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没人知道谁先到达的北极点 – 译学馆
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没人知道谁先到达的北极点

No-One Knows Who Got To The North Pole First

上面就是克列布尼科夫船长谋杀案中的那座桥
Up there is the bridge of the Kapitan Klebnikov,
俄罗斯的破冰船带着我
the Russian icebreaker that’s taking me,
和克里斯·哈德菲尔德探险队成员环北极圈航行
and the rest of Chris Hadfield’s expedition, around the Arctic.
现在 我们顺利地航行到了这
Nowadays, navigation up there, and, well,
船只大部分时间处于自动运行状态
on most ships is mostly automatic,
它由GPS和电脑生成的的航图操纵
it’s handled by GPS and computer-driven charts.
但是在桥上藏有一个应急支援
But hidden away up on that bridge is an emergency backup
这和探险家们用了几个世纪的大致相同
that’s roughly the same as explorers have been using for centuries.
这是一个六分仪 用于天文导航
It’s a sextant, and it’s used for celestial navigation.
你可以在地平线和已知星球甚至是太阳之间看到一个角度
You get the angle between the horizon and a known star, even the sun,
至少 在不是阴天的时候
at least, when it’s not cloudy,
翻阅相关的查询图表 做一些简单的计算
consult a lookup table and do a bit of maths,
然后你就可以得出你所在的纬度
and you have your latitude.
一百年前 六分仪是唯一可以用的导航工具
Now a hundred years ago, when a sextant was the only way to navigate,
大多数探险家的宣言被记录在案 这些探险家中有的受到了资助
the claims of explorers had to mostly be taken on the records that they kept…
有的却单凭信仰
or else just on faith.
今天
To this day,
没有人确切的知道谁是第一个到达北极的人
no-one is entirely sure who it was who first made it to the North Pole.
弗雷德里克·库克声称他在1908年就已经到达了北极
Frederick Cook claimed to have reached it in 1908,
但他的记录不合情理
but his records don’t really add up,
他的证据被他人怀疑 尤其是这个男人
and his evidence was questioned, particularly by a man
一年后声称自己到达北极的罗伯特·培利
who claimed to have made it to the Pole a year later: Robert Peary.
大多数报道都说培利是一个十分让人不愉快的人
By most accounts Peary was a thoroughly unpleasant man,
但多年来 普遍认为他领导
but for many years he was widely considered to have led
第一支真正在1909年到达北极的探险队
the first expedition that actually reached the North Geographic Pole in 1909.
在格陵兰岛的约克角上 有一座为他树立的高大纪念碑
There’s a memorial to him on a high ridge at Cape York in Greenland,
尽管大家都知道这是他的遗孀所为
although, admittedly, it was placed by his widow.
但他是唯一一个
But he was the only one
在最后的探险中得到航海训练
on the final part of his expedition who was trained in navigation,
唯一一个知道怎么使用六分仪的人
the only one who knew how to use a sextant,
他所有声称在后来看来都不合理
and all his really claims don’t add up in hindsight.
几乎可以肯定 咳 他没有到达极点
He almost certainly — whoa — didn’t reach the Pole.
然后是美国的海军军官理查德·伯德和他的飞行员弗洛伊德·班尼特
Then there was US naval officer Richard Byrd and his pilot, Floyd Bennett,
自称从极地上飞过
who claimed to have flown over the pole:
但他们的数据有很多漏洞
but there were a lot of holes in their data too,
许多精密的六分仪的结果可能是错误的
a lot of overprecise sextant results that couldn’t possibly be right.
甚至他们的飞机制造商都说他们不可能做到
Even the makers of their aircraft said they were unlikely to have made it.
它不像任何他们能够留下的标志或标记
And it’s not like any of them could leave a flag or a marker.
北极浮冰厚重
The north polar pack ice, the thick stuff
不像我们现在走过的薄冰 真正的厚冰
not the thin stuff we’re going through, the really thick stuff
仍然只漂浮在北冰洋上
is still just floating around on the Arctic Ocean,
它前后移动
and it drifts back and forth.
罗尔德·阿蒙森领导了首次令人信服的探险
Roald Amundsen led the first expedition that provided convincing evidence
他们通过飞艇到达了极点
they reached the pole, by airship.
但他们没有在那里降落 他们只是飞过
But they didn’t land there, they just flew over it
在二战过后 1948年 当苏联探险队
it was after the Second World War, in 1948, when a Soviet expedition
飞行到这里后 最终踏上北极点
finally set foot at the exact geographic North Pole, after flying there.
其他的探险者和空中支援一起到达北极浮冰
Other explorers reached the Pole over the pack ice, with air support,
但表面上第一次确定的远征北极没有补给
but the first confirmed surface expedition to the North Pole without resupply:
直到1986年 在几次尝试之后 威尔·斯蒂格
it took until 1986, when after several attempts, Will Steger
最终实现了我们大多数人认为
finally achieved something that most of us would assume
几十年前 爱德华时代的探险家想完成的事情
some Edwardian explorer had managed decades earlier.
如今 只要你有足够的钱 你就可以飞到极地
Nowadays, if you have enough money, you can fly to the Pole,
或者乘上核动力破冰船
or you can take a nuclear-powered icebreaker,
你可以检查你的GPS来确认它
you can check your GPS to confirm it,
你可以通过卫星电话发回一张自拍照
and you can send a selfie back via satellite phone.
我们不会乘这艘船前往遥远的北极
We are not going that far north on board this ship,
我们没有核反应堆供能
and we don’t have a nuclear reactor to give us enough power
去穿过极地的厚冰
to get through the thick ice up at the pole.
但即使这座桥上所有的花哨技术都失效
But if all the fancy technology on this bridge fails,
我们仍然可以使用像以前探险家一样的技术
we can still use the same technique as explorers centuries ago:
通过星星来追踪我们的位置
and track our position by the stars.
至少 在我们能够看见它们的地方
At least, where we can see them.
我参加了克里斯·哈德菲尔德的这次北极之源航行
I’m on this trip because of Chris Hadfield’s Generator Arctic,
就是这个男人!
and so is this man!
我的名字是本•布朗 我有幸现在站在这里
My name is Ben Brown, and I am so lucky to be here right now!
去看看他的视频
Go check out his videos,
他提供了惊人的无人摄影机
he provided the amazing drone shots for this,
链接在屏幕上或者现在的描述中
links are on screen or in the description now.
–谢了 老兄!–不客气!
— Thanks, bro! — That’s okay!

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