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尼采:主人与奴隶

Nietzsche: Master and Slaves

What if morality is just a fiction used by the herd of inferior human beings
如果道德只是数量居多的下等人虚构出来
to hold back the few superior men?
用以抑制数量较少上等人的东西会如何呢?
In this Sprouts special with Stephen Hicks,
在本期斯蒂芬·希克斯主持的《铅绘心理》特辑中
we examine Nietzsche’s explanation
我们剖析了尼采的两个观点
for how ethics develop
一是 道德是如何产生发展的
and the consequences for master types living in a world
二是 奴隶道德主导的世界
that’s dominated by the morality of a slave.
对生活在其中的主人型人群产生的影响
PART 3 “MASTER-SLAVE MORALITY and the origin of the bad conscience
第三部分 “主奴道德”与罪恶感的起源
Nietzsche argued that there are two explanations for how morality develops.
尼采认为道德的产生发展有两个原因
Part of the story is bio-psychological —
一方面 从生物心理学上来说
in terms of what morality resonates with what psychological type of person one is.
一个人的心理类型与其形成的道德是一致的
The other part of the story is cultural,
另一方面 从文化上来说
because different moral codes develop under different survival circumstances,
不同的生存环境 会发展出不同的道德准则
and so Nietzsche searches history
为此 尼采遍寻历史长河
for the survival circumstances that necessitated the development of slave morality
以找出必然会发展出奴隶道德的生存环境
In the West,
在西方史中
Nietzsche finds the slave morality’s roots in the Judeo-Christian tradition–
尼采发现 奴隶道德起源于犹太·基督教的教义
In a decisive set of events that occurred early in Jewish history–
起源于早期犹太史发生的一系列具有决定性意义的事件
the enslavement of the jews in Egypt.
起源于犹太人在埃及被奴役的历史
The significant result of the Jews’ being enslaved for a long time
犹太人长期受奴役的显著结果就是
was the development and internalization of a moral code suitable for surviving slavery.
催生并内化了适合幸存奴隶的道德准则
Suppose that you are a slave: how do you survive?
假设你是奴隶 你要如何生存?
And if you have children who are born into slavery,
再者 如果你的孩子生来为奴
what survival strategies will you teach them?
你会教给他们怎样的生存策略?
In order to survive, a slave must obey the master.
为了生存 奴隶必须服从主人
This does not come naturally.
这绝非我们的本性
So the first lesson is: you must stifle your nature.
因此你要吸取的第一个教训是 压制你的本性
Suppose the master strikes you
假设主人鞭打你
— the desire for revenge comes naturally — but you have to stifle it.
你自然会想要反抗 但你不得不压制这种欲望
Suppose the master tells you to wait
假设主人命你等候
— being inactive does not come naturally —
保持什么也不做的状态并非本能
but you must suppress your desire for activity.
但你必须抑制想要活动的欲望
Suppose the master tells you to do something you do not want to do —
假设主人命你做非你所愿的事
you must override your desire to do what you want and obey.
你必须克制自己的随心所欲并且遵从命令
Generalizing, you must train yourself to restrain your natural impulses
总而言之 你必须训练自己去抑制本能冲动
and to internalize a humble, patient, obedient self.
将自己内化为一个低贱卑微 逆来顺受 惟命是从的人
You know you must do this because slaves who do not end up dead.
你知道你必须这样做 因为不这样做的奴隶最终都难逃一死
Consequently, Nietzsche asserts, slave virtues have survival value:
因此 尼采坚称 奴隶特有的品德具有生存价值
obedience, humility, forgiveness, and patience are good for slaves.
即 服从 恭顺 宽容 忍耐等特性对奴隶的生存是有益的
And those are the traits slaves will drill into their children if they want them to survive.
若想孩子活下去 奴隶就会将这些特性反复灌输给他们的孩子
Over time, the slave virtues become cultural values.
随着时间的推移 奴隶特有的品德发展成了文化意义上的道德准则
In every generation many people are sheep-like
每一代都有许多人随波逐流
and do not especially mind being slaves.
且并很介意成为奴隶
But others resent it, and here the story Nietzsche tells becomes darker.
但也有人抗拒 尼采所讲述的这些奴隶的故事就比较黑暗了
In order to survive they must direct their natural strength and assertiveness
为了生存 他们必须用与生俱来的力量与自信
against the expression of their own strength and assertiveness.
来对抗他们对自身力量与自信的表露
This naturally leads them to resent the master strongly
这当然会导致他们对主人的强烈不满
—but they also start to hate themselves for doing what the master says
但是他们也开始憎恨自己对主人惟命是从
and for their own role in suppressing themselves.
憎恨自己身不由己的角色
Psychologically, hating oneself causes unbearable pressure inside:
就心理而言 自我厌恶会给内心带来无法承受的压力
because the outward discharge of the instinct gets inhibited
因为一个人的本能无法向外释放
and turns backward against man himself.
就会反过来向他自身宣泄
Hostility, cruelty, joy in destruction
敌意 残暴 以毁灭为乐
— all this turned against the possessors of such instincts:
这一切通通会转而针对具有上述本能反应的持有者自己
that is the origin of the ‘bad conscience’
这就是“罪恶感”的来源
Hatred of the strong, self-hatred, and revenge fantasies to ease the pain
憎恨强者 自怨自艾 用来减轻痛苦的报复幻想
become the lived psychological reality of such slaves.
变成了这些奴隶活生生的心理现实
Make this psychological reality a matter of months and years,
这种心理现实若持续数月甚至数年
and the results will be ugly and poisonous.
就会逐渐扭曲和有危害性
More provocatively,
更发人深省的是
Nietzsche argues that such slave individuals who feel the internal war most strongly
尼采认为 上述最受内心战争折磨的奴隶个体
become the social leaders of the slaves
成为了奴隶群中的社会领袖
— that is to say, they become their priests.
换句话说 他们成为了奴隶领导者
“It is because of their impotence that in them hatred grows to monstrous proportions.
正是因为他们内在的无能 仇恨滋长到了骇人的地步
In their leadership role,
他们身为领导角色时
it is the priests who most strongly advocate meekness, humility, and obedience
最强烈提倡逆来顺受 低贱卑微 惟命是从的就是奴隶领导者
—and who condemn the aggressive strength and pride of the masters.
谴责主人之暴力和傲慢的同样是奴隶领导者
The priests are not in a position to use physical power against the masters.
奴隶领导者不能对主人动用物理暴力
Instead the priests develop and use morality as their weapon of confrontation.
他们反而创造并利用道德作为他们反抗的武器
In the Judeo-Christian tradition, slave morality becomes part of a revenge strategy.
在犹太·基督教教义中 奴隶道德成为复仇战略的一部分
Its point is to enable the weaker to survive in a harsh world
其目的是为了让弱者在残酷的世界中生存下去
—but also to undermine the master type’s confidence in themselves
同时也是为了削弱主人型人群的自信心
and eventually bring down the masters so as to exact a spiritual revenge.
最终打倒主人 从而实施精神上的复仇
So: Strength, aggression, weakness, resentment.
那么 力量 侵犯 软弱 愤恨
Is morality really about us getting along together in the world?
道德真的是为了让我们在世界上和睦相处的吗?
Or is it really a tool of power, a survival strategy,
还是说 道德其实是一种权力工具 一种生存策略
and a way for the losers to strike back against the successful?
一种失败者反击成功者的方式?
Those are the hard questions Nietzsche makes us live with.
以上就是尼采给我们留下的难题
THE END
片尾
What are your thoughts on morality? Do you agree with Nietzsche?
你如何看待道德呢?你是否同意尼采的观点呢?
For more information, to reach Stephen Hicks’s full account of the German philosopher
如需了解更多信息 可访问斯蒂芬·希克斯对这位德国哲学家的完整描述
or to download this video without background music, check the descriptions below.
或者若要下载此视频不含背景音乐的版本 请查看以下说明

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视频概述

本视频主要解释了尼采关于道德的两个观点:一是道德是如何产生的;二是奴隶道德主导的世界对主人型人群的影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Estherrr

审核员

审核员AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eWqO-V02IzQ

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