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伟大作品赏析:爱德华·霍普的《夜游者》

Nighthawks by Edward Hopper: Great Art Explained

爱德华·霍普生于纽约
and he understood that city, more than most people.
他比多数人更了解这座城市
He understood that even though you may live in
他明白即使你身处
one of the most crowded and busy cities on earth,
世界上最拥挤繁忙的城市之一
it is still possible to feel entirely alone.
你仍可能会由衷地感到孤独
This painting was completed on january the 21st, 1942.
这副画完成于1942年1月21日
Just weeks of the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
正是珍珠港被炸的前几周
And the Americans’ entry into World War II.
美国人就此加入了二战
That’s not to say the war was a direct influence,
并不是说这场战争造成了直接影响
but the feeling of dread, many americans had,
但许多美国人心里的恐惧
surely infused the painting.
无疑填满了这副画
Afraid of air raid attacks,
出于对空袭的恐惧
New York had blackout drills
纽约实行停电演习
and lights were dimmed in public spaces.
公共区域的所有灯光都变得昏暗
Streets emptied out,
街道空荡荡的
and Hopper’s city was effectively dark…
霍普所在的城市简直一片漆黑
and silent.
与死一般的寂静
伟大画作解析
1.纽约
[Newsreel] “The route was past miles of tenements,
”一路好几英里都是公寓
giving the passengers a glimpse into every window,
乘客可以瞥见每扇窗户
all the tenement dwellers got in return,
反之 公寓住户们
was a feeling of being close to the passing parade”.
好像在近距离观赏游行队伍。”
Edward Hopper took the elevated El-train to work for decades.
数十年来 霍普乘高架铁路电气车上班
In his forties,
当他40岁时
he was a failure
他是个失败者
who couldn’t sell a painting.
因为画卖不出去
He hated his job as a magazine illustrator,
他厌恶杂志插画师的工作
but he needed the money.
但他需要钱
His paintings were pretty much ignored by critics.
他的画都被评论家们忽视
while his fellow artists enjoyed success and fame.
而其他画家都已功成名就
But hopper was convinced of his talent,
但霍普对他的才能坚信不疑
and even when he was broke,
即使他破产了
he only accepted illustration work three days a week.
他一周也只接三天插画工作
Hopper’s voice: “Illustration really didn’t interest me i was forced into it,
”我对插画实在不感兴趣 不得已啊
by an effort to make some money that’s all”.
我只是为了赚些钱。”
The rest of the week he painted extraordinary images.
剩下的四天他画了许多超凡的画作
He spent his entire adult life in New York City.
整个成年时期他都住在纽约市
Most of it in a small walk-up apartment in Greenwich Village.
大多在格林威治村一个没电梯的小公寓
Eventually his wife Jo would move in.
最后 他的妻子乔搬进来
It was not a happy marriage
这段婚姻并不快乐
they argued a lot
他们常常争吵
and it was explosive,
往往是爆发性的
at times violent and extremely codependent.
有时会动手但又极其依赖对方
They would sometimes not talk to each other for days,
有时他们好几天都不和对方说话
and spent much of their marriage in silence.
在婚期中多数时候是沉默的
We see this reflected in the disconnected and unhappy couples
这反映在不交流和不幸福的夫妻们身上
he portrays time and again in his paintings.
他在他的画中反复地描绘这种场景
Couples who may share the same space,
夫妻也许能居住在同一屋檐下
but inhabit different worlds.
但内心是两个不同的世界
Then in 1924 at the age of 42,
1924年 在他42岁的时候
he had his first sellout show,
他举办了首个沙龙画展
promptly gave up his illustration,
便立刻抛弃了插画师工作
and devoted his life exclusively to art.
全身心地投入到艺术创作中
He married Jo in 1924
1924年与乔结为夫妻
the same year he got his solo show.
同年举办个人画展
They were both in their 40s when they married,
结婚时两个人都已四十多岁了
and they would stay together for 43 years.
后来他们携手相伴了43年
Before they married
婚前
Jo was a moderately successful artist,
乔已是一名相当成功的艺术家
and it was her
也正是她
who introduced him to curators at the Brooklyn museum,
将爱德华介绍给布鲁克林博物馆的馆长
who bought one of his paintings
馆长买了他的一幅画
and launched his career.
这开启了他的职业生涯
It was down to Jo that Edward became a success,
爱德华的成功归功于乔
a fact he never thanked her for.
但他永远不会因此感谢她
Jo Hopper: “it seems to me that women are the ones
乔•霍普:“在我看来 女人才会
that show the gratitude”.
懂得感恩。”
In fact Edward,
爱德华事实上
a gloomy and silent figure
是一个阴郁沉默的人
would spend their marriage constantly belittling
会在他们的婚姻中不断贬低
and denigrating his wife
和诋毁他的妻子
and her artistic talents.
以及她的艺术天赋
Jo would respond with verbal assaults of her own.
乔也会用言语怼回去
She was possessive and jealous
她占有欲和嫉妒心很强
and refused to allow other women to pose for him.
不允许其他女性当霍普的模特
She was the model for every single one of his paintings,
她是霍普每副画作的模特
including “Girlie Show” when she was 60 years old.
甚至60岁还是”少女秀”的模特
Their unhappy marriage
他们不幸的婚姻
almost certainly contributed to the artists depicting figures
几乎不可否认的对画家描绘人物有所贡献
who seem emotionally unresolved.
这些人物往往情绪不太稳定
In Hopper’s paintings,
在霍普的画中
couples are not communicating,
所有夫妻都是不沟通的
touching or displaying any affection.
也没有肢体接触甚至不会流露任何情感
Relationships are ambiguous,
他们的关系是模糊的
characters do not interact with each other.
角色之间没有互动
They are disconnected,
他们不会交流
both from themselves, and from us.
无论是对他们自己 还是对观众
Jo and Edward Hopper
乔和爱德华•霍普
loved the theatre and movies,
都喜欢看戏剧和电影
and nighthawks suggest to us a scene on an illuminated stage,
夜游者让我们联想到华丽的舞台
as if we are watching in a darkened theatre.
就好像是在漆黑的剧场里观影一样
His compositions were often influenced by set design,
他的作品经常受布景设计
stage lighting
舞台灯光的影响
and the kind of aggressive cropping and angles
还有富有冲击性的剪裁和角度
we see in cinema.
这些常出现在电影中
With Hopper’s work
霍普的工作中
it is important to focus on the preparation.
专注于准备工作是最重要的
Finding the right subject matter crippled him with anxiety.
寻找合适的题材这让他焦虑不安
Once he decided, there followed months of research,
有次他决定 接下来几个月里进行研究
preparation,
准备
and mostly sketching.
和框架素描工作
There are 19 surviving sketches for Nighthawks,
虽然有19幅素描稿留着用于夜游者
but he would have done many more.
但他还是会画更多
Hopper would use life drawings
霍普会让画变得栩栩如生
to establish a visual understanding,
让人们能够一眼就理解
and then relied on his subconscious
然后靠着他的潜意识
to refine the final composition of his paintings.
来完善画作最终的构成
We know from Jo’s notes on the painting,
从乔在画上写的笔记我们得知
that she posed for the woman,
她是那女人的原型
and Edward posed for the three men.
而爱德华则是那三个男人的原型
He dismissed his years spent illustrating magazines,
他放弃了多年来为杂志做插图的经历
but along with the preparation skills he picked up,
只留下他学到的准备技巧
it also helped to hone his story telling abilities.
这也有助于磨练他讲故事的能力
He planed nighthore like a film director.
他像电影导演一样规划着夜游者
Storyboarding the painting ahead of its creation,
在作画前要先写脚本
he prepared props,
他准备了些小道具
the position of hands,
各种手的姿势
the distance of the couple,
夫妻间的距离
the clothes.
各种服装
And everything was documented by Jo.
乔把一切都记录下来了
Then he worked out the angle of the diner’s window,
然后他算出了餐厅窗户的角度
and its position in the street
以及它在街上的位置
like an architect.
如同一名建筑师
Hopper uses strong diagonal lines for the diner,
霍普用强烈的对角线来划分食客区域
that converge off-screen
视角像在屏幕外
and suggest a space outside the painting.
暗示一个画外的空间
But also lead the eye to the right.
但同时也把视线引向右边
No matter which side of the painting you look at first,
不管从画的哪边看起
the clever use of perspective,
对透视法的巧妙运用
pulls your eyes towards the four figures in the diner.
都会让你的眼睛盯着餐厅里的四个人
He uses colour to achieve this too.
他还通过色彩来实现这一点
Darker tones of red and green outside the diner,
餐厅外更暗的红绿色彩
stand out against the bright yellow interior.
与明亮的黄色内室形成对比
Causing our gaze to shift
使我们的目光转移
from exterior
从外部
to interior.
到内部
There is no life outside the diner
餐厅外毫无生气
and what details there are,
只有许多的细节
are minimal.
非常非常细小
We see a cash register across the way,
街对面能看见一台收银机
in an otherwise deserted store.
在一个空荡荡的商店里
We see an ad above the diner.
餐厅上方能看见一则广告
But the buildings around are devoid of life.
但是周围的建筑却毫无生气
This is a world shut down.
这是一个封闭的世界
The large window,
大大的窗户
not only creates a barrier between the viewer and the characters,
不仅在观众和角色之间制造了障碍
but also emphasises the silence inside the diner,
还强调了餐厅内部的安静
and adds a voyeuristic touch.
让人更加有种在偷窥的感觉
The characters are trapped,
人物被困住了
like specimens in a jar.
就像罐子里的标本
Windows and looking through them,
透过窗户往里看
feature in so many of Hopper’s works.
在霍珀的许多作品以此为特色
And we are often looking at an angle.
我们通常只有一个视角
Although he was often grouped with the “American realist painters”,
尽管他常与“美国现实主义画家”为伍
he once said:
但他曾表示:
“I think i am still an impressionist”
”我觉得我仍是名印象派画家”
The ideas of one artist in particular
尤其是其中一位艺术家的想法
Gustav Caillebotte was a major influence
古斯塔夫·卡勒波特对他的影响很大
and is rarely discussed.
这鲜少被人提及
His works often feature the window motif,
他的作品经常以窗户为主题
but we can also see his influence
但我们也可以看到他的影响
on hopper’s loose brushwork,
对于霍普松散的笔触
his use of saturated colour,
他对饱和色的运用
his urban settings
他对城市的布署
and his perspectives.
和他那些观点
Like the Impressionists,
如印象派画家
Hopper was obsessed by light.
霍普痴迷于光
The year before Hopper painted Nighthawks,
在霍普画夜游者的前一年
“Cafe terrace at Night” by Vincent van Gogh
梵高的作品《咖啡馆的夜晚》
was exhibited in New York,
在纽约展出
which we know Hopper saw and admired.
我们知道霍普去看了而且很羡慕
Both scenes are lit by artificial light.
两个场景都用人造光照明
Gas lamps in van Gogh’s case.
梵高画中的煤气灯
In hopper’s diner,
霍普的餐厅
the light source is neon light,
灯源是霓虹灯
a relatively new thing in the 1940s,
在20世纪40年代这是新事物
which gives it an eerie glow,
这让它发出了诡异的光芒
like a beacon on the dark street corner.
就像黑暗街角的灯塔
The night-time setting is melancholic
夜间的环境令人感到忧郁
and enhances the emotional content of the work.
丰富了作品的情感内容
Suggesting danger
暗示着危险
or uneasiness.
或不安
Hopper often portrayed a specific time of day in his paintings,
霍普常在画中描绘某个特定时间
and night-time seems a particular time of anxiety for him,
夜晚似乎是他特别焦虑的时候
from early on in his career.
自他职业生涯的早期起
If you are looking for a door to welcome us in –
如果您想找扇门迎接我们进去-
there just isn’t one
这根本没有
– to go in or out –
-能够进出的地方-
the diner is hermetically sealed.
这家餐厅是密封的
Effectively keeping the viewer at bay.
有效地将观众拒之门外
We can only stare in from the outside.
我们只能从外面往里看
The door we see, probably leads to the kitchen.
我们看见的那扇门 也许通往厨房
What really interested Hopper
真正让霍普感兴趣的是
was emotions and interpersonal relationships.
情绪和人际关系
He was drawn to the lives of people
他被人们的生活所吸引
had seen through the windows on the EI-train.
当通过高架列车的窗户看去时
In offices and in restaurants and apartments,
在办公室 饭馆和公寓
the characters are in their own worlds.
各个角色都沉浸在自己的世界里
As is usual with Hopper,
霍普也总是这样
there is no sign of conversation amongst them.
角色之间不会交谈
Tension somehow radiates from them.
他们身上散发出紧张的气息
He specialised in these open-ended narratives,
他擅长于这种开放式叙事方法
which demand the active role of the viewer
而这需要发挥观众的积极作用
in completing the story.
以完善故事情节
He plays with our expectations,
他玩弄我们的期望
with our unconsciousmind.
玩弄我们的潜意识
This unrelated image,
这幅不相干的画
painted two years before Nighthawks,
比夜游者早两年绘制
is a radically different subject matter,
是一个完全不同的主题
but there is still a sense of foreboding.
但它仍给人一种不祥的预感
A feeling that the story will continue outside the frame.
一种故事将在框架之外延续的感觉
Couples and their lack of emotional interaction,
夫妻间缺乏情感互动
was a theme in Hopper’s work,
是霍珀作品的主题
and this would increase as he got older
随着年龄增长 会更缺乏互动
and his relationship with Jo more distant.
他和乔也会更疏远
The couple are physically close,
夫妻日夜相处
yet psychologically miles apart.
但心却早已疏远
Are they even a couple?
他们还算夫妻吗?
At first we think their hands are touching,
起初我们以为他们碰了碰手
but they are not.
但其实不然
Her coffee cup is steaming,
她的咖啡杯冒着热气
his is stone cold.
而他的冷的像石头
Perhaps suggesting
也许暗示着
he has been waiting a while for her.
他已经等她很久了。
The title of the painting came from Jo,
这幅画的名字源于乔
who described this character as having a hawk beaked nose.
她形容这个人物有类似鹰喙的鼻子
He is holding an unlit cigarette,
他拿着一根未点燃的烟
which in Hopper’s original sketch,
在霍珀最初的素描稿中
was in the woman’s hand.
这烟是女子拿着的
The isolation of the solitary man with his back to us,
那个背坐着的男人的孤独感
is accentuated by the couple.
在夫妇的面前更强烈了
A closer look
仔细一看
shows us that he is holding a glass with his right hand,
我们发现他右手拿着一个玻璃杯
and he has a newspaper folded flat underneath his left.
左手下面压着一张折平的报纸
The front page, no doubt full of news of the war.
毫无疑问 头版都是关于战争的新闻
It is unclear who this random glass is for.
不清楚这个随意摆放的杯子是给谁的
Maybe it’s for us?
也许是给我们的?
Along with everyone else,
和其他人一样
the waiter is not conversing
这个服务员没有交谈
or even making eye contact with anyone else.
甚至没有和别人眼神交流
He is just staring out of the window.
他只是凝视着窗外
Ever since he painted Nighthawks,
自从夜游者问世之后
people have tried to work out
人们试图找出
the exact location of the real diner.
餐厅的真正确切位置
Following hints the artist gave in various interviews,
依据霍普在各种采访中给出的提示
people spent months trudging around New York
人们耗时几个月在纽约四处奔波
without success.
却一无所获
That’s because the diner
那是因为这间餐厅
never was in New York.
从不在纽约
It was always in the same place
它总是在同一个地方
– inside Edward Hopper’s head.
——爱德华·霍普的脑子里

Hopper was a fan of Ernest Hemingway’s short story “The Killers”
霍普是海明威短篇小说《杀手》的粉丝
from 1927,
创造于1927年
which is considered an inspiration for Nighthawks.
这本书被认为是夜游者的灵感来源
It tells the story of two thugs,
它讲述了两个暴徒
who enter a diner in search of their next victim.
进入餐馆寻找下一个受害者的故事。
The classic 1946 movie version,
1946年经典电影《杀手》
was in turn inspired by Hopper’s Nighthawks.
其灵感又来源于霍普的夜游者
The quintessentially American artist
典型意义上的美国艺术家
loved cinema.
都喜欢电影
And cinema,
而电影
that quintessentially American art form, loved Hopper.
典型的美国艺术形式 也喜爱霍普
He often went to the cinema alone at night
他经常在晚上独自去看电影
in search of inspiration.
为了寻找灵感
Film-noir was a primary influence
黑色电影是主要的灵感来源
and we can see this
我们能了解
in what many consider to be the first film-noir,
在许多人认为的第一部黑色电影中
released one year before he completed Nighthawks.
这部电影在他完成夜游者的前一年上映
It is said that while shooting “Force of Evil”,
据说在拍摄 《邪恶的力量》时
the director took the cinematographer
导演带着摄影师
to an exhibition of Edward Hopper’s works,
去看爱德华·霍珀的画展
and said, that he wanted the picture
并表示他想让电影画面
to look like those paintings.
看起来像那些画
Hopper said that even his early works,
霍普说即使是他早期的作品
may have been influenced
也许受到了
by German Expressionist cinema he saw in Paris.
在巴黎看过的德国表现主义电影的影响
When it comes to the filmmakers themselves,
说到电影制片人本身
A new generation of filmmakers
新一代的电影制作人
would pay homage to Hopper’s use of:
会致敬霍珀使用的技巧:
High contrast lighting,
高对比度的照明
his American settings of anonymous apartments
美国不知名的公寓
diners and bars,
餐厅和酒吧场景
by his extreme cropping
通过他独特的裁剪
and decentralized framing.
和分散的框架
But in particular,
但特别是
they would be inspired by the characters he painted.
他们会受到他画的人物的启发
Characters, waiting for their stories to be told.
角色 等待着他们的故事被讲述
“Nighthawks” itself
”夜游者”
was faithfully recreated for the movies.
被忠于原著地重现在电影中
With the diner becoming a shortcut to emotional dysfunction.
餐厅成了解决情感障碍的捷径
Nighthawks, like the best movie,
夜游者 像最好的电影一样
is not just about composition and style,
不仅仅关于构图和风格
it is a masterwork
这是一部杰作
that in a single frame
在单一框架内
can suggest to us a narrative that stretches far beyond
就能暗示我们一篇叙文远超
the picture plane.
画面本身
Hopper: “It’s probably
霍普:”这可能是
a reflection of my own
一种自我反映
– I may say loneliness
—也许是孤独
– i don’t know”.
—不懂。”
With Nighthawks, Edward Hopper
经夜游者 爱德华·霍普
captures a world of loneliness,
捕捉到了一个孤独的
isolation and quiet anguish.
孤立的 在安静中痛苦的世界
The painting, an immediate success,
这幅画 一问世就大获成功
was bought by the Art Institute of Chicago,
后来被芝加哥艺术学院买下
where it still is today.
至今仍保存在那里
Hopper, the quiet man of American painting,
霍普 这位在美国画坛无声的男人
projected an “everyman” image,
给人一种“普通人”的形象
but he was a complicated and troubled man.
但他是 一个复杂和麻烦的人
He was an intellectual,
他是个知识分子
who struggled to find inspiration,
努力寻找灵感
and grappled with meaning.
并抓住要义
His works took months of preparation and hard work,
他的作品花费了数月的准备和辛勤工作
and he only produced about five paintings a year. Sometimes less.
他一年仅产出约5幅画 有时更少
He often felt like an outsider himself.
他常常觉得自己像个局外人
At six foot five, he was an exceptionally tall man,
他高六英尺五英寸 是一个特别高的人
and by the age of 12 he was already six foot tall.
到12岁的时候 他已经有六英尺高了
A fact that certainly contributed to his growing sense of
这一事实无疑加剧了
isolation and loneliness.
他的孤立感和孤独感
Painfully shy, he was a loner from an early age.
他非常害羞 从小就是一个孤独的人
This continued into adulthood,
这种情况一直持续到成年
and he was deeply introverted
他非常内向
and uncomfortable in social situations.
在社交场合中感到不自在
When he married Jo,
当他和乔结婚时
it would seem that his years of loneliness were over.
多年的孤独感似乎消散了
But as many people discover,
但正如许多人发现的
you can be in a relationship,
即使你在恋爱中
and still be utterly alone.
仍然可以感到完全的孤独
Hopper’s paintings demonstrate to us,
霍普的画作告诉我们
that these feelings are normal.
这些感觉是正常的
That loneliness or feelings of isolation are commonplace.
孤独或独身的感觉是司空见惯的
Ironically
讽刺的是
his paintings show us – that actually we are not alone.
他的画是想表达-其实我们并不孤单

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译制信息
视频概述

从多角度分析爱德华·霍普的画作《夜游者》,结合画家生平进行画作意旨的分析鉴赏。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

灭绝葱姜蒜

审核员

审核员ZZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKIbT-4UFaE

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