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尼采谈命运之爱 – 译学馆
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尼采谈命运之爱

NIETZSCHE ON: Amor Fati

Nietzsche on: Amor Fati
尼采对命运之爱的看法
One of the strangest yet most intriguing aspects of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideas
弗里德里希·尼采对所谓的“amor fati”不绝的热情
his repeated enthusiasm for a concept that he called amor fati
是他最奇怪却也最为有趣的思想之一
(translated from Latin as ‘a love of one’s fate’,
从拉丁语翻译过来就是“命运之爱”
or as we might put it, a resolute, enthusiastic acceptance of everything
我们通常理解成一种
that has happened in one’s life).
对生命中发生的一切的纯粹 热情的接受
The person of amor fati doesn’t seek to erase anything
拥有命运之爱的人们不会想着抹除自己的过去
but rather accepts what has occurred, the good and the bad,
而是不论好坏
the mistaken and the wise,
不论愚笨或是聪慧
with strength and an all-embracing gratitude
都会以一种近乎热情的爱和包容一切的感激
that borders on a kind of enthusiastic affection.
用力地拥抱过去发生的一切
This refusal to regret and retouch the past
拒绝对过去的悔恨和矫饰
is heralded as a virtue at many points in Nietzsche’s work.
在尼采的很多作品里都是一种美德
In his book, The Gay Science,
在他穷困潦倒时
written during a period of great personal hardship for the philosopher,
写的那本《快乐的科学》里
Nietzsche writes: I want to learn more and more to
尼采写着:我想知道
see as beautiful what is necessary in things;
更多作为美的必要条件
then I shall be one of those who makes things beautiful.
那样我就能成为让一切变得美好的人了
Amor fati: let that be my love henceforth!
命运之爱 从今以后让它成为我的爱吧
I do not want to wage war against what is ugly.
我不会向丑陋宣战
I do not want to accuse;
也不想去指责
I do not even want to accuse those who accuse.
甚至不想去指责那些做出指责的人
Looking away shall be my only negation.
视而不见是我唯一表示否定的手段
And all in all and on the whole:
总而言之
some day I wish to be only a Yes-sayer.
有一天 我希望自己成为一个纯粹的肯定者
And, a few years later, in Ecce Homo, Nietzsche writes:
一些年之后 他在《瞧!这个人》中写着
My formula for greatness in a human being is amor fati:
我靠命运之爱判断一个人伟大与否——
that one wants nothing to be different,
一个人无论在过去 将来 还是永远
not forward, not backward, not in all eternity.
都应该不希望任何东西改变
Not merely bear what is necessary, still less conceal it…
他不仅要接受万物的必然
still less conceal it…
不甚隐瞒
but love it.
却也爱着它
In most areas of life, most of the time,
可大多数时候 在大多数领域
we do the very opposite.
我们的所作所为都和这恰恰相反
We spend a huge amount of time taking stock of our errors,
恐惧 对命运坎坷的悔恨和惋惜
regretting and lamenting the unfortunate twists of fate
还有对事情转机的期待
and wishing that things could have gone differently.
占据了我们绝大部分时间
We are typically mighty opponents of anything
我们通常都只会反对任何
that smacks of resignation or fatalism.
带有听天由命或者宿命论色彩的东西
We want to alter and improve things
我们会想去改变与提升
– ourselves, politics, the economy, the course of history
包括我们自己 政治 经济 还有历史课本
– and part of this means refusing to be passive about
其中的一些行为意味着我们不愿
the errors, injustices and ugliness
对我们自己和集体过去的错误
of our own and the collective past.
以及不公与丑陋采取消极态度
Nietzsche himself, in some moods, knows this defiance full well.
尼采本人在某些情况下 清楚知道这种对立观点
There is much emphasis in his work on action, initiative and self-assertion.
他的工作十分强调行动 主动性和主见
His concept of the Wille zur Macht, or Will to Power
他在《权力的意志》一书中的思想
embodies just this attitude of vitality and conquest over obstacles.
体现了这种充满活力 挑战困难的态度
However, he is aware that, in order to lead a good life,
不过 他十分明白 想要快乐地生活
we need to keep in mind plenty of opposing ideas
我们需要保有很多相互冲突的想法
and marshall them as and when they become relevant.
把它们相互串联 进行整理
We don’t – in Nietzsche’s eyes – need to be consistent,
在尼采的眼里 我们没必要认死一个道理
we need to have the ideas to hand that can salve our wounds.
只要这些想法能给我们慰藉 就是我们需要的
Nietzsche isn’t therefore asking us to choose
尼采并没有因此要我们
between glorious fatalism on the one hand
非得选择相信光荣的宿命论
or a vigorous willing on the other.
或者说积极地与命运抗争
He is allowing us to have recourse
他允许我们根据不同的情况
to either intellectual move depending on the occasion.
有着不同的思考
He wishes our mental toolkit to have more than one set of ideas:
尼采希望我们的心灵工具箱里能有更多种思维工具
to have, as it were, both a hammer and a saw.
既要有锤子 又要有锯子
Certain occasions particularly need the wisdom of a Will driven philosophy;
在某些特定的场合 我们要积极地反抗
others demand that we know how to accept,
但是有些时候我们需要的不是反抗
embrace and stop fighting the inevitable.
而是接受和拥抱眼前不可逆的事实
In Nietzsche’s own life, there was much that he had tried to change and overcome.
在尼采的一生里 他试图改变并超越许多东西
He had fled his restrictive family in Germany
他逃开了自己在德国那压抑的家庭
and escaped to the Swiss Alps;
进到瑞士的阿尔卑斯山里
he had tried to get away from the narrowness of academia
他也试过抛开学术的枷锁
and become a freelance writer;
成为一名自由的写作者
he had tried to find a wife
他也想与一个在肉体和灵魂上
who could be both a lover and an intellectual soulmate.
都与他契合的女人厮守终生
But a lot in this project of self-creation and self-overcoming
但是在这样的自我创造与自我超越当中
had gone terribly wrong.
有许多事情变得相当糟糕
He couldn’t get his parents, especially his mother and sister out of his head.
他无法忘掉自己的亲人 尤其是母亲和姐姐
Nietzche’s books sold dismally
他的书也销量惨淡
and he was forced more or less to beg
这迫使他不得不通过
from friends and family in order to keep going.
朋友和家人的施舍来维持生计
Meanwhile his halting, gauche attempts to
他生涩而又笨拙的求爱
seduce women were met by ridicule and rejection.
遭到许多女士嘲笑和拒绝
There must have been so many lamentations and regrets
想来漫步在恩加丁山上的时候
running through his mind in his walks across the Upper Engadine
在锡尔斯玛丽娅那朴素的小木屋的许多个夜里
and his nights in his modest wooden chalet in Sils Maria:
尼采的脑海中应该充斥着遗憾与悔恨:
if only I had stuck with an academic career;
如果我没有放弃学术研究
if only I’d been more confident around certain women;
如果我在某些女人面前更加自信
if only I’d written in a more popular style;
如果我的写作风格更加通俗易懂
if only I’d been born in France…
如果我生在法国
It was because such thoughts –
可能就是这样一些想法
and every one of us has our own distinct variety of them
这些我们每个人都会有的烦恼
– can ultimately be so destructive and soul-sapping
最终却可以摧毁我们 侵蚀我们的灵魂
that the idea of ‘amor fati’ grew compelling to Nietzsche.
因此命运之爱对于尼采来说越发迷人
Amor fati was the idea that he needed in order to regain sanity
要想在几个小时的自我批评后回复镇静
after hours of self-recrimination and criticism.
命运之爱的出现 对于尼采来说是一个必然
It’s the idea we ourselves may need at 4 a.m.
而凌晨4点时 我们可能也需要
finally to quieten a mind that
命运之爱来安抚
has started gnawing into itself shortly after midnight.
午夜之后在脑海迅速泛起的想法
It’s an idea with which a troubled spirit
命运之爱或许有一点麻烦
can greet the first signs of dawn.
但能让你看到黎明的曙光
At the height of the mood of amor fati,
站在命运之爱的高度
we recognise that things really could not have been otherwise,
我们会发现事情不会有其他的结果
because everything we are and have done
我们做的所有事和组成我们的一切
is bound closely together
在我们出生之时
in a web of consequences that began with our birth
就已经同一张大网紧紧地捆绑在一起
– and which we are powerless to alter at will.
这是我们的意志所无法改变的
We see that what went right and what went horribly wrong are as one,
但我们可以将那些好的与极坏都视为一体
and we commit ourselves to accepting both,
然后让自己去接受它们
to no longer destructively hoping that things could have been otherwise.
让自己不再过于希望事情会有所改变
We were headed to a degree of catastrophe from the start.
我们从一开始就走向了某种程度的灾难
We end up saying, with tears in which there mingle grief
我们最终会在悲喜交加中
and a sort of ecstasy, a large yes to the whole of life,
声泪俱下地对整个生命做出肯定
in its absolute horror and occasional moments of awesome beauty.
生命是十分恐怖的 但是偶尔也有美妙的时刻
In a letter to a friend written in the summer of 1882,
1882年夏天 在给一位老朋友的信件里
Nietzsche tried to sum up the new spirit of acceptance
尼采尝试着总结他关于接受的想法
that he had learnt to lean on to protect him from his agony:
这个想法支撑着他 让他远离了痛苦
‘I am in a mood of fatalistic ‘surrender to God’ ⎯
“我觉得一切都是命了 我把’向神投降’
I call it amor fati,
叫做命运之爱”
so much so, that I would be willing to rush into a lion’s jaws’.
如此一来 哪怕投身于狮口我也义无反顾
And that is where, after too much regret,
在经历过那么多的悔恨之后
we should learn sometimes to join him.
我们有时应该学着怎样与它共处
Thank you for watching, if you want to learn more about the thinkers from our videos,
感谢您的收看 如果你想从我们视频中了解更多思想家
check out our Great Thinkers book, available worldwide and now as an e-book.
可以看一下《Great Thinkers》这本在各国发行的电子书

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尼采主要思想之一 命运之爱讲解

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