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考古学家在中国发现了2500年前的大麻

Oldest evidence of pot smoking unearthed

印度大麻 这种产生大麻的植物
Cannabis, the plant that gave birth to pot,
已经被使用了上千年
has been used for millennia.
它是谷物 油料 绳索的原料
As a source of grain, oil, rope,
也给一些古代和现代的吸食者带来了兴奋感
and, for some ancient and modern smokers, high times.
但要弄清楚是谁先吸入了这种物质一直很困难
But figuring out who inhaled it first has been tough.
希腊历史学家希罗多德提到
Greek historian Herodotus mentions
早在2500年前 中亚游牧民族塞西亚人
the ritual and recreational burning of Cannabis by the Scythians,
就举行了焚烧大麻的仪式和娱乐活动
a nomadic Central Asian people, as far back as 2500 years ago.
但除了书面记载
But beside written records,
几乎没有发现古人吸食大麻的证据
little evidence for ancient smoking has been unearthed.
现在 科学家称他们已经揭开了迷雾:
Now, scientists say they’ve cut through the haze:
一项新的研究表明
A new study reveals that
已知的最早的大麻吸食者
the first known smokers were
可能是古代丝绸之路沿线的索罗亚斯德教哀悼者
possibly Zoroastrian mourners along the ancient Silk Road,
他们在2500年前的葬礼仪式上烧大麻
who burned pot during funeral rituals 2500 years ago.
为了寻找四氢大麻酚的古老证据
To search for ancient evidence of THC,
大麻最具精神活性的化合物
pot’s most psychoactive compound,
考古学家对帕米尔山脚下的Jirzankal公墓进行了分析
archaeologists analyzed graves at Jirzankal cemetery, a site at the foot of the Pamir Mountains.
在可以追溯到公元前500年的墓室里
Inside burial chambers that dated back to 500 B.C.E.,
他们发现了装满石头的大型木质火盆
they found large wooden braziers filled with stones
还有燃烧的痕迹
and evidence of burning.
为了了解被烧的物质是什么
To find out more about what was being burned,
研究人员从火盆和烧焦的石头中提取了有机物质
researchers extracted organic material from the braziers and the singed stones.
并且测出了大麻化合物
Tests revealed chemical compounds from Cannabis,
包括非精神活性的大麻二酚 俗称CBD
including the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (commonly known as “CBD”)
和四氢大麻酚的副产品大麻酚
and a byproduct of THC known as cannabinol.
此外 该样本的大麻酚含量比古代其他样本更高
What’s more, CBN was more intense than in other ancient samples,
这表明Jirzankal大麻在当时异常强劲
suggesting that the Jirzankal pot was unusually strong for its day.
它为什么那么强劲 目前尚不清楚:
How it gained that strength is unclear:
大多数野生大麻都含有含量较低的四氢大麻酚
Most wild species of Cannabis have lower levels of THC.
这些被烧毁植物的精神活性
It’s possible that the burnt plants
有可能是被培育出来的
were bred for their psychoactive properties
或者它们在面对环境压力时自然产生了更多的四氢大麻酚
or that they naturally produced more THC in response to environmental stressors,
包括在海拔3000米的帕米尔高原
including the 3000 meter high altitude of the Pamir Plateau.
这种植物也可能是杂交品种
The plant could also be a hybrid.
许多人经过该地区的高原和山谷
Many populations passed through the high plateaus and valleys of the region,
墓地里保存着来自不同地区的人的古代遗骨
and the cemetery holds the ancient remains of people from different areas,
这一点可从遗骨中的锶同位素看得出
revealed by strontium isotopes in their bones.
大多数非当地人的墓前都没有火盆
Most of the non-local people did not have a brazier at their gravesite.
至于当地人 科学家怀疑
As for the locals, scientists suspect that
哀悼者在火盆里的大麻上放热石头是为了制造烟雾
mourners laid hot stones on top of Cannabis in the braziers to create smoke.
他们吸入的气体有多少仍然是个谜
How deeply they inhaled is still a mystery.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgtxjgxdvDg

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