未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

看不见的噪音污染远远超出你的想象

Noise Pollution Is Much Worse For You Than You Think

地铁离站
(Subway departing)
这不健康
This is not healthy.
当你听到”污染”一词时
When you hear about pollution,
也许想到的是废气 废物或者石油泄漏
you might picture exhaust fumes, littering, or oil spills.
但是还有另一种你可能
But there’s another kind of pollution
不知道的污染:噪音污染
you might not know: noise pollution.
和其他任何一种污染一样 它对社会有害
Like any other pollution, it’s a nuisance to society.
而且每个人都讨厌它
Plus,everyone hates it.
特得·鲁特:“几年以前 (美国)人口统计局”
Ted Rueter:”A few years ago, the [U.S.] Census Bureau”
“做了一项关于人们喜欢和厌恶”
“did a survey on what people like and dislike”
“邻居做什么的调查”
“about their neighborhoods.”
“他们发现噪音是”
“What they found was that noise was”
“美国人抱怨邻居及”
“Americans NO.1 complaints about their neighborhoods”
“他们为什么希望搬家的首要原因”
“and the NO.1 reason why they wish to move.”
舒适并不是那么重要
But comfort isn’t all that’s at stake.
我们的听力 整体健康 以及孩子们的健康处于危险之中
Our hearing, overall health, and well-being of our children is in jeopardy.
科技内核
TECH INSIDER
2016年 世界上54.5%的人口在城市居住
In 2016, 54.5% of the world’s population lived in cities.
到2030年 这一数量估计会增长至60%
By 2030, it’s estimated that population will grow to be 60%.
噪音污染随处可见
Noise pollution can be found anywhere,
但在城市尤其严重
but it’s especially bad in cities.
这是一张美国最喧闹地区分布图
Here’s a map of the loudest places in the U.S.
城市毫无意外的处于名单前列
Not surprising, cities top the list.
它们的噪音水平在55-67分贝之间
They have background levels between 55 – 67 decibels.
大概有空调的嗡嗡声那么大
That’s about as loud as the hum from your air conditioner.
听起来像这样
It sounds like this.
(空调声)
(Air conditioner hum)
你会注意到 这不包括你
You’ll notice, that’s not including random spikes
一整天听到的随机噪音
of noise you hear throughout the day.
像这样
Like this.
(汽车喇叭声)
(Car honk)
人类耳朵能忍受的最大安全噪音是85分贝
The human ear can tolerate noise up to 85 decibels without damage.
任何比这更大的声音都会有永久致聋的风险
Anything louder poses a risk of permanent hearing loss.
研究显示任何65分贝及以上的声音
Yet,studies show that anything at or above 65 decibels
能引起血压增高
can trigger an increase in blood pressure,
心跳加快及血液中应激激素增加
heart rate, and stress hormones in the blood.
这是纽约人民每天听到的平均分贝
This is what average New Yorker hears every day.
(时代广场噪音)
(Times Square noise)
(音乐声)
(Music playing)
(市中心人行道声音)
(Downtown sidewalk sound)
(火车站声音)
(Train hub sound)
(地铁站声音)
(Subway station sound)
随着时间流逝 我们已习惯这些声音
Over time, we can get used to these sounds
但这并不会让它们变得安全
but that doesn’t make them any less dangerous.
基特·法兰克:”我叫基特·法兰克,我是一名纽约大学”
Kit Frank:” My name is Kit Frank, I am an audiologist”
“朗格尼医学中心的听力学家”
“at NYU Langone.”
我认为我们并没有屏蔽这些声音
“So, I don’t think we build-up a tolerance to sound.”
“从解剖学上讲 没有什么能改变”
“Anatomically, there’s nothing that changes”
“保护你耳朵免受噪音危害的组织”
“that can protect you from sound in your ear”
“因为你经常置身于这样的环境”
“just because you’re around it a lot.”
“它更多的是一种心理效应”
“It’s probably more of a psychological affect”
“你没有在意因为你一直都能听到它”
“that you just don’t notice it because you hear it all the time.”
在2007年 研究者通过研究全世界
In 2007, researchers released results from their study
200,000例听力测试并发布了结果
on 200,000 hearing tests worldwide.
他们发现城市居民有明显的听力损失
They discovered that city residentshad noticeable levels of hearing loss.
他们的听力水平到了本应该在
Their hearing was what it should have been,
他们10年或者20年后的时候的水平
if they were 10 to 20 years older.
一旦造成危害 便是不可逆的
Once the damage is done, it’s irreversible.
我们的耳朵里有微小的绒毛来延迟声音到达大脑
We have microscopic hairs in our ears that relay sound to the brain.
它们很好地调整了耳膜的振动频率
They’re fine-tuned to detect vibrating frequencies from our eardrum.
如果那些震动太强
If those vibrations are too strong,
就能弯曲 破坏或者甚至摧毁这些纤弱的绒毛
it can bend, break, or even destroy these delicate hairs.
但是不同于头发
But, unlike the hairs on your head,
它们不会再次生长
these don’t grow back.
由于我们无法看见或感知这些绒毛
Since we cannot see or feel these hairs,
噪音污染造成的损失不易发现
the damage from noise pollution can go unnoticed
这将长达多年甚至几十年
for years, even decades.
据世界健康组织报道
According to the World Health Organization,
噪音是被低估的一种威胁
noise is an underestimated threat that can cause a number
它能造成一系列短期及长期健康问题
of short and long-term health problems,
比如睡眠干扰 心血管影响
such as sleep disturbance, cardiovascular effects,
及较差的工作和学校表现
and poorer work and school performance.
噪音污染最著名的研究是在1974年
One of the most famous studies on noise pollution was in 1974.
它发生在纽约的98公立学校
It happened here at P.S. 98 in New York City.
建筑物的东边朝向地铁
The east side of the building faces the subway.
当地铁通过时 教室里的噪音污染
When trains passed, the noise pollution in the classroom went from
从59分贝的平均值上升到89分贝
an average of 59 decibels to 89.
老师不得不大声叫喊来盖过噪音
Teachers had to shout over the noise.
这种情况每4.5分钟就发生一次并会持续30秒
This happened about every 4.5 minutes for 30 seconds at a time.
两位研究者比较了测试数据
The two researchers compared test scores
并对比了在建筑物东西两侧
and reading levels of students on the east
学生的阅读水平
versus the west sides of the building.
建筑物西边的学生没有受到影响
While students on the west side weren’t affected,
而东边的学生平均阅读水平
students on the east side were on average
落后四个月
four months behind on reading level
考试成绩也较差
and they performed worse on achievement tests.
很多研究者已经证实
More studies have gone on to show
住在嘈杂环境中的孩子
that children who live in noisy environments
血压和应激激素更高
have elevated blood pressure and stress hormones.
这一切都有希望解决
There is one silver lining to all of this.
一双便宜的耳塞是解决这个问题的临时简易方法
A pair of inexpensive earplugs are an easy, temporary fix to this problem.
还有更多的短期解决方案
For more short-term solutions,
很多城市开始执行安静时间计划
various cities have started implementing quiet hours
(嘘)
(Shush)
或对噪音污染进行罚款
or ticketing people for noise pollution,
列入”生活质量”罚款范畴内
under the category of”quality of life” fines.
特得·鲁特:”最优秀的案例在德国”
Ted Rueter:”What one great example is, Germany. “
“他们禁止在周日割草坪”
“There, they banned lawn mowing on Sundays.”
“你知道 周日是用来休息的”
“You know, Sunday’s are supposed to be a day of rest.”
“所以 当邻居在使用轰响的割草机和”
“So, who can rest when all of your neighbors are blasting away”
“树叶鼓风机时 谁还能休息呢?”
“with their lawn mowers and leaf blowers?”
“在欧洲也一样 欧盟通常”
“Also in Europe, the European Union generally,”
“对商品有很大的噪音限制”
“they have significant noise restrictions on commercial products “
“如洗碗机 电冰箱以及其他一些家用电器 “
“like dishwashers, refrigerators and other household items”
“以及割草机和树叶鼓风机”
“and lawnmowers and leaf blowers.”
“我也理解印度现在禁止二冲程燃气发动机”
“I also understand that India has now banned the two-stroke gas engine.”
“因此 很显然其他国家在谈论这个问题时”
“So, definitely there are other countriesthat are taking this issue”
“比美国要严肃得多”
“much more seriously than the U.S. is.”
如果这个问题有一个永久的解决办法
If there ever is a permanent fix to this problem,
那它取决于一个问题:
it hinges on one question:
我们什么时候开始认真对待噪音污染?
when will we start taking noise pollution seriously?

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

噪音污染往往被人忽视,尤其是生活在城市里的人深受其扰却不自知或无法控制,噪音污染会有什么危害?社会现状又是如何?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小葵酱

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5jfmzufa8qo

相关推荐