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最难翻译的单词之一 – 译学馆
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最难翻译的单词之一

One of the most difficult words to translate... - Krystian Aparta

在这个句子中哪个单词是最难翻译的?
Which is the hardest word to translate in this sentence?
” know”容易翻译
“Know” is easy to translate.
” pep rally “在许多语言和文化中没有一个直接的含义
“Pep rally” doesn’t have a direct analog in a lot of languages and cultures,
但是可以推测
but can be approximated.
其实最难的单词实际上是最小的一个词” you”
But the hardest word there is actually one of the smallest: “you.”
它看起来简单
As simple as it seems,
但在不知道哪种情境下说出这个词时
it’s often impossible to accurately translate “you”
我们常常不能准确的翻译它
without knowing a lot more about the situation where it’s being said.
我们从头开始说 你跟和你谈话的人有多熟?
To start with, how familiar are you with the person you’re talking to?
许多文化有着不同标准的礼节
Many cultures have different levels of formality.
亲密的朋友
A close friend,
比你大很多或者小很多的人
someone much older or much younger,
陌生人
a stranger,
老板
a boss.
这些”you”都会有一点点差别
These all may be slightly different “you’s.”
在许多语言里 代词反映出这些区别
In many languages, the pronoun reflects these differences
就像“TV”这个词中T和V之间的差别
through what’s known as the T–V distinction.
例如 在法语里
In French, for example,
当你和学校里的朋友说话时你会说” tu”
you would say “tu” when talking to your friend at school,
但是当跟老师说话时要用” vous”
but “vous” when addressing your teacher.
英语曾经也有相似的用法
Even English once had something similar.
记得旧时代的”thou”吗?
Remember the old-timey “thou?”
具有讽刺意味的是 它实际不是正式的代词
Ironically, it was actually the informal pronoun
对于和你亲密的人
for people you’re close with,
“you”是正式的和礼貌的版本
while “you” was the formal and polite version.
由于英语一直被要求当作礼貌用语
That distinction was lost
所以这个区别就淡化了
when the English decided to just be polite all the time.
但是在翻译”you”这个词上还存在着区别
But the difficulty in translating “you” doesn’t end there.
在豪萨语或柯拉纳语中
In languages like Hausa or Korana,
“you”的形式取决于对方的性别
the “you” form depends on the listener’s gender.
更多时候 取决于对方是一个人还是很多人
In many more, it depends on whether they are one or many,
例如德语用”Du”或者”ihr”
such as with German “Du” or “ihr.”
即使在英语中
Even in English,
一些方言同样地用”y’all”或者”youse”
some dialects use words like “y’all” or “youse” the same way.
一些复数词形式 像法语中的”vous”
Some plural forms, like the French “vous”
和俄语中的”Вы”
and Russian “Вы”
也被用来表示单一的一个人
are also used for a single person
以此显示对方的重要性
to show that the addressee is that much more important,
就像皇室中用的”we”
much like the royal “we.”
一些语言甚至有一个特定的形式
And a few languages even have a specific form
来准确地表明对方是两个人
for addressing exactly two people,
像斯洛维尼亚语中的”vidva”
like Slovenian “vidva.”
如果这样还不够复杂
If that wasn’t complicated enough,
礼节 数字和性别可以同时用一个词
formality, number, and gender can all come into play at the same time.
在西班牙语中“tú”是男女皆宜的非正式单人用词
In Spanish, “tú” is unisex informal singular,
“usted”是正式的男女通用单人用词
“usted” is unisex formal singular,
“vosotros”是男性非正式复数用词
“vosotros” is masculine informal plural,
“vosotras”是女士非正式复数用词
“vosotras” is feminine informal plural,
“ustedes”是男女通用的正式复数用词
and “ustedes” is the unisex formal plural.
嗯!
Phew!
要知道
After all that,
它可能就是为了人们使用方便
it may come as a relief
因为一些语言经常会省略第二人称代词
that some languages often leave out the second person pronoun.
在罗马尼亚语和葡萄牙语中
In languages like Romanian and Portuguese,
句子中的代词可以被省略
the pronoun can be dropped from sentences
因为可以很清楚地通过动词暗示它的存在
because it’s clearly implied by the way the verbs are conjugated.
在韩语 泰语和汉语中
And in languages like Korean, Thai, and Chinese,
在没有语法提示的情况下 代词是可以被省略的
pronouns can be dropped without any grammatical hints.
发言者经常宁愿
Speakers often would rather have
让听众从上下文中猜代词
the listener guess the pronoun from context
也不会冒着被认为没文化的风险用错一个代词
than use the wrong one and risk being seen as rude.
所以如果你曾经做过翻译家
So if you’re ever working as a translator
在没有任何情境的情况下看到了这个句子:
and come across this sentence without any context:
“You and you,no,not you,(你 还有你 不 不是你)
“You and you, no, not you,
you, your job is to translate ‘you’ foryourself”(你 你的工作是为自己翻译“you”…)
you, your job is to translate ‘you’ for yourselves” …
好吧 祝你好运哦
Well, good luck.
对于要把这个视频用多种
And to the volunteer community who will be translating this video
语言翻译出来的志愿者伙伴们
into multiple languages:
对不起哦!
Sorry about that!

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视频概述

视频主要讲了同一单词在不同文化和不同情境下会有不同的翻译

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

孙卫卫

审核员

LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNV7CsKI5m8

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