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逃脱大师:章鱼 – 译学馆
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逃脱大师:章鱼

Octopuses are the World’s Greatest Escape Artists (Ft. PhilosophyTube)

Octopuses are the original masters of disguise.
章鱼是最早的伪装大师
In fact there’s one currently in this video with me.
实际上 现在视频中就有一只与我一起
Can you find it?
你能找到它吗?

Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault.
你好 我是Danielle Dufault
I’m Olly Leonard, and you’re watching Animalogic.
我是Olly Leonard 你正在收看动物逻辑
Before we go any further,
在我们深入今天内容之前
let’s tackle the plural form of ‘octopus’.
让我们了解一下章鱼的复数形式
The original plural form from the 1700s was octopuses.
自18世纪起 章鱼最早的复数形式是octopuses
But around that time, there was a grammatical movement
但在当时 有一场语法变革
to make English more regular,
旨在让英语更趋规范
so it was changed to have a Latin ending,
所以 它被加上了一个拉丁语后缀
giving us ‘octopi’.
即 octopi
But it doesn’t stop there.
但变化不止于此
‘Octopus’ isn’t a Latin word and is in fact based in Greek,
Octopus并非拉丁文 其实它来源于希腊语
so the word was amended once again to be ‘octopodes’.
所以这个词再次被修正为 octopodes
But the thing is, when a foreign word enters the English language,
但关键是 当一个外来语进入到英语体系
it becomes treated as an English word,
它也会被当作英语单词看待
meaning ‘octopuses’ was right all along.
意味着octopuses被当作正确形式而沿用
Enough grammar. Let’s ‘octopus’.
语法到此为止 让我们进入章鱼环节
Octopuses are cephalopod molluscs that belonged to the Octopoda order,
章鱼是属于章鱼目的头足类软体动物
and are quite possibly the coolest animal ever.
很可能是有史以来最酷的动物
There are roughly 300 known species of octopus.
已知的章鱼大约有300种
Being such a diverse group,
在这样一个形色各样的种群里
they range from the tiny, the star-sucker pygmy octopus,
最小的星状吸盘微型章鱼
which are around 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long,
它长度仅为1.5厘米 即半英寸
to the huge, the giant Pacific octopus
最大的巨型太平洋章鱼
which have an arm span of 4.3 meters or 14 feet.
其一条触手长度就有4.3米 即14英尺
We gonna – we gonna run here.
我们得……我们得赶快跑
I think we’re gonna get attacked by an octopus in a second.
我觉得我马上就会被这只章鱼攻击
Okay. Oh my god!
好的 我的天!
We are gonna get attacked by an octopus.
我马上就会被这只章鱼攻击
Different octopus species are found all over the world,
世界各地有各种各样的章鱼
even as far south as Antarctica.
就连极南端的南极洲也不例外
They have six arms, two legs, two eyes,
它们有6只触手 2条腿 2只眼睛
three hearts, no bones,
3颗心脏 没有骨骼
blue blood, a beak, are bilaterally symmetrical,
蓝色的血液 一张嘴 身体左右对称
and are one of the most intelligent animals in the world.
并且是世上最聪明的动物之一
Since their bodies are like any air bladders and gas pockets
因为章鱼的身体会像气囊或者气袋一样
that would implode at great depths,
在深海中收缩
octopuses are able to live at the literal bottom of the ocean,
所以它们也能在海底生存
taking 15,000 pounds of pressure per square inch.
承受每平方英寸15000磅的压力
That’s like having one and a half school buses
就好比你身体的每平方英寸上
on every square inch of your body.
都压着一辆半的校车
Usually animals seem to get one to two unique features
动物通常拥有一两个独特的技能
that gives them an advantage over their environments.
使它们有足够优势应付生存的环境
Cassowaries have their sharp foot clawed – powerful kick.
食火鸡拥有锋利的脚爪——有力地踢挠敌人
Anteaters have their tongues.
食蚁兽有它们的舌头
Hyenas have their powerful jaws.
鬣狗的颌有强咬合力
But octopuses are stacked.
但章鱼的特殊技能就有许多了
First, the only hard part of an octopus’s body
首先 章鱼体内唯一的坚硬部位
is their razor-sharp beak.
就是它们锋利的嘴
This allows them to squeeze through anything bigger than that beak,
让它们能够挤压身体 通过任何比嘴大的空间
which, depending on the species,
根据物种的不同
are usually around an inch in diameter.
嘴的直径通常为一英寸左右
This means that a 600-pound, or 272-kilo octopus
意味着 一只重达600磅 即272千克的章鱼
can squeeze through a tube, the width of a quarter.
能压缩身体通过一支试管 即一枚硬币的宽度
A recent study found that those beaks are packed with venomous saliva,
最近一项研究发现 章鱼嘴中充满了有毒的唾液
which they chiefly use for subduing prey,
它们主要用来制服猎物
like paralyzing a clam into opening its shell.
例如麻痹一只蛤蜊 使其张开外壳
However, a bite from the beautiful, golf-ball-sized blue ringed octopus
然而 如果被一只高尔夫球大小的 漂亮的蓝环章鱼咬一口
has a venom 10,000 times more toxic than cyanide,
其毒性是氰化物的10000倍
and can kill a human in under 90 minutes,
并能在90分钟内杀死一个人类
though there’ve only been 3 fatalities in the last hundred years.
尽管在过去一个世纪里 仅有3起死亡案例
Secondly, octopuses are masters of disguise.
其次 章鱼是伪装大师
They can change their entire skin color and texture
它们能瞬间改变皮肤的颜色和质地
in under a second to match their surroundings.
以与四周环境相一致
Octopuses match their body texture to their environment using eyesight,
章鱼通过视力观测让皮肤质地与环境相一致
but the mystifying thing is – they’re colorblind.
但令人迷惑的一点是——章鱼是色盲
They may be able to distinguish polarized light better than humans can,
也许比起人类 章鱼能更敏锐地分辨出偏振光
but how they actually tell different colors apart is still unknown.
但它们究竟是如何区分色彩 这一点仍然未知
Their color change is made possible by cells called chromatophores,
它们的颜色变化是通过被称为染色质的细胞来实现的
which contain different pigments.
染色质中含有不同的色素
Fox Meyer from the Smithsonian Museum describes the color changing process
史密森尼博物馆的Fox Meyer将章鱼的颜色变化过程
as similar to squeezing a dye-filled balloon.
比作挤压一个充满了颜料的气球
The more you squeeze, the more the surface is stretched,
你挤压得越多 气球表面拉伸也更多
and the more the color appears.
并且显现出更多颜色
They’re also able to change texture,
它们也能改变皮肤质地
creating bumps, spikes, grooves and ripples as needed.
根据需要创造凸起 尖峰 凹槽和波纹
It’s not just color and texture.
变化的不仅限于颜色与质地
Some octopuses, namely the mimic octopus,
有些章鱼 即拟态章鱼
not only imitates color and texture, but shape and behavior.
不仅仅模仿颜色和质地 而且还有形态及行为
The open ocean is a deadly place for octopuses,
对章鱼来说 广袤的海洋是极度危险的
so instead of adapting deadly poison or sharp teeth,
所以它们没有进化出致命的毒液 或尖利的牙齿
they’ve adapted to be able to look like things
而是演变出拟物的技能
that have deadly poison or sharp teeth.
让它们看上去好像有剧毒或者尖牙
In under a second, a mimic octopus can change their color,
拟态章鱼能在一秒之内改变肤色
pull their arms back, and swim along the ocean floor
将触手拢于身后 然后沿着海底游动
to resemble a banded sole,
来装成有条纹的比目鱼
or they’ll swim in more open water with a stripy pattern
或者 它们在开阔的水域游动 伪装出满身的条纹
with their arms jetted out to resemble
向四周发散出触手
the spines and movement of the deadly lionfish.
来模仿致命的狮子鱼的脊椎和活动方式
If they’re under attack,
如果它们受到攻击
they’ll burry all but two arms underground,
它们会埋到地下 只露出两条触手
and put on a strike pattern to resemble a poisonous sea snake.
并伪装出条纹形态 模仿剧毒的海蛇
Another tool on their diverse belt is their ink.
它们的另一个工具是墨汁
Octopuses use their ink as their last resort
这是章鱼的最后一道御敌手段
to confuse their predators before jetting away.
用以在喷射逃离前迷惑猎食者
But it’s not just a visual distraction.
但它可不仅仅能造成视觉干扰
The ink contains an amino acid called taurine,
墨汁中含有一种叫做牛磺酸的氨基酸
which many predators find incredibly appealing,
它对猎食者有绝佳的吸引力
causing them to stop pursuit of the octopus,
让猎食者放弃追捕章鱼
and instead, stick around with the ink.
并在墨汁中流连
The ink also causes a chemical reaction
这一墨汁还能在猎食者的神经系统中
in the predators’ nervous system,
激发一种化学反应
which confuses them and slows them down.
干扰它们 并使它们反应迟缓
It’s also very sticky,
黏糊糊的墨汁
which stops up the predators’ sensory organs.
能阻断捕食者的感官系统运作
However, if the predator does catch one of the octopuses’ arms,
然而 如果捕食者咬住了章鱼的一肢
they were able to just detach the arm
章鱼还能卸掉这条胳膊
and later regrow it.
再在不久后重新长出
Unlike many lizards that lose their tails
不同于失去尾巴的蜥蜴
and regrow less than perfect tails,
只能长出一条更次的尾巴
our regrown octopus arm is as good as new.
再生的章鱼触手完美如新
A new study into octopus arm regeneration
一项针对章鱼触手再生的新近研究
found that the protein acetylcholinesterase, or AChE,
发现了一种叫做乙酰胆碱酯酶(即AChE)的蛋白质
which is also found in our bodies as well,
它也存在于人体内
is unusually active when an octopus is regrowing an arm.
在章鱼新肢再生的过程中 AChE异常活跃
In the study they remove 2cm
这项研究中 研究人员移除了
from the tip of an octopus’s arm,
2厘米的章鱼触手的尖端
and within 150 days the tip had fully regrown.
150天内 触手尖端就完全再生完毕
They found the protein AChE to be most active
他们发现 在第21至41天内
from day 21 to day 41.
AChE蛋白质尤其活跃
Scientists are unclear how or even if AChE is a big player
科学家们仍旧不确定 在章鱼触手再生过程中
in arm regeneration in octopuses,
AChE如何 或是否起到了关键作用
but they hope to one day study its regenerative properties in humans.
但他们希望有一天能在人体中研究它的再生特性
As you know, octopus arms are covered in suction cups,
大家都知道 章鱼触手表面布满了吸盘
but what you might not know is that
但你可能不知道
2/3 of octopuses’ neurons are located in their arms,
章鱼三分之二的神经元都长在触手中
not their central brain,
而非中枢脑
meaning that their arms can act independently from one another.
意味着它们的触手可以彼此独立行动
This is also why if you sever an octopus arm,
这就是为什么 如果你切下章鱼的一条触手
it’ll still react if you touch it.
当你碰它时 它仍有反应
Octopuses are incredibly smart and make great use of tools.
章鱼非常聪明 能很好运用工具
Coconut octopuses, found off the coast of Indonesia,
生存在印度尼西亚海岸的椰子章鱼
are named so because they have been documented
因为被发现随身携带椰子壳
carrying coconuts around with them.
而因此得名
Moving along the ocean floor with no cover is a dangerous venture,
没有任何防护地在海底活动 是很危险的
so coconut octopuses bring their own cover
所以椰子章鱼携带半块儿椰子壳
in the form of coconut halves.
作为它们的掩身防护
When a predator approaches, they duck underneath the shell.
当捕食者靠近时 它们会躲在壳下
Why the predators don’t stop to wonder
为什么捕食者不停下来思考一下
how a coconut got so far out into the open ocean?
一只椰子是怎么在开阔的海里跑得这么远的?
It’s anyone’s guess.
谁知道呢
Though I suppose an African swallow
虽然我觉得 一只非洲斑燕
could have gripped it by the husk.
本来能抓住它的外壳
In captivity octopuses have figured out how to escape from jars,
在人工饲养中 章鱼已经知道如何从罐子里逃脱
open jars, solve mazes,
打开罐头 搞定迷宫
and have figured out how to escape from aquariums.
并且弄清楚了如何逃出水族箱
Octopuses in captivity are mischievious bunch as it get bored very easily,
饲养的章鱼都很调皮 因为它们极易感到无聊
as any intelligent creature would.
高智商生物都会这样
If you keep an octopus at home,
如果你家养一只章鱼
be sure to keep it constantly entertained and engaged,
确保它经常处于活跃的娱乐状态
otherwise you’ll have another inky on your hands.
否则它们会朝你手上喷墨汁
Worse than escaping, scientists found that in non-stimulating barren tanks,
科学家们发现 如果没有能使章鱼振奋的空罐子 后果比出逃更糟
captive octopuses became very stressed,
圈养的章鱼会倍感压力
and some turn to autophagy or eating their own arms.
转而自噬 或是吃掉自己的触手
In 2009 at the Santa Monica Pier Aquarium,
在2009年 圣莫尼卡码头水族馆的员工
staff came in one morning to find the floor submerged
在一个早晨发现
in 200 gallons or 750 liters of seawater.
地面被200加仑(750升)的海水淹没
What happened was overnight,
事故发生在一夜之间
a two-spotted octopus had taken apart the water recycling tank
一只双斑蛸把水循环箱拆开了
and pointed one of its tubes out of the tank,
并将其中一根水管指向水箱外
spraying water onto the floor throughout the night.
管子整夜都在往地面上喷水
Scientists have attempted to measure octopus intelligence
科学家们曾试图观察章鱼打开蛤蜊和贻贝的过程
by observing them opening clams and mussels.
来测定章鱼的智力
Turns out they prefer eating mussels because they’re easier to open.
结果章鱼更偏爱贻贝 因为它们的壳更容易打开
But does their ability to solve problems to get food
可 章鱼解决问题获取食物的能力
mean they’re intelligent?
就能代表它们很聪明吗?
For that question, I’m gonna need some help
为了解决这个问题 我得向我的朋友
from my friend Olly over on Philosophy Tube.
哲学频道的Olly 寻求帮助
It’s been said that octopuses are intelligent.
据说章鱼都很聪明
But what does it mean to be intelligent?
但聪明意味着什么?
Have you ever seen an octopus take an IQ test?
你见过章鱼做智商测试吗?
Honestly it’s embarrassing.
老实说 这太尴尬了
Although they do have the foresight to bring their own ink.
虽然它们有携带墨汁的远见
A good starting definition of intelligence
对于智力的准确起始定义是
is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge.
获取和应用知识的能力
But then what is knowledge for an octopus,
但是接下来 对于章鱼 亦或是人来说
or even for a human?
什么才是知识?
It’s common in philosophy to distinguish
哲学意义上
between two different kinds of knowledge:
知识通常被区分为两种
knowledge-that and knowledge-how.
“是什么”和“怎么做”
It’s difficult to tell whether octopuses can know
很难说章鱼是否知道
that things are true,
“是什么”的概念
because we can’t ask them.
因为我们没法问它
But they might have knowledge-how.
但它们可能知道“怎么做”
Catherine Hawley is suggesting that knowing how to do something means that
Catherine Hawley认为 知道“怎么做”
you could probably succeed at doing it
意味着在某种特定情况下
if you tried under some specific circumstances.
你或许就能做成这件事
And octopuses can succeed in certain tasks
章鱼能完成一些特定任务
like getting food out of jars.
比如从罐子中获取食物
As usual in philosophy,
然而在通常的哲学意义上
it’s a little bit more complicated than that though.
情况要比这更复杂一点
So head on over to my channel Philosophy Tube
所以当你看完了这个视频
when you’re done here,
就来我的哲学频道吧
and we’ll talk about what you know.
然后我们来聊聊你所知道的
Thanks Olly.
谢谢你 Olly
And nothing makes for a great segue quite like detachable penises.
接下来最值得探讨的 是章鱼拥有可分离的生殖器
The Argonaut octopus’s penis breaks off during the mating process
在交配过程中 船蛸的生殖器会脱落
and stays with the female.
并留在雌性船蛸的体内
And like its arms, it grows back.
随后像触手一样 重新长出来
To inseminate the female,
为了使雌性受精
the male will either inject its spermatophores directly into the tube
雄性会把它的精子包囊直接注射到
that the female uses to breathe,
雌性的呼吸道里
or he’ll just hand them to her,
或者雄性会直接把精子递给雌性
which the females always accept with one of their right arms.
而雌性通常会用右触手接过来
Scientists still don’t know why this happens.
科学家仍然不知道它们这么做的原因
After this, the males typically wander off to die.
在此之后 雄性通常会四处游荡 直到死去
Oh…so sad.
噢 令人伤心
The female will then lay her somewhat 400,000 eggs.
雌性章鱼会产下大约400 000枚卵
She’ll stop eating while protecting them
她会不吃不喝地守护受精卵
and when they finally hatch, her body commits cellular suicide.
卵彻底孵化后 她体内细胞凋亡 最终死亡
Contrary to historical Japanese depictions,
与日本的历史描述相反
octopus sex is not a fun time.
章鱼交配并不是件享乐的事
Female Argonaut octopuses are 600 times larger than the males.
雌性船艄比雄性大600倍
The male’s being only 2cm or 3/4 of an inch long.
雄性身体仅2厘米(3/4英寸)长
You can imagine why he’d want to detach his penis
你就能想象为什么他想要留下生殖器
and make a speedy getaway.
然后速度逃之夭夭
Blanket octopuses are also incredibly sexually dimorphic,
毯子章鱼也具有令人难以置信的两性特征
but that’s not what’s cool about them.
但这还不是它们最酷的一点
Remember the Portuguese man o’ war –
还记得葡萄牙战舰水母吗?
the colonial organism with the deadly venom?
这个带有致命毒液的殖民地生物?
Well, blanket octopuses are immune to their poison.
好吧 毯子章鱼能免疫它们的毒液
So they hunt them down, rip off their tentacles,
因此 毯子章鱼会猎杀水母 扯掉它们的触须
and wield them as weapons when hunting prey.
并在捕猎时把它们作为武器
Finally, I’ll leave you with this newly identified octopus,
最后 我会向你展示这个最新发现的章鱼
which is so cute.
看上去很可爱
Scientists are considering naming it Adorabilus.
科学家正考虑命名其为Adorabilus
What animal should I check out next?
接下来我该去了解哪个动物?
Please let me know in the comments,
请在评论区告诉我
and go watch all these video
然后来观看所有的这些
on the two different types of knowledge and subscribe.
关于两种不同类型知识的视频 然后订阅
His channel rocks. You’ll love it. I promise.
他的频道棒呆 我保证你一定会爱上的
If you want to keep this show going
如果你想要这个系列继续下去
and get episodes a week early,
并且提早一周看到更新
be sure to sign up
一定要注册参与
for your free 30-day trial of the video streaming app –
streaming应用的30天免费试用
Love Nature,
爱自然
which is currently featuring Animalogic.
目前以动物逻辑为特色
It’s not available in every country yet,
这个APP并非每个国家都有
so if you can’t get it,
所以如果你无法获取
you can still get episodes a whole week early on our website –
来我们网站 你仍然能提早一周看到更新
community.lovenature.com.
community.lovenature.com.
Though if you do sign up for the app,
即使你注册了这个app
it will go a long way to keep Animalogic going.
让动物逻辑继续下去仍有很长的路要走
Be sure to subscribe to this YouTube channel for new episodes of
一定要订阅这个油管频道来获取
Animalogic every other week or as often as we can make them.
两周一次或者每次我们力所能及的更新
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看

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视频概述

本期动物逻辑,让我们来一起了解一下动物界的伪装大师和高智商生物——章鱼。

听录译者

Csy

翻译译者

DOONG

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wSn7CJ0cNZ4

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