美丽的一线阳光
But we still have, you know,
但这还是有 你知道的
signs, and things on the road,
像路标 还有路上的东西
and posts, and telephone poles.
邮寄箱 电线杆
Looks like there’s about 40 of them back there.
看上去着儿有大约四十处如是的细节
And telephone lines, and these little things, and all the little branches,
电线 还有些小的东西 还有这些小分支
and the still have this fence, and roads in.
还有这种小围栏 还有路
So what do we do?
所以我们要做什么呢?
So if I emphasize the masses,
如果我们突出这些事物
we’ve got the structure,
我们有了结构
but the main thing that was interesting me is this big shaft of light in the shadows.
但吸引我的主要还是阴影中的这缕阳光
And so I didn’t want it, you know,
所以我不想去关注那些细节事物 你知道的
you can see me softening the edge there,
你可以看到我把这里的边缘淡化了
and it’s getting harder and harder.
注意细节只会让画画变难
And most of the detail, you could say is right there,
你可以说几乎所有细节都在这里
and it cuts across,
阳光是横跨过路的
but it’s stronger here than over here,
但这里要比那边更强烈一点
so that doesn’t pull us out of the picture.
所以这样可以让我有画面感
So you can see, I focused all my attention on that.
你可以看到 我的注意力都集中在这
And the fences are gone, most of the telephone poles are gone,
篱笆不见了 电线杆也不见了
most of the stuff is gone,
大多数东西都不见了
except the simple value masses
只剩下简单的明暗色块
that are holding the design idea together.
它们与设计思想相统一
Now, by just looking at those four images,
现在 单单只看这四幅图
you may not master it,
你可能并不能掌握这技巧
but in just in watching it once,
且还只看了一遍
but I think, and I hope at any rate,
但我希望 我能在某种程度上
it gives you an insight into the process.
让你深入感受这种过程
The idea that these value masses will carry it, not the details.
让你知道 重要信息便可承载主旨 不需要细节
The thinking that goes on before you pick up a brush.
让你知道在提笔前都要有这样一番思考
Now, there’s two things I want to talk about.
现在我想说两件事
One, my book “Mastering Composition”
第一 我的《构图的艺术》
has been is getting reprinted
这本书已经重印了
and people are emailing me
很多人给我发邮件
say I can’t get a copy of it.
说他们买不到这本书
So it is apparently,
所以 很显然
literally on a slow boat back from China
它们还在从中国回来的慢船上
and I’ve been told a month ago it would be here,
一个月前就有人通知我快到了
and it’s not but it’s coming soon.
但到现在还没有 但也快了
But in the meantime, if you want to read a book,
同时 如果你想读一本书
“Creative Authenticity: 16 Principles to Clarify and Deepen Your Artistic Vision”
《创造本真:16个原则 净化并深化你的艺术视野》
that is also available.
这本书也上市了
You can get it on my website,
你可以从我的网站上得到
but it’s more about not so much the composition of the structure,
但是里面对于结构组成讲述不多
but who you are, why you’re painting,
里面主要是关于你是谁 你为什么要画画
and some of the issues you’ll deal with as a painter.
还有一些你作为画者会面临的问题
I think a lot of people have found it very helpful.
我想很多人都认为这很有用
So please do like the video, if you liked it. Please do subscribe.
如果喜欢这个视频 希望大家可以订阅
You can sign up on my email list
你可以注册我的邮件列表
so that you get these monthly in your inbox.
之后每月你都会收到这些资料 视频
The next one will be June 7th,
下个视频我将于六月七号
the first Tuesday of June.
六月第一个星期二发布
I hope you have a creatively engaging month
希望这个月你可以充满创意
and I will see you in June.
六月见
Bye, for now. All the very best.
再见 祝好

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视频概述

本视频将告诉你如何简化画画中遇到的各种细节信息,告诉你画画中最重要的是什么,帮助你简化绘画过程

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

哈哈哈看到我了吗

审核员

审核员XH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bAcWM6rnnlA

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