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虚无主义:什么也不信

Nihilism: The Belief in Nothing

We all know how it goes.
我们都知道这是怎么回事
One day we’re born, one day we die.
某一天我们出生了 某一天我们离去了
everything that happens inbetween we know and understand
这期间发生的一切我们都知道 也理解
but everything that happened before and will happen after,
但我们对这之前和之后发生的事
we know nothing about.
一无所知
As a result, it’s really difficult to say
因此 我们很难说出
what exactly the meaning or importance for us being here is.
我们存在的意义和重要性
If we can’t tell how we came or where we came from,
如果我们不知道自己是怎么来的或从哪里来
how can we know why we are here?
我们又怎么知道自己为什么会在这儿?
In the same vein, if we don’t know where we’re going
同样的道理 如果我们不知道自己要去哪儿
or what we’re going to become,
或是不知道自己会变成什么样子
how can we tell if any of our present actions have any significance at all?
我们怎么知道现在的所作所为是否有任何意义呢
It is this uncertainty of both our collective pasts and futures
正是这种 我们共同的过去和未来的不确定性
that has allowed the question “what is the meaning of life?”
才产生了“生命的意义是什么”这个问题
to plague humanity ever since we became sentient.
自我们能够感知以来 就一直困扰着我们
We’ve never been able to objectively answer this question as a species
作为一个物种 我们从未能客观地回答这个问题
however, a lot of us have found comfort in many different ideologies
然而 我们许多人在不同的意识形态中寻得了慰藉
to at least subdue the anxiety that it causes.
至少可以减轻这个问题所引起的焦虑
In many different religions, a deity made the entire universe,
在许多不同的宗教中 一个神创造了整个宇宙
put us all in it, and whatever we do on this Earth
把我们置入其中 无论我们在这个地球上做什么
will be used to determine when and how we spend eternity afterward.
都会被用来决定我们何时以及如何度过永生
For some others, the meaning of life is
对另一些人来说 生命的意义是
the love we share with friends, family, and our loved ones.
与朋友 家人及所爱之人分享的爱
some others believe the existence of life in itself is what makes it worth living
另一些人则认为 值得为生命本身的存在而活着
But for nihilists, life is meaningless.
但对于虚无主义者 生命毫无意义
All action, suffering, emotions both good and bad,
所有的行为 痛苦 情感 无论好的坏的
are entirely senseless and meaningless.
都是毫无意义的
this is nihilism the belief in nothing
这就是虚无主义:什么也不信
At some point in our lives,
在我们生命中的某个时刻
many of us must have been faced with nihilistic thoughts.
许多人一定有过虚无主义的想法
We’re hit by a strong sense of purposelessness
我们被一种强烈的无目的感
like our lives have no meaning,
如“我们的生活没有意义”
and we have no intrinsic value.
“我们没有内在价值”所打击
Usually, this happens when we begin to question our old beliefs,
通常 这种情况在我们开始质疑原有信仰时会发生
but also just before we get new ones to hold on to.
同时也会出现在我们开始坚持新信仰前
It’s in that phase where you’re growing out of your parent’s beliefs
正是在脱离父母的信仰的阶段
learning new things, getting new experiences
你学会新的东西 获得新的经验
and forming your own views about the world.
形成自己的世界观
And usually, all of these thoughts begin with one simple question – why?
通常 所有这些想法都始于一个简单的问题—为什么?
A three-lettered monosyllabic word that’s capable of making anything and everything
一个三个字母的单音节词 它能制造任何东西
that feels like the rock of your foundation start to become slippery.
感觉就像你的根基之石开始变滑
Like quicksand dragging you into the misery that maybe, just maybe
就像流沙把你拖进痛苦 也许 只是也许
your whole life hasn’t been what you thought it was.
你的整个生活并不像你想象的那样
just pause and take a moment and think about your core values
停下来 花点时间思考一下你的核心价值
and just ask the question – why?
然后问个问题 -为什么?
why do you believe these things? where do they come from?
你为什么相信这些?它们来自哪里?
Who did they come from?
它们从谁那里来的?
Keep asking and eventually,
一直问下去 最终
you’ll arrive at a point where there’s no longer an answer,
你会到达一个不再有答案的点
you’ll arrive at nothing.
你会一无所获
all the religions of the world all of our scientific discovery
世界上所有的宗教 我们所有的科学发现
but yet the question “why” is one that we still cannot answer.
但 “为什么”这个问题我们仍然无法回答
And so for the nihilist,
所以对于虚无主义者来说
it is at this point that they come to the conclusion
正是在这一点上 他们得出
that there is no why
没有“为什么”的结论
There is no answer, there is simply nothing.
没有答案 什么都没有
As Alan Watts once wrote
正如艾伦•沃茨曾经写过的:
“life is nothing more than a trip from the maternity ward to the crematorium.”
“生活只不过是从产房到火葬场的一段旅程”
It’s really in the name, the term “nihilism” comes from the Latin word “nihil” which
正如其名 “nihilism”这个词来源于拉丁文“nihil”
translates to “nothing,” and “ism” which translates to ideology.
意思是“虚无” 而“ism”是“意识形态”
It’s the ideology of nothing
就是虚无的意识形态
but that doesn’t really help us in understanding it completely.
但这并不能真正帮助我们完全理解它
Usually, people confuse nihilism for pessimism
通常 人们会混淆虚无主义和悲观主义
but they are very different from each other.
但它们是截然不同的
Pessimists believe in the worst outcome.
悲观主义者相信最坏的结果
They have a down-trending view of the world,
他们认为世界一天不如一天
and tend to focus on the negatives in life,
而且常常会关注生活中的消极面
because they believe that in the end evil will always come over good
因为他们相信 最终 恶会战胜善
And this is what makes them different.
这就是造成虚无主义与悲观主义不同的因素
Pessimists believe there’s good in the world
悲观主义者相信世界上有美好的东西
but they just don’t think humans are capable of doing it
但他们只是认为人类没有能力做到这一点
at least in its entirety.
至少没有能力做到全部
Nihilists, on the other hand, do not believe in anything.
虚无主义者 正相反 不相信任何东西
They don’t believe that there is evil in the world,
他们不相信世界上有邪恶
neither do they believe that there is good in the world.
也不相信世界上有善良
In the mind of the nihilist,
在他们心中
the world simply exists and humans created morality,
世界只是这么存在着 人类创造了道德
thereby creating good and evil
从而创造了善与恶
Let’s take the glass cup metaphor for instance.
我们以玻璃杯的比喻为例
optimist say we should see the glass as half full
乐观主义者会说 我们应该看到杯子是半满的
while pessimists say we should see the glass as half empty.
而悲观主义者说 我们应该看到杯子是半空的
Nihilists?
虚无主义者呢?
They say throw the entire cup away,
他们说把杯子扔掉
because what does it matter if it’s full or empty?
因为杯子是满的还是空的又有什么关系呢?
Full, empty, good, bad, it’s all irrelevant,
满的 空的 好的 坏的 都无关紧要
we’re all going to die anyway
反正我们都会死
Nihilism is also often compared to several other philosophies like cynicism and apathy.
虚无主义也常被拿来与犬儒主义 冷漠等其它几种哲学类别作比较
But again, they are all very different from one another,
但是 它们彼此间差别很大
and correctly categorizing your thoughts in these baskets
正确地把你的想法归类到这些篮子里
maybe harder than you think.
可能比你想象的要困难
cynic believe that people are always motivated by self-interest
犬儒主义者认为 人总是受自身利益的驱使
they don’t believe that anyone can have intrinsically good motives
他们不相信任何人的内在动机是好的
They have no faith in the human species and believe we are all entirely selfish,
他们不相信人类 认为人类是完全自私的
only fighting for our own benefit
只会为一己之私 争名逐利
However, the idea that humans are not good means that in the mind of the cynic,
然而 “人是恶的”这一观念对犬儒主义者来说
good exists out there somewhere just not humans
善存在于某个地方 只是不在人类身上
In the mind of the nihilist, nothing exists out there,
在虚无主义者的头脑中 什么都不存在
there’s no good or evil.
没有善恶之分
They don’t see people as evil, neither do they see them as good,
他们不认为人是邪恶的 也不认为人是善良的
because they don’t believe either of those things exist.
因为他们不相信有善恶存在
They are simply traits we’ve applied to things.
善恶只是我们赋予事物的特征
Apathetic people don’t care.
冷漠的人不在意这些
They might believe that there’s meaning to life,
他们可能相信生命是有意义的
but they simply don’t care about it
但他们就是不在乎
Nihilism, on the other hand,
另一方面 虚无主义
is the idea that there’s no grand design or purpose.
是指没有宏大的计划或目标
nothing to believe in therefore no meaning
没什么值得相信 因此没有任何意义
This brings to mind the paradox of nihilism.
这让我想起了虚无主义的悖论
if you believe in nothing
如果你什么都不相信
then that nothing becomes something that you believe in.
那么没什么会成为你相信的东西
But since you now believe in something,
但既然你现在相信某种东西
then there is no nihilism
那么也就不存在虚无主义了
because nihilism is the belief that there is nothing.
因为虚无主义是什么也不信的
Nihilism is quite different from other philosophical ideas
虚无主义与其他哲学思想截然不同
because it was first a literary invention before it ever became philosophical.
因为它在成为哲学之前 最初是一种文学发明
as result, it’s not as clearly defined as many of the other philosophies that exist.
结果 其定义不像现存的其他哲学那样清晰
Many different people explained it in different ways,
许多不同的人用不同的方式解释它
but eventually these different definitions got categorized,
但最终 这些不同的定义被归类
forming many different kinds of nihilism.
形成了许多不同类型的虚无主义
There’s political nihilism.
有“政治虚无主义”
political nihilism believe that for humanity to move forward as a species
政治虚无主义认为 为了人类作为一个物种向前发展
all political, social, and religious order must be destroyed.
所有的政治 社会和宗教秩序都必须被摧毁
then there is ethical nihilism
然后是“道德虚无主义”
It rejects the idea of absolute ethical or moral values.
它反对绝对的伦理或道德价值观念
With this type of nihilism,
在这种虚无主义中
good or bad is only defined by society
好与坏只能由社会来定义
and as such, it shouldn’t be followed
因此 如果我们作为一个物种
if we as a species will ever attain absolute individual freedom.
要获得绝对的个人自由 它就不应该被遵循
we can kind of do what ever we want
我们可以做任何想做的事
And then we have existential nihilism;
然后是“存在虚无主义”
it’s the understanding that life has no value or meaning.
它是对“生命没有价值和意义”的理解
it’s the most popular kind of nihilism
这是最流行的一种虚无主义
and the one we’ve been talking about for most of this video.
也是本视频中我们大部分时间都在讨论的一种
For nihilists, the existence of things like the state, religious bodies,
对于虚无主义者来说 国家 宗教团体
and even communal morality is a breach on our freedom as individuals.
甚至公共道德 都是对我们个人自由的侵犯
If we cannot do absolutely anything that we want to do,
如果我们不能随心所欲
then are we truly free?
那么我们真的是自由的吗?
Or have we simply bound ourselves
还是说 我们只是因无法解释的原因
by some kind of invisible mental chain for reasons we cannot explain?
被某种无形的精神链条束缚住了?
One night I was scrolling through Reddit and I came across the question –
一天晚上 我在浏览Reddit网站 看到一个问题:
“if you had the chance to save your pet or a stranger,
“如果你有机会救你的宠物或一个陌生人
who would you save?”
你会救谁?”
An overwhelming number of people said their pet, pretty obviously.
很显然 绝大多数人会救他们的宠物
When one commenter was confronted
当一个评论者被质问时
they simply asked the question
他们只是问了这样一个问题
“why do you think a human life is worth more than that of an animal?”
“为什么你认为人的生命比动物的生命更有价值?”
and no one really had the answer
没有人真的知道答案
Of course people tried to beat around the bush
当然 人们曾想寻根究底
but the question “why” was never answered
但“为什么”这个问题始终没有答案
and that right there is the point of the nihilist.
而这正是虚无主义者的观点
If we cannot answer why we bind ourselves by these rules
如果我们不能回答为什么要受这些规则约束
then why do we choose to do it?
那我们为什么还要这样做呢?
Well, it might be because of the existential horror and the emotional anguish
这可能是因为 认同生活毫无意义这一事实
that comes with agreeing to the fact that life is meaningless.
所带来的存在主义恐惧和情感上的痛苦
think about it for a minute
想想看
if life is truly meaningless and everything we’re doing has no value
如果生命真得毫无意义 我们做的一切都没有价值
then all the feats of science, the wonders of technology,
那么所有科学的壮举 科技的奇迹
things like space exploration and human rights movements,
比如太空探索 以及人权运动
look at how far we’ve come,
看看我们已经走了多远
and then think about the fact that it all might just be a waste,
然后再想想这些可能都只是一种浪费
a blip in time with no consequence whatsoever in the grand scheme of things.
只是时间上的一瞬 从大局来看没有任何影响
knowing that all the things we experience
知道我们经历过的所有
the ups and downs we go through,
起起落落的事情
that in the end it’s all for nothing.
最终都是徒劳的
we’re all obligated to understand chaos of reality
我们都有义务去理解现实的混乱
just to laugh at it.
只是为了嘲笑它
Friedrich Nietzsche was strange philosopher
弗里德里希·尼采是一位奇怪的哲学家
because he argued both for and against nihilism at the same time.
因为他既支持也反对虚无主义
Arguing for, he explained that there is no objective structure or order in our world
他解释说 在我们的世界 除了我们为自己创造的世界
except the one we create for ourselves.
没有客观的结构或秩序
He once said, “every belief, every considering something true is necessarily false,
他曾说 “每种信仰 某种对某事信以为真的认识 都必然是错的
because there is simply no true world”
因为根本就没有真正的世界”
He believed nihilism would expose all of humanity’s “beliefs” and “truths”
他相信虚无主义会暴露人类所有的“信仰”和“真理”
as nothing but a symptom of a defective Western mythology
只不过是西方神话有缺陷的一种症状
As he famously said, “God is dead.”
正如他的名言:“上帝已经死了”
He wasn’t talking about the actual deity of the religions,
他说的并不是宗教中真正的神
he was talking metaphorically about the power that religious orders held at the time
他所隐喻的 是当时宗教秩序所拥有的权力
and how people were starting to chart their own paths,
以及人们开始规划自己道路的方式
find their own meaning in life,
寻找自己生命意义的途径
denying what was the status quo at the time.
否认当时现状的方法
But then in the same breath,
但与此同时
Friedrich argued against nihilism
弗里德里希反对虚无主义
saying that in the coming centuries,
他说 在接下来的几个世纪里
the advent of nihilism would drive civilization towards a catastrophe,
虚无主义的到来将把文明推向一场灾难
a disaster waiting to implode.
一场等待内爆的灾难
A river that has reached its end.
一条已经流到尽头的河流
And if you look at the most destructive civilizations in human history,
如果你看看人类历史上最具破坏性的文明
we can clearly see that this is true.
我们可以清楚地看到 这是真的
Longstanding cultural traditions, beliefs, religious institutions
悠久的文化传统 信仰 宗教机构
and even financial systems are broken down
甚至金融体系都被破坏了
and nothingness starts creeping in. think about it
虚无开始悄悄侵入 想想看
if nothing matters and we are just a random combination of transient atoms
如果什么都不重要 我们只是瞬间原子的随机组合
How can we call Adolf Hitler objectively one of the worst humans to ever live
我们怎能因阿道夫•希特勒试图摧毁整个文化
for trying to wipe out an entire culture
而客观地说他是有史以来最坏的人之一
At a fundamental level,
在基本层面上
most of us understand that all of these things are indeed terrible,
我们大多都明白 所有这些事情确实都很可怕
but the danger is that because we cannot explain why we feel that way logically,
但危险在于 我们无法解释为什么会有这种逻辑上的感觉
we can never convince another person to follow the same path.
我们永远无法说服另一个人遵循同样的路径
and that is exactly what Friedrich feared
而这正是弗里德里希所担心的
A lot of people actually still blame him for the Nazi era,
事实上 很多人仍然把纳粹时代的责任归咎于他
because although he saw all these dangers,
因为尽管看到了所有这些危险
he still continued preaching nihilism.
他仍然继续宣扬虚无主义
He believed that if we could work through the breakdown of civilization
他相信 如果我们能克服虚无主义
that nihilism would eventually cause,
最终导致的文明崩溃
we can then create a new course of action for mankind.
我们就能为人类创造新的行动路线
He believed that to move forward as a species,
他认为 作为一个物种 为了前进
we must create a new morality,
我们必须创造一种新的道德
one that does away with the prejudice of what existed before.
一种消除过去存在的偏见的道德
because at the end of the day
因为在这一天结束时
tearing down your old house shouldn’t make you homeless,
拆掉你的旧房子不应该让你无家可归
rather, it should present you with an opportunity to build a bigger and better home.
相反 它应该给你一个机会 建一个更大更好的家
Pause and look around you for a moment,
暂停一下 环顾四周
observe everything that’s going on,
观察正在发生的一切
particularly on social media,
特别是在社交媒体上
and you can see that we as a species
你可以看到 作为一个物种
might just be heading for another nihilism outbreak.
我们可能正走向另一种虚无主义的爆发
religion no longer holds any say in what is morally acceptable,
宗教不再对什么是道德上可接受的有任何发言权
people are destroied longstanding beliefs and cultural practices
人们长期存在的信仰和文化习俗被摧毁
and are instead charting new courses for themselves.
取而代之的是为自己开辟新的道路
Anything, no matter how despicable you think it is,
任何东西 不管你觉得它有多卑鄙
now has a loyal fan base defending
现在都有忠实的粉丝群在捍卫
why they have a right to do whatever it is they want to do,
为什么他们有权利去做任何想做的事
and in reality, why not?
事实上 为什么不呢?
That’s the question no one can answer.
这是个没人能回答的问题
Humanity will keep shifting the needle forward ever so slightly until one day,
人类将会一直跟随时间的脚步慢慢前移 直到有一天
none of us will be able to tell the other that they’re wrong,
没有人能告诉别人他们错了
because “why are they wrong?”
因为“他们为什么会错?”
William Shakespeare once wrote
威廉•莎士比亚曾经写到:
“Life’s but a walking shadow,
“人生不过是一个行走的影子
a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage
一个可怜的演员 在舞台上昂首阔步 焦躁不安地表演了一段时间
and then is heard no more;
然后就消失了
it is a tale told by an idiot,
这是一个白痴讲的故事
full of sound and fury, but signifying nothing.”
充满了喧哗与骚动 却毫无意义”
If life is truly meaningless
如果生活真的毫无意义
and we have no purpose for being here,
我们在生活中没有任何目的
our response should be to make the best out of a bad situation.
我们的回应应该是 在糟糕的情况下做最好的努力
Instead of seeing the glass half full or half empty,
我们可以简单地把杯子扔掉 直接从水龙头喝水
we can simply throw it out and drink directly from the faucet until we’re satisfied.
直到我们喝足为止 而不是看着杯子里的水是半满还是半空
Because at the end of the day,
因为在这天结束的时候
life alone is reason enough for living.
生命本身就足够了
We get one life to do whatever we want,
我们只有一次生命可以做想做的事情
at least in this reality.
至少在目前的现实中是这样
It’s important to stay up to date with things;
了解最新的信息很重要
we want to live life on our own terms,
我们想按自己的方式生活
so it’s important to align our views accordingly
因此 相应地调整观点很重要
Now most of us really don’t want to sit around watching news everyday
现在 我们大多数人真的不想每天坐着看新闻
it takes up a lot of time and honestly, it can be depressing sometimes.
这占用了很多时间 老实说 有时会令人沮丧
With MorningBrew, you can stay up to date with business news in just 5 minutes a day.
有了MorningBrew 你每天只需5分钟就可以了解最新的商业新闻
I’ve talked about MorningBrew before, and I still use it to this day.
我曾谈过Morning brew 直到今天我仍在用它
I try to make the most of my days, and with MorningBrew,
我试着充分利用每一天 有了MorningBrew
I can stay up to date with the world before I even get out of bed.
我甚至在起床前就能了解世界的最新动态
If you’re not into reading news article after news article, or watching it on TV,
如果你不喜欢一篇接一篇地阅读新闻 或者在电视上看新闻
MorningBrew is perfect for you
MorningBrew非常适合你
It’s concise, efficient, and really can give you a new perspective on things.
它简洁 高效 确实能给你一个看待事物的新视角
If you like to keep up on everything tech, business, or finance, I
如果你喜欢了解所有科技 商业或金融方面的信息
suggest you check it out.
我建议你查看一下
If you’re interested, click the link in the description and get started with MorningBrew today.
感兴趣的话 点击页面中的链接 今天就开始使用MorningBrew吧
It’s free, and takes less than 15 seconds to do.
这是免费的 而且只需要不到15秒的时间
You’ll be staying up to date with reality, and supporting my channel at the same time.
你将了解最新的情况 同时也支持了我的频道

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视频概述

生命的意义是什么?我们从哪里来,又将到哪里去?各种类型虚无主义会给你不同的答案

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOvyn72x6kQ

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