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尼采:真理是我们已经忘掉其为幻想的幻想

Nietzsche — We Are Living in an Illusion

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本视频由Brilliant网站赞助
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一个帮助大家高效学习
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“真理是我们已经忘掉其为幻想的幻想”
Are we living in a lie?
我们是否活在谎言中?
I look out of my window and see two orange trees.
看向窗外 我发现有两颗橘子树
Orange trees: one concept, two entities.
橘子树 同一概念 两个实体
In reality, they’re not the same.
它们在现实中并不相同
One has 203 leaves and the other 106.
一棵有203片树叶而另一棵只有106片
One has roots that run 6 ft deep and the other 3.
一棵根深6英尺而另一棵只有3英尺
One has many branches and the other only a few
一棵分枝极多而另一棵很稀疏
yet we call them the same tree.
但我们还是把二者归为一种树
We simplify the world into useful concepts and fictions
我们把世界简化为各种有用的概念和虚构物
We lived in a world of illusions
我们生活的世界充满幻想
that allow us to survive and thrive
它有益于我们生存和成长
Our family, friends, and loved ones are illusions as well.
我们的家庭 朋友和爱人也同样是幻想
Everyone I know is deeply complex.
我认识的每个人都很复杂
I say that John is kind and intelligent.
我觉得约翰聪明又友善
But, John is “mostly” kind.
但他只是大部分时间友善
He’s unkind if he hasn’t eaten for a long time.
如果长久没吃东西他就会变得不友好
He’s very skilled at mathematics but a terrible writer.
他擅长数学但写作很差
Yet, I simplify him into the concepts of kind and intelligent
然而我还是把他简单归为友善又聪明的人
because that’s useful for me
因为这对我来说有用
To know John better, I would need way more concepts,
为了更好地了解约翰 我需要更多概念
but even then,
但即使如此
it’s unlikely that I’d ever fully exhaust who he is.
我也不可能完全搞懂他的品性
And so the mind uses concepts to constructl order
所以大脑通过不同概念来构建顺序
but order is just a useful fantasy,
但顺序只是一种有用的幻想而已
that’s a pretty lie.
是美丽的谎言
Whether we use science, philosophy, theology, or art,
无论我们用科学 哲学 神学还是艺术
the fantasies we construct help us
我们建构的幻想都能帮助我们
create and interact with the world.
创造出一个世界并与之沟通
In other words, they give us more power.
换句话说 幻想能给我们更多力量
Let’s meditate on the orange trees .
让我们思考一下橘子树的问题
Let’s stop thinking and experience them
让我们不再把它们当作独立的实体
as the separate entities they really are
即使这是事实
Let’s notice how one smells better than the other,
让我们来关注 这棵树比那棵好闻多少
how the bark of one is smoother
树皮光滑多少
and how the fruits of one are larger.
果实大多少
Reality seems more complex than our illusion.
现实比我们的幻想更复杂
But even if we updated our illusions,
但即使我们不断更新幻想
if we increased the words and concepts we could use to describe the tree,
如果我们扩大形容树的词汇和概念
does being aware of the details matter?
意识到所有细节真的很要紧吗?
If you’re a farmer, maybe.
如果你是农民或许确实很重要
I think that’s what Nietzsche wanted us to think about when he said
我认为尼采说这段话 就是希望我们思考这个问题
“Suppose we want truth:
“假设我们追求真理
why not rather untruth ? and uncertainty ?
为什么不是谎言和不确定性?
even ignorance?”— Nietzsche, Beyond Good & Evil
甚至无知呢?”——尼采《善与恶的彼岸》
Sometimes ignorance is preferable to the detailed truth.
有时候面对详尽的真理 无知反而更好
Maybe, we only care about truth
也许 我们仅仅在意这一层面
in so far as it empowers us:
真理能带给我们力量
knowing and thinking about all of the details of
了解并思考每棵橘子树的所有细节
every orange tree would just be a psychological burden for the most of us.
对大多数人都会造成心理压力
I’ll take illusion over the reality
比起现实我更愿意幻想
But I can’t help but ask,
但又禁不住想问
“Is it possible that the mind is actually accessing a deeper kind of truth?”
“大脑有可能真的接触到更深入的真理吗?”
Maybe, the mind is separating the signal from the noise.
也许大脑会将信号和噪音区分开
But, what constitutes signal versus noise?
但究竟什么构成了信号和噪音的对立呢?
Our values.
是我们的价值观
A farmer that values knowing all the details of an orange tree
农民对于掌握橘子树的所有情况非常重视
will view it differently than a regular person.
因此他看待橘子树的态度 和普通人不同
Well, where do our values come from?
那么我们的价值观从何而来?
Here’s Nietzsche’s view from Beyond Good and Evil:
尼采在《善与恶的彼岸》中写道
“在所有的逻辑和看似运动主权的背后
也存在着估价或者更确切的说
为了保留某种生活方式而存在的生理需求‘’
For Nietzsche,
尼采认为
our values come from our physiological demands,
我们的价值观源于自身生理需求
and what does our physiology demand?
我们的生理机能需求什么呢?
Power.
力量
It wants to survive and thrive.
它想要生存并且成长
What does it mean to thrive?
什么是成长?
To imagine the world a certain way
用某种方式想象世界
and to be able to make that illusion a reality.
并且有能力将该幻想变成现实
Someone could to contest this idea,by saying that they don’t seek power
有人反对该观点 声明他们不追求力量
or want to thrive,
也不想成长
they won’t eat or drink anything to prove this point.
他们通过不吃不喝来证明这一点
But, they would “still” be seeking a kind of power,
但他们仍然在追求某种力量
they imagine a world in which they prove the idea wrong
他们想象一个可以证明该观点错误的世界
and they seek to bring “that” world into fruition,
并且希望将“那个”世界变成现实
even at their own expense.
即使是不惜一切代价
For Nietzsche,
尼采认为
everything we do is an expression of our will to power.
我们做的一切都表达了自身对力量的渴望
We construct illusions to empower us,
我们通过构建幻想来给自己力量
and we only care about truth in so far as it helps us achieve that goal.
我们只关心真理帮助我们实现目标的层面
To the extent that an idea doesn’t empower us,
如果一个观点不能带给我们一定的力量
we should question the degree to which that idea is true.
我们就怀疑它到底算几分真理
For Nietzsche,
尼采认为
something isn’t simply true or false,
事物并不是简单的对或错
truth contains multiple degrees and dimensions.
真理包含多种程度和维度
Nietzsche is not saying that truth doesn’t exist
他并不觉得真理不存在
but only that it’s complicated.
而是说真理很复杂
We might say that the truth of gravity’s existence
我们可以说无论相信与否
remains constant whether we believe it or not.
关于重力存在的真理恒久不变
But, is that really true?
但这真的完全是对的吗?
Is there any reason that gravity couldn’t reverse in the next moment?
有理由证明下一刻重力不会反转吗?
We can predict that it’s unlikely
基于过去的经验
based on our past experience,
我们可以预测这个假设不太可能发生
but what’s really stopping it from happening in the end?
但究竟是什么致使其无法发生呢?
And so we’re brought back to the quote
这个问题又将我们带回视频开头
I started the video with.
所提出的引言
“真理是我们已经忘记其为幻想的幻想”
Our understanding of trees, friends, gravity, and the world,
我们对树木 朋友 重力和世界的理解
like all conscious understanding,
和所有意识理解一样
are illusions that we’ve created to give us power.
都是我们创造出的幻想 借以给我们力量
And sometimes,
有时候
they’re illusions that hold up for long enough,
这种幻想存在过久
that we forget,
以至于我们忘了
that they’re illusions.
它们原本是幻想了
one of the best tools that we have for building powerful illusions is the scientific method.
我们建立强大幻想最好的工具之一是科学方法
Because of this,I’m excited to present this week’s sponsor,Brilliant.org.
正因如此 我很兴奋地向大家介绍本周赞助商 Brilliant网站
Brilliant is a math and science problem solving website that makes learning fun and rewarding.
Brilliant是个解决数学和科学问题网站 使学习充满乐趣和回报
They cover a wide array of topics such as logic,physics.
它涵盖了广泛的主题 如逻辑 物理
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数学甚至计算机标志的互动解决问题课程
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它们最新的互动课程 科学思维
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It will also help you learn to think like a scientist.
它还能帮你学习像科学家一样思考
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要查看并开始学习 只需访问该网址
or click the link in the description below. And you can sign up for free.
或点击下方链接 你可以免费注册
As a bonus,for those who are ready to push themselves further.
对那些准备进一步提升自己的人 作为奖励
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前200人将享受年订阅八折折扣
So you can unlock dozens of courses and view all the daily challenges in the archives.
订阅可解锁数十门课程 并查看存档的所有日常挑战
As always,thanks for watching,and I’ll see you next time.
一如既往 感谢您的收看 我们下次再见

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视频概述

我们生活的世界充满幻想,我们把世界简化为各种有用的概念,我们的家庭、朋友和爱人都是幻想,但这益于我们生存和成长。

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翻译译者

jenny

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OU1daBPs_Vw

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