Octopuses are the original masters of disguise.
In fact there’s one currently in this video with me.
Can you find it?
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault.
你好 我是Danielle Dufault
I’m Olly Leonard, and you’re watching Animalogic.
我是Olly Leonard 你正在收看动物逻辑
Before we go any further,
let’s tackle the plural form of ‘octopus’.
The original plural form from the 1700s was octopuses.
But around that time, there was a grammatical movement
to make English more regular,
so it was changed to have a Latin ending,
giving us ‘octopi’.
But it doesn’t stop there.
‘Octopus’ isn’t a Latin word and is in fact based in Greek,
so the word was amended once again to be ‘octopodes’.
But the thing is, when a foreign word enters the English language,
it becomes treated as an English word,
meaning ‘octopuses’ was right all along.
Enough grammar. Let’s ‘octopus’.
Octopuses are cephalopod molluscs that belonged to the Octopoda order,
and are quite possibly the coolest animal ever.
There are roughly 300 known species of octopus.
Being such a diverse group,
they range from the tiny, the star-sucker pygmy octopus,
which are around 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long,
to the huge, the giant Pacific octopus
which have an arm span of 4.3 meters or 14 feet.
We gonna – we gonna run here.
I think we’re gonna get attacked by an octopus in a second.
Okay. Oh my god!
We are gonna get attacked by an octopus.
Different octopus species are found all over the world,
even as far south as Antarctica.
They have six arms, two legs, two eyes,
它们有6只触手 2条腿 2只眼睛
three hearts, no bones,
blue blood, a beak, are bilaterally symmetrical,
蓝色的血液 一张嘴 身体左右对称
and are one of the most intelligent animals in the world.
Since their bodies are like any air bladders and gas pockets
that would implode at great depths,
octopuses are able to live at the literal bottom of the ocean,
taking 15,000 pounds of pressure per square inch.
That’s like having one and a half school buses
on every square inch of your body.
Usually animals seem to get one to two unique features
that gives them an advantage over their environments.
Cassowaries have their sharp foot clawed – powerful kick.
Anteaters have their tongues.
Hyenas have their powerful jaws.
But octopuses are stacked.
First, the only hard part of an octopus’s body
is their razor-sharp beak.
This allows them to squeeze through anything bigger than that beak,
which, depending on the species,
are usually around an inch in diameter.
This means that a 600-pound, or 272-kilo octopus
意味着 一只重达600磅 即272千克的章鱼
can squeeze through a tube, the width of a quarter.
A recent study found that those beaks are packed with venomous saliva,
which they chiefly use for subduing prey,
like paralyzing a clam into opening its shell.
However, a bite from the beautiful, golf-ball-sized blue ringed octopus
然而 如果被一只高尔夫球大小的 漂亮的蓝环章鱼咬一口
has a venom 10,000 times more toxic than cyanide,
and can kill a human in under 90 minutes,
though there’ve only been 3 fatalities in the last hundred years.
Secondly, octopuses are masters of disguise.
They can change their entire skin color and texture
in under a second to match their surroundings.
Octopuses match their body texture to their environment using eyesight,
but the mystifying thing is – they’re colorblind.
They may be able to distinguish polarized light better than humans can,
but how they actually tell different colors apart is still unknown.
Their color change is made possible by cells called chromatophores,
which contain different pigments.
Fox Meyer from the Smithsonian Museum describes the color changing process
as similar to squeezing a dye-filled balloon.
The more you squeeze, the more the surface is stretched,
and the more the color appears.
They’re also able to change texture,
creating bumps, spikes, grooves and ripples as needed.
根据需要创造凸起 尖峰 凹槽和波纹
It’s not just color and texture.
Some octopuses, namely the mimic octopus,
not only imitates color and texture, but shape and behavior.
The open ocean is a deadly place for octopuses,
so instead of adapting deadly poison or sharp teeth,
they’ve adapted to be able to look like things
that have deadly poison or sharp teeth.
In under a second, a mimic octopus can change their color,
pull their arms back, and swim along the ocean floor
to resemble a banded sole,
or they’ll swim in more open water with a stripy pattern
或者 它们在开阔的水域游动 伪装出满身的条纹
with their arms jetted out to resemble
the spines and movement of the deadly lionfish.
If they’re under attack,
they’ll burry all but two arms underground,
and put on a strike pattern to resemble a poisonous sea snake.
Another tool on their diverse belt is their ink.
Octopuses use their ink as their last resort
to confuse their predators before jetting away.
But it’s not just a visual distraction.
The ink contains an amino acid called taurine,
which many predators find incredibly appealing,
causing them to stop pursuit of the octopus,
and instead, stick around with the ink.
The ink also causes a chemical reaction
in the predators’ nervous system,
which confuses them and slows them down.
It’s also very sticky,
which stops up the predators’ sensory organs.
However, if the predator does catch one of the octopuses’ arms,
they were able to just detach the arm
and later regrow it.
Unlike many lizards that lose their tails
and regrow less than perfect tails,
our regrown octopus arm is as good as new.
A new study into octopus arm regeneration
found that the protein acetylcholinesterase, or AChE,
which is also found in our bodies as well,
is unusually active when an octopus is regrowing an arm.
In the study they remove 2cm
from the tip of an octopus’s arm,
and within 150 days the tip had fully regrown.
They found the protein AChE to be most active
from day 21 to day 41.
Scientists are unclear how or even if AChE is a big player
in arm regeneration in octopuses,
but they hope to one day study its regenerative properties in humans.
As you know, octopus arms are covered in suction cups,
but what you might not know is that
2/3 of octopuses’ neurons are located in their arms,
not their central brain,
meaning that their arms can act independently from one another.
This is also why if you sever an octopus arm,
it’ll still react if you touch it.
Octopuses are incredibly smart and make great use of tools.
Coconut octopuses, found off the coast of Indonesia,
are named so because they have been documented
carrying coconuts around with them.
Moving along the ocean floor with no cover is a dangerous venture,
so coconut octopuses bring their own cover
in the form of coconut halves.
When a predator approaches, they duck underneath the shell.
Why the predators don’t stop to wonder
how a coconut got so far out into the open ocean?
It’s anyone’s guess.
Though I suppose an African swallow
could have gripped it by the husk.
In captivity octopuses have figured out how to escape from jars,
open jars, solve mazes,
and have figured out how to escape from aquariums.
Octopuses in captivity are mischievious bunch as it get bored very easily，
as any intelligent creature would.
If you keep an octopus at home,
be sure to keep it constantly entertained and engaged,
otherwise you’ll have another inky on your hands.
Worse than escaping, scientists found that in non-stimulating barren tanks,
科学家们发现 如果没有能使章鱼振奋的空罐子 后果比出逃更糟
captive octopuses became very stressed,
and some turn to autophagy or eating their own arms.
In 2009 at the Santa Monica Pier Aquarium,
staff came in one morning to find the floor submerged
in 200 gallons or 750 liters of seawater.
What happened was overnight,
a two-spotted octopus had taken apart the water recycling tank
and pointed one of its tubes out of the tank,
spraying water onto the floor throughout the night.
Scientists have attempted to measure octopus intelligence
by observing them opening clams and mussels.
Turns out they prefer eating mussels because they’re easier to open.
But does their ability to solve problems to get food
mean they’re intelligent?
For that question, I’m gonna need some help
from my friend Olly over on Philosophy Tube.
It’s been said that octopuses are intelligent.
But what does it mean to be intelligent?
Have you ever seen an octopus take an IQ test?
Honestly it’s embarrassing.
Although they do have the foresight to bring their own ink.
A good starting definition of intelligence
is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge.
But then what is knowledge for an octopus,
但是接下来 对于章鱼 亦或是人来说
or even for a human?
It’s common in philosophy to distinguish
between two different kinds of knowledge:
knowledge-that and knowledge-how.
It’s difficult to tell whether octopuses can know
that things are true,
because we can’t ask them.
But they might have knowledge-how.
Catherine Hawley is suggesting that knowing how to do something means that
Catherine Hawley认为 知道“怎么做”
you could probably succeed at doing it
if you tried under some specific circumstances.
And octopuses can succeed in certain tasks
like getting food out of jars.
As usual in philosophy,
it’s a little bit more complicated than that though.
So head on over to my channel Philosophy Tube
when you’re done here,
and we’ll talk about what you know.
And nothing makes for a great segue quite like detachable penises.
The Argonaut octopus’s penis breaks off during the mating process
and stays with the female.
And like its arms, it grows back.
To inseminate the female,
the male will either inject its spermatophores directly into the tube
that the female uses to breathe,
or he’ll just hand them to her,
which the females always accept with one of their right arms.
Scientists still don’t know why this happens.
After this, the males typically wander off to die.
在此之后 雄性通常会四处游荡 直到死去
The female will then lay her somewhat 400,000 eggs.
She’ll stop eating while protecting them
and when they finally hatch, her body commits cellular suicide.
卵彻底孵化后 她体内细胞凋亡 最终死亡
Contrary to historical Japanese depictions,
octopus sex is not a fun time.
Female Argonaut octopuses are 600 times larger than the males.
The male’s being only 2cm or 3/4 of an inch long.
You can imagine why he’d want to detach his penis
and make a speedy getaway.
Blanket octopuses are also incredibly sexually dimorphic,
but that’s not what’s cool about them.
Remember the Portuguese man o’ war –
the colonial organism with the deadly venom?
Well, blanket octopuses are immune to their poison.
So they hunt them down, rip off their tentacles,
因此 毯子章鱼会猎杀水母 扯掉它们的触须
and wield them as weapons when hunting prey.
Finally, I’ll leave you with this newly identified octopus,
which is so cute.
Scientists are considering naming it Adorabilus.
What animal should I check out next?
Please let me know in the comments,
and go watch all these video
on the two different types of knowledge and subscribe.
His channel rocks. You’ll love it. I promise.
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