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睡懒觉的权威借口 – 译学馆
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睡懒觉的权威借口

One more reason to get a good night’s sleep | Jeff Iliff

Sleep.
睡觉这事
It’s something we spend about a third of our lives doing,
我们每天花了1/3的时间在这上面
but do any of us really understand what it’s all about?
但我们真的清楚睡觉是怎么一回事吗?
Two thousand years ago,
两千年前
Galen, one of the most prominent medical researchers of the ancient world,
古时最杰出的医学研究者之一 盖伦
proposed that while we’re awake,
提出当我们醒着的时候
our brain’s motive force, its juice,
我们大脑的动力 也就是它的脑汁
would flow out to all the other parts of the body,
会流到身体的其他部位
animating them but leaving the brain all dried up,
滋润身体 却使大脑保持干燥状态
and he thought that when we sleep,
他认为 当我们睡着以后
all this moisture that filled the rest of the body
充满身体其他部位的那些水分
would come rushing back, rehydrating the brain and refreshing the mind.
会很快流回大脑 让大脑重新充满水分 滋养大脑
Now, that sounds completely ridiculous to us now,
现在你可能觉得这听起来很荒缪
but Galen was simply trying to explain
但是盖伦只是想试图解释
something about sleep that we all deal with every day. See,
我们每天都要面对的睡眠问题
See we all know based on our own experience
我们根据自己的经验都知道
that when you sleep, it clears your mind,
睡眠会让你头脑清晰
and when you don’t sleep, it leaves your mind murky.
如果你不睡觉 就会觉得大脑昏昏沉沉的
But while we know a great deal more about sleep now
虽然我们现在对睡眠有了更多的了解
than when Galen was around,
起码比盖伦在世时多
we still haven’t understood why it is that sleep,
但是我们仍然不明白 为什么在所有活动中
of all of our activities, has this incredible
只有睡眠能起到这样不可思议的
restorative function for the mind.
精神恢复作用
So today I want to tell you about some recent research
所以今天我给大家分享一些最新的研究
that may shed new light on this question.
这些研究能让我们进一步了解这个问题
We’ve found that sleep may actually be
我们发现睡眠实际上可能是
a kind of elegant design solution to some of the brain’s most basic needs,
一种解决大脑的某些最基本需求的绝妙方法
a unique way that the brain meets the high demands
一种能满足大脑的高需求
and the narrow margin that set it apart from all the other organs of the body.
并使大脑在其他人体器官中脱颖而出的独特方式
So almost all the biology that we observe
因此 我们所观察到的几乎所有的生理习性
can be thought of as a series of problems
都可以看作是一系列的问题
and their corresponding solutions,
及其相应的解决方法
and the first problem that every organ must solve
而所有器官首先要解决的问题
is a continuous supply of nutrients to fuel
就是持续供应营养
all those cells of the body.
以保证所有细胞的运作
In the brain, that is especially critical;
这一问题对于大脑来说尤为重要
its intense electrical activity uses up
因为大脑高强度的脑电活动会消耗
a quarter of the body’s entire energy supply,
身体所有能量供应的四分之一
even though the brain accounts for only about two percent of the body’s mass.
即使大脑重量只占身体的2%
So the circulatory system solves the nutrient delivery problem
因此 循环系统是通过
by sending blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen to every corner of our body.
血管把营养和氧气运输到身体各个角落以解决营养输送的问题的
You can actually see it in this video here.
你们可以在视频中看到这一过程
Here we’re imaging blood vessels in the brain of a living mouse.
这副图片展示的是活老鼠大脑中的血管
The blood vessels form a complex network
这些血管组成了一个复杂的网状系统
that fills the entire brain volume.
充满了整个大脑
They start at the surface of the brain,
血管从大脑表层开始分布
and then they dive down into the tissue itself,
深入到大脑的组织中
and as they spread out, they supply nutrients
血管四处分布 所以可输送营养
and oxygen to each and every cell in the brain.
和氧气到每一个大脑细胞
Now, just as every cell requires nutrients to fuel it,
正如每个细胞都需要营养维持运作
every cell also produces waste as a byproduct,
它们也会在运作时产生一些副产品 也就是废物
and the clearance of that waste is the second basic problem
而如何清理这些废物 则是每个器官
that each organ has to solve.
所需解决的第二个基本问题
This diagram shows the body’s lymphatic system,
这副图展示了身体为解决这一问题
which has evolved to meet this need.
而进化出来的淋巴系统
It’s a second parallel network of vessels
淋巴系统是与血管平行的第二网状系统
that extends throughout the body.
延伸到了身体的每个部分
It takes up proteins and other waste from the spaces between the cells,
它能带走细胞间的蛋白质和其他废物
It collects them, and then dumps them into the blood
它把废物收集起来 再排到血液里
so they can be disposed of.
这样就能排出废物了
But if you look really closely at this diagram,
但是如果你仔细看看这幅图
you’ll see something that doesn’t make a lot of sense.
你就会发现有些事情不太讲的通
So if we were to zoom into this guy’s head,
如果我们把这个人的头部放大
one of the things that you would see there
你就会发现
is that there are no lymphatic vessels in the brain.
大脑中没有任何淋巴管
But that doesn’t make a lot of sense, does it?
这完全讲不通 对吧?
I mean, the brain is this intensely active organ
大脑是个高度活跃的器官
that produces a correspondingly large amount of waste
也就会相应地产生大量的废物
that must be efficiently cleared.
这些废物必须要有效地清理掉
And yet, it lacks lymphatic vessels, which means that
但是 大脑中没有淋巴管道 这意味着
the approach that the rest of the body takes to clearing away its waste won’t work in the brain.
其他器官清理废物的方法对大脑无效
So how, then, does the brain solve
所以 大脑到底是如何
its waste clearance problem?
清理废物的呢?
Well that seemingly mundane question
这看起来是一个普通的问题
it’s where our group first jumped into this story,
恰恰是我们课题组的切入点
and what we found as we dove down into the brain,
随着对大脑的深入研究 我们发现
down among the neurons and the blood vessels,
在这些神经元和血管之中
was that the brain’s solution to the problem of waste clearance,
蕴含着大脑对于废物清理的解决方法
it was really unexpected.
这十分出人意料
It was ingenious,
非常聪明
but it was also beautiful.
也无比的美丽
Let me tell you about what we found.
让我来告诉你我们发现了什么
So the brain has this large pool of
大脑中含有大量
clean, clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.
名为脑脊液的无色透明液体
We call it the CSF.
我们把这种液体称作CSF
The CSF fills the space that surrounds the brain,
大脑周围充满了脑脊液
and wastes from inside the brain make their way out to the CSF,
而大脑产生的废物会进入到脑脊液中
which gets dumped, along with the waste, into the blood.
脑脊液会和废物一起进入血液中
So in that way,
这样一说
it sounds a lot like the lymphatic system, doesn’t it?
其实听起来很像淋巴系统 对吧?
But what’s interesting is that the fluid and the waste
但有趣的地方在于大脑产生的液体和废物
from inside the brain, they don’t just percolate their way randomly out to these pools of CSF.
不会随意渗透到这些大量的脑脊液中
Instead, there is a specialized network of plumbing
恰恰相反 有一个专门的管道系统
that organizes and facilitates this process.
来组织和促进这一渗透过程
You can see that in these videos.
大家可以在这个视频中看到
Here, we’re again imaging into the brain of living mice.
我们再来看这只老鼠的大脑
The frame on your left shows
左边这个图
what’s happening at the brain’s surface,
展示了大脑表层的活动
and the frame on your right shows what’s happening
而右侧这个图则展示了
down below the surface of the brain within the tissue itself.
大脑表层下组织的活动
We’ve labeled the blood vessels in red,
我们将血管标成了红色
and the CSF that’s surrounding the brain
而大脑周围的脑脊液
will be in green.
将会被标成绿色
Now, what was surprising to us
现在 令人惊讶的是
was that the fluid on the outside of the brain,
大脑外部的液体
it didn’t stay on the outside.
并没有留在外侧
Instead, the CSF was pumped back into
相反 脑脊液被泵回大脑
and through the brain along the outsides of the blood vessels,
并沿着血管的外侧渗入大脑
and as it flushed down into the brain
当它沿着血管外侧
along the outsides of these vessels,
涌入大脑时
it was actually helping to clear away, to clean the waste from the spaces between the brain’s cells.
实际上是在帮忙清除大脑细胞之间所产生的废弃物
If you think about it,
你仔细想一想
using the outsides of these blood vessels like this
这样子利用血管外侧
is a really clever design solution,
真是一个聪明的解决方法
because the brain is enclosed in a rigid skull and it’s packed full of cells,
因为大脑被结实的头骨包裹起来 里面充满了细胞
so there is no extra space inside it
所以里面没有多余的空间
for a whole second set of vessels like the lymphatic system.
能容纳像淋巴系统一样的第二管道网络
Yet the blood vessels, they extend from the surface of the brain
但是血管从大脑表层
down to reach every single cell in the brain,
一直深入到大脑中的每一个细胞
which means that fluid that’s traveling along the outsides of these vessels
这就意味着在血管外流通的液体
can gain easy access to the entire brain’s volume,
能够轻松地进入整个大脑
so it’s actually this really clever way
所以正是这个绝妙的方法
to repurpose one set of vessels, the blood vessels,
重新利用了一组管道 也就是血管
to take over and replace the function of a second set of vessels, the lymphatic vessels,
来代替发挥第二管道 也就是淋巴管道的功能
to make it so you don’t need them.
这样就不需要淋巴管道了
And what’s amazing is that no other organ
而令人惊艳的是没有任何其他器官
takes quite this approach to clearing away the waste from between its cells.
会采取这种方式来清理细胞间的废物
This is a solution that is entirely unique to the brain.
这是大脑独有的解决方法
But our most surprising finding
但我们最惊人的发现
was that all of this,
是所有这些
everything I just told you about,
我刚刚告诉你们的
with all this fluid rushing through the brain,
液体流过大脑的过程
it’s only happening in the sleeping brain.
仅仅发生在睡眠时的大脑中
Here, the video on the left shows how much of the CSF
左侧的视频展示了
is moving through the brain of a living mouse while it’s awake.
当老鼠清醒时 它的大脑中有多少脑脊液正在流动
It’s almost nothing.
几乎没有
Yet in the same animal,
同样是这只老鼠
if we wait just a little while
如果我们稍微等一下
until it’s gone to sleep,
直到它睡着
what we see is that the CSF
我们看到的是
is rushing through the brain,
脑脊液正快速流过大脑
and we discovered that at the same time
我们发现
when the brain goes to sleep,
在大脑休眠的同时
the brain cells themselves seem to shrink,
大脑细胞似乎会自动收缩
opening up spaces in between them,
让开它们之间的位子
allowing fluid to rush through
让液体从中流过
and allowing waste to be cleared out.
从而清理废物
So it seems that Galen may actually have been sort of on the right track
实际上 盖伦的大方向可能是对的
when he wrote about fluid rushing through the brain when sleep came on.
他在文章中写到 当大脑休眠时 液体会快速流过大脑
Our own research, now it’s 2,000 years later,
两千年后我们的研究
suggests that what’s happening is that when the brain is awake
表明当大脑清醒
and is at its most busy,
并且最活跃的时候
it puts off clearing away the waste
它推迟了
from the spaces between its cells until later,
细胞之间废物的清理
and then, when it goes to sleep
然后 当它开始休眠
and doesn’t have to be as busy,
不再高度活跃时
it shifts into a kind of cleaning mode
它就切换成了清洁模式
to clear away the waste from the spaces between its brain
来清理大脑之间那些
the waste that’s accumulated throughout the day.
积累了一整天的废物
So it’s actually a little bit like how you or I,
这实际上有点像你我
we put off our household chores during the work week
在工作日没有时间的时候
when we don’t have time to get to it,
就会推迟做家务活
and then we play catch up
然后等到周末的时候
on all the cleaning that we have to do
我们再去完成
when the weekend rolls around.
所有要做的家务
Now, I’ve just talked a lot about waste clearance,
好了 我刚才讲了很多清理过程
but I haven’t been very specific about the kinds of waste
但我没有具体说出
that the brain needs to be clearing
大脑为了保持健康
during sleep in order to stay healthy.
在睡眠时间需要清理哪些废物
The waste product that these recent studies focused most on is amyloid-beta,
在这些废物中 近期研究最关注的是淀粉样β蛋白
which is a protein that’s made in the brain all the time.
大脑一直都在分泌这种蛋白质
My brain’s making amyloid-beta right now, and so is yours.
我的大脑此时此刻就在分泌 你们的也是
But in patients with Alzheimer’s disease,
但在阿尔兹海默症患者的大脑里
amyloid-beta builds up and aggregates
淀粉样β蛋白在细胞间
in the spaces between the brain’s cells,
不断地分泌并累积
instead of being cleared away like it’s supposed to be,
却没有如期被定期清理掉
and it’s this buildup of amyloid-beta
所以淀粉样β蛋白的累积
that’s thought to be one of the key steps
被认为是患上阿尔兹海默症的
in the development of that terrible disease.
关键步骤之一
So we measured how fast amyloid-beta is cleared
因此我们测算了大脑清醒和休眠时
from the brain when it’s awake versus when it’s asleep,
其中的淀粉样β蛋白被清理掉的速度
and we found that indeed, the clearance of amyloid-beta
我们发现 在休眠的大脑中
is much more rapid from the sleeping brain.
淀粉样β蛋白确实会更快地被清理掉
So if sleep, then,
所以如果说
is part of the brain’s solution to the problem of waste clearance,
睡眠是大脑清理废物的部分方式
then this may dramatically change how we think
那么这可能会大幅改变我们
about the relationship between sleep, amyloid-beta,
对于睡眠与淀粉样β蛋白 阿尔兹海默症
and Alzheimer’s disease.
三者关系的看法
A series of recent clinical studies suggest that
最近一系列的医学研究表明
among patients who haven’t yet developed Alzheimer’s disease,
那些未患阿尔兹海默症的病人
worsening sleep quality and sleep duration
睡眠质量变差 时间变短
are associated with a greater amount of amyloid-beta building up in the brain,
和大脑中淀粉样β蛋白的累积有着极大的关系
and while it’s important to point out
但是我必须指出
that these studies don’t prove that lack of sleep or poor sleep
这些研究并没有证明 缺少睡眠或睡眠质量差
cause Alzheimer’s disease,
会导致阿尔兹海默症
they do suggest that the failure of the brain
但它们确实表明
to keep its house clean by clearing away waste like amyloid-beta
如果大脑没能成功清理淀粉样β蛋白
may contribute to the development of conditions like Alzheimer’s.
可能会给阿尔兹海默症之类的疾病创造条件
So what this new research tells us, then,
所以这些最新的研究
is that the one thing that all of you
告诉我们的
already knew about sleep, that even Galen understood about sleep,
是你们甚至盖伦都知道的关于睡眠的事
that it refreshes and clears the mind,
那就是睡眠能够使思维更加清晰
may actually be a big part of what sleep is all about.
这实际上是睡眠的大部分意义所在
See, you and I, we go to sleep every single night,
我们每晚都上床睡觉
but our brains, they never rest.
但我们的大脑从不休息
While our body is still
当我们的身体静止
and our mind is off walking in dreams somewhere,
我们的思维正在梦里的某个地方徜徉
the elegant machinery of the brain
巧妙的大脑机制
is quietly hard at work cleaning and maintaining
正安静地努力清理废物
this unimaginably complex machine.
维持着人体这一复杂机器的运转
Like our housework, it’s a dirty and a thankless job,
就像做家务 又脏又累还得不到感谢
but it’s also important.
但却同样非常重要
In your house, if you stop cleaning your kitchen for a month
在家 如果你一个月不打扫厨房
your home will become completely unlivable very quickly.
你的房子很快就完全没法住人了
But in the brain,
但是在大脑中
the consequences of falling behind may be much greater
不及时清理的后果
than the embarrassment of dirty countertops,
可能会比脏乱的住所带来的尴尬严重得多
because when it comes to cleaning the brain,
因为大脑的清理
it is the very health and function
对于大脑和身体的健康与功能
of the mind and the body that’s at stake,
最为关键
which is why understanding these
这就是为什么
very basic housekeeping functions of the brain today
现在理解这些大脑的基本清理功能
may be critical for preventing and treating
对于未来预防和治疗精神疾病
diseases of the mind tomorrow.
至关重要
Thank you.
谢谢
[Applause]
[掌声]

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视频概述

身体其他器官通过血液和淋巴循环来清理细胞产生的废物,但大脑却通过脑脊液来清理——更重要的是,只要在睡觉的时候,大脑才能进行这一清理过程。如果大脑产生的淀粉样β蛋白等废物没能被及时清理,就有可能会患上阿尔兹海默症。所以,以后想睡懒觉时,直接告诉你的妈妈/老师/老板:我在和阿尔兹海默症作斗争呢!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Germanotta

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MJK-dMlATmM

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