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强度最高的材料

Nuclear Pasta May Be the Strongest Material Ever | SciShow News

周一 《物理评论快报》
On Monday, a paper came out
刊发了一篇关于
in the journal Physical Review Letters
宇宙中强度最大的材料的论文
that describes what may be the strongest material in the universe.
它被称为核团
It’s called nuclear pasta.
存于中子星中
It’s found inside neutron stars:
中子星是由 恒星在超新星爆炸后剩下的体积超大
the supermassive, dense remains of stars
密度超大的残骸形成的
that have gone supernova.
事实上 它们主要由中子构成
They are, in fact, made mostly of neutrons.
我们知道核团已经有一段时间了
We’ve known about nuclear pasta for a while,
直到现在我们才搞清楚它的性质
but we haven’t really understood its properties until now.
虽然它不会成为下一代建筑材料
And while it probably won’t be the next big building material,
但是它可以让天文学家们了解中子星的行为
it could help astronomers understand how neutron stars behave.
总的来说 中子星是非常超乎我们的想象的东西
In general, neutron stars are pretty wildobjects!
因此 它们的内部结构也超出我们的想象
And so as a result, their anatomy is alsopretty wild.
举个例子 就在上世纪七十年代初
For one, they have brittle crusts,
中子星被发现后不久 我们就知道了
which we’ve known about since the early 1970s,
它们有脆弱的外壳
shortly after these stars were discovered.
外壳由中子构成
The crust is formed by neutrons that are forced
这些中子被中子星的极端巨大的引力拉入晶格中
into a crystal lattice by the star’s extreme gravity.
这种脆性的一个很有意思的特性就是
A pretty cool consequence of that brittleness is
在足够的拉力下外壳会破裂
that the crusts break if put under enough strain.
外壳破裂会引起各种现象
And crust breaking can cause all kinds ofbehavior,
比如会引起转速增加和磁暴
like an increase in rotational speed, and magnetic outbursts.
上世纪80年代有人提出
Just beneath that outer crust lies the nuclear pasta,
核团就位于外壳下面
which was first proposed in the 1980s.
核团这种材料是由恒星的中子和幸存的质子
This material is formed when, at high pressures,
在高压下被剧烈压缩而形成的
the star’s neutrons and any surviving protons are compressed so much
它们形成了非常奇特的结构
that they start organizingthemselves into some really odd structures.
举个例子 这种长线状的称为意大利面
For example, they form these long strings, called spaghetti,
还有这些板状的称为千层面
and these board-like shapes, called lasagna.
需要声明 这些都是专业术语
And for the record, those are both the technical terms!
科学家们真伟大
Scientists are great.
在很长一段时间 尽管我们
For a long time, though, we’ve
确实不知道中子星具有核团
really had no idea what it meant for
意味着什么
neutron stars to have nuclear pasta.
除了它奇怪的外形和大体组成
Apart from the weird shapes and the general composition,
我们对它的特征了解甚少 比如
we didn’t know much about its characteristics. Like,
如果外壳易碎 核团也是易碎吗
if the crust can break, can the pasta?
为了弄清楚
In an effort to figure out
壳下面发生了什么
what was going on down there,
一只由麦吉尔大学 印第安纳大学以及加州理工大学的成员组成的团队
a team from McGill University, Indiana University, and Caltech
借助超级计算机来模拟这种材料
ran the largest supercomputer simulations of this material.
他们进行了各种各样的伸展和拉力测试
They tested it under all kinds of stretching and strain,
为了能够破坏它
trying to get it to break.
模拟结果显示它需要非常大的拉力才能弄破
And it turns out it needed a lot of strain. Like,
比其他所有材料都要大
more than it would take to snap anyother material,
这就让它很有可能成为宇宙中最强的材料
making it potentially the strongest stuff in the universe.
核团层也有可能影响到上面的壳的破裂过程
This pasta layer might also influence how the crust above it breaks.
这意味着 当天文学家
That means that, when astronomers get data
从中子星的壳获得数据
from a neutron star’s crust,
他们就很有可能推测出
they might be able to extrapolate what’s going
壳下面的核团内发生了什么
on in the pasta below!
当然这只是目前所做的
Of course, this is the only simulation
模拟的结果
of its kind that has been done so far,
因此 随着科学家继续相似的模拟 以后会有更多的新闻出现
so there should be more news to come as scientists perform similar tests.
在本月早些时候的其他新闻中
In other news, earlier this month,
科学家发现他们观测到物质落入黑洞中
scientists reported that they observed matter falling into a black hole! Now,
落入黑洞中 这没什么大不了的 黑洞就是这样的运转的
that in itself isn’t remarkable, that’show black holes work.
黑洞都会这样
That’s kind of their deal.
但是研究发现物质以一个非常奇特的角度移动
But these observations show matter moving at a really weird angle,
而且超级快
and super fast.
这就成了新闻
And that’s what makes this news!
物质聚集在黑洞周围的一个巨大的吸积盘中
Matter collects around black holes in massive accretion disks,
吸积盘最深处的物质有时会被吸入黑洞中
where the innermost matter can sometimes fall in.
我们所有的关于黑洞的模型
All our models of black holes,
以及我们所有的关于黑洞如何吞噬物体的知识
and basically all our understanding of how they gobble up stuff,
都假设它们的吸积盘没有一点倾斜
assume that their accretion disks orbit with no tilt.
它们如同许多非常大的环平行于黑洞的赤道
They’re like big rings parallel to the hole’sequator. Except,
当然这种假设现实中并不一定对
there’s no physical reason thatneeds to be true.
吸积盘可以朝着任何方向
Accretion disks could have any orientation.
我们过去并不曾看到一个黑洞的吸积盘
We had just never seen a black hole behaving
不平行于自己的赤道 但现在我们发现了
like its disk wasn’t parallel, until now.
在这个新的研究中
In this new study,
刊登在皇家天文学会月刊上
published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,
一个团队研究了一个离我们10亿光年远的
a team studied a black hole at the center
处于银河系中心的黑洞
of a galaxy almost a billion light-years away.
他们使用了欧洲航天局的XMM-牛顿望远镜的数据
They used data from the European Space Agency’sXMM-Newton telescope:
这个太空望远镜主要利用X射线观测
a space telescope that mainly observes things using X-rays,
而黑洞就会放射出巨量的X射线
which black holes emit tons of. Specifically,
团队正在寻找某种元素的痕迹
the group was looking for thefingerprints of certain elements.
这些痕迹就是光谱上的一些条形图案
These fingerprints appear as patterns of linesin an emission spectrum,
图案上的每一条线都与某些元素发出特定波长的光有关
and each line is associated with an element emitting specific wavelengths of light.
如果一些元素的图案相较于正常图案在波长上有偏移
If an element’s pattern appears shifted from its usual wavelengths,
这意味着它们在移动
that likely means it’s moving.
科学家可以借助这些偏移来计算物体的移动速度
And scientists can use that difference to calculate the speed of the material.
在上面的例子中
In this case,
落入黑洞的物体的移动速度大概是光速的三成
the stuff falling into the black hole was moving around 30% the speed of light.
如果你觉得这速度非常快 那就对了
And if you think that’s fast, you are totally correct.
这比我们通常看到的物质的移动速度
It’s significantly faster than what we usually see
要快得多得多
from this kind of matter.
比较奇怪的是
What was maybe stranger, though,
物体似乎径直掉到黑洞
is that this stuff appeared to be falling directly onto the black hole,
并不像我们通常看到的螺旋着掉入
not spiraling inward from a disk like we usually see.
根据前面的模拟 结果显示
Turns out, based on earlier simulations,
如果黑洞有着倾斜的吸积盘
this is exactly what you would expect
就能看到前面所说的状况
if the black hole had a tilted disk.
看 吸积盘的倾斜会引起一定程度的不稳定
See, disk tilting can cause some instability,
吸积盘的大块物质会破裂并与其它物质分离
and chunks of the accretion disk can break off and separate from the rest.
这些大块物质相互碰撞并抵消彼此
And those chunks can collide and cancel out some
一部分的转速
of each other’s rotation.
因此 不再旋转
And without all the spinning,
物质被径直拉入黑洞 速度比正常快得多
the matter is pulled directly into the black hole way faster than normal.
多亏了模拟
Thanks to simulations,
我们可以认为称为“混沌吸积”的现象
we’d thought that this so-called chaotic accretion might
在超大的黑洞中或许很常见
be pretty common for supermassive black holes,
但是我们过去从未看到过
but we’d never seen it happening.
吸积现象毕竟很简单
After all, accretion events are pretty brief,
因此我们需要在对的时间
so we’d have to catch a black hole
发现对的黑洞才能观测到
at just the right moment.
但是现在 似乎我们终于做到了
But now, it looks like we’ve finally done it!
当然我们必须
Of course we’ll have
做更多的研究来确认结果
to do more studies to confirm these results,
但这是在黑洞研究领域前进的一大步
but this is a big step forward in black hole research.
当我们发现
And it’s always kind
预测似乎是正确的 这件事非常让人开心
of nice when our simulations seem to be right.
感谢收看本集《科学秀》太空新闻
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space News,
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especially to our patrons on Patreon!
你们帮助我们的团队获得最新的论文和
You help our team get access to the latest papers as well
影片以及这么酷的视频
as film and edit all this cool research,
没有你们 我们做不到这些
and we couldn’t do it without you.
如果你愿意帮助我们持续做出像本集这样的更多节目
If you’d like to help us keep making episodes like this one,
可以访问Patreon.com/scishow
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视频概述

这也许是宇宙中强度最大的材料

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jason Li

审核员

审核员_Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRtHx7dkTKY

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