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用来检测早期癌症的新型纳米技术 – 译学馆
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用来检测早期癌症的新型纳米技术

New nanotech to detect cancer early | Joshua Smith

“你得了癌症”
”You have cancer.”
可悲的是 在我们有生之年
Sadly, about 40% of us
大约40%的人会听到这句话
will hear those 3 words within our lifetime.
一半的人会死去
And half will not survive.
也就是说你最亲近的朋友和亲戚中 有五分之二的人
This means that 2/5 of your closest friends and relatives,
会被诊断出患有癌症
will be diagnosed with some form of cancer,
其中有一个人会因此而死
and one will die.
患者除了会遭受身体上的折磨外
Beyond the physical hardships,
美国1/3的癌症幸存者
roughly 1/3 of cancer survivors here in the US,
将会因治疗而负债累累
will go into debt from treatment.
而且他们宣布破产的可能性
And there’re at least 2.5 times more likely to declare bankruptcy,
比没有癌症的人高出2.5倍
than those without cancer.
这种疾病很普遍
This disease is pervasive.
这是情感的枯竭
It’s emotionally draining.
对很多患者来说 这是对财政的重创
And for many, financially destructive.
但是诊断出癌症并不意味着死刑
But a cancer diagnosis doesn’t have to be a death sentence.
尽早发现癌症
Finding cancer early,
找出诱因是改善
closer to its Genesis is one of the critical factors
治疗方案的关键因素之一
to improving treatment options,
减少它的情感影响
reducing its emotional impact,
把财政负担最小化
and minimizing financial burdens.
最重要的是 尽早发现癌症
Most importantly, finding cancer early,
这是我研究的主要目标之一
which is one of the primary aims of my research,
极大提高你的生存几率
greatly enhances your odds of survival.
例如 我们看看乳腺癌的例子
If we just look at the case of breast cancer for example,
我们发现那些在第一个阶段被诊断和治疗的患者
we find that those who are diagnosed and treated at stage 1,
五年存活率几乎是100%
have a 5-year survival rate of nearly 100%.
如果等到第四阶段再接受治疗
Odds have decreased to just 22%,
这种存活几率就会下降到22%
if treated at stage 4.
在直肠癌和卵巢癌中也发现了类似的趋势
A similar trends are found for colorectal and ovarian cancer.
现在 我们都意识到
Now we’re all aware that
早期诊断是正确的
an early diagnosis that is accurate
对生存至关重要
is critical for survival.
问题在于
The problem is is that
许多治疗工具都是侵入性的
many cancer diagnostic tools are invasive,
花费很高 往往是不准确的
costly, often inaccurate,
要等上很长的一段时间
and they can take an agonizing amount of time
才能得出结果
to get the results back.
更糟糕的是 当涉及到一些具体的癌症
Still worse, when it comes to some forms of cancer,
比如卵巢癌 肺癌 或者胰腺癌时
such as ovarian, liver, or pancreatic cancer,
良好的检查方法根本不存在
good screening methods simply don’t exist.
这意味着人们通常会等到身体出现症状
Meaning that often people wait until physical symptoms surface,
但那样也表明他们已经到癌症晚期了
which are themselves already indicators of late-stage progression,
就像在一个没有早期预警系统的地区
Like a tornado strike in an area
发生龙卷风袭击一样
without an early warning system,
危险近在咫尺
There is no alarm to warn,
没有警报预警
for the danger is already at your doorstep,
你的生存几率就大大降低了
when your odds of survival are greatly reduced.
有了常规检查选项的便利和可及性
Having the convenience and accessibility of regular screening options,
这些选择是负担得起的 非侵入性的
that are affordable, non-invasive,
而且可以更快地提供结果
and could provide results much sooner,
它将为我们提供一种强大的武器
would provide us with a formidable weapon
来对抗癌症
in the fight against cancer.
一个早期的预警会让我们
An early warning would allow us to
提前远离疾病
get out ahead of the disease,
而不是被动地等症状的出现
instead of merely following in its relentless wake.
这就是我正在做的工作
and this is exactly what I’ve been doing.
过去3年
For the past 3 years,
我一直在研制一种技术
I’ve been developing technologies
可以从根本上帮助临床医生
that could ultimately aid clinicians with
快速 在早期诊断出癌症的技术
rapid, early stage cancer diagnostics.
对科学深深的好奇
And I’ve been fueled by a deep scientific curiosity,
与改变这些数据的热忱 一直是我前进的动力
and a passion to change these statistics.
然而 去年
Last year however,
当我的妻子被诊断出患有乳腺癌时
this fight became much more personal,
这场斗争变得更加个人化
when my wife was diagnosed with breast cancer.
这是一种体验 为这些努力
It was an experience that added a strong,
增添了强烈和意想不到的情感因素
and unexpected, emotional dimension to these efforts.
我亲身体会过治疗怎样改变人们的生活
I know firsthand how life-altering treatment can be.
我强烈地意识到癌症会对
And I’m keenly aware of the emotional havoc
一个家庭造成巨大的情感伤害
that cancer can wreak on a family,
包括我们两个年幼的女儿在内
which in our case included our two young daughters.
因为我们在一次例行乳房X光
Because we’ve found it early,
检查中发现了它
during a routine mammogram,
我们能够把重点放在
we were able to focus primarily on treatment options,
局部肿瘤的治疗选择上
for the localized tumor,
这使我再次意识到早期诊断的重要性
reaffirming to me how important an early diagnosis is.
与其它形式的癌症不同
Unlike other forms of cancer,
乳房X光检查确实是乳腺癌早期检查的一种选择
mammograms do offer an early stage screening option for breast cancer.
尽管如此 并不是每个人都会做乳房X光
Still, not everyone has this done,
有些人到中年可能患乳腺癌时
or they may develop breast cancer
才被推荐做乳房X光检查
before the middle age recommendation for having a mammogram.
因此 即使是对那些有检查选项的癌症
So there’s still a lot of room for improvement,
仍然有很多改进的空间
even for cancers that do have screening options,
当然对于那些没有检查选项的癌症来说 更有益处
and of course considerable benefits for those that don’t.
对于癌症研究人员来说 一个关键的挑战是
A key challenge then for cancer researchers
改进方法 让许多类型的癌症
is to develop methods that make regular screening
可以更容易的进行定期检查
for many types of cancers much more accessible.
想象一下 在你定期体检的时候
Imagine a scenario where during a regular checkup,
你的医生可以做一个简单的
your doctor can take a simple,
非侵入性的尿检 或其它液体活检
non-invasive urine sample or other liquid biopsy,
并在你离开医生办公室之前
and present you with the results
告知你结果
before you even leave the doctor’s office.
这种技术可以显著减少
Such a technology could dramatically reduce the number of people,
通过早期癌症诊断的人数
who slip through the net of an early stage cancer diagnosis.
我的工程师和生物化学研究团队
Now my research team of engineers and biochemists
正致力于这个挑战
is working on exactly this challenge.
我们正在研究
We’re working on ways to
如何通过定期检查
frequently activate an early stage cancer alarm,
在人们还健康的时候
by enabling regular screenings
激活早期癌症警报
that would start when a person is healthy.
这样就可以在癌症刚出现
So that action could be taken to stop cancer
还未扩展的时候
the moment it emerges,
就将它扼杀
and before it can progress beyond its infancy.
在这种情况下银子弹是微小的囊泡
The silver bullet in this case are tiny vesicles.
被称为外泌体的小逃生舱细胞定期脱落
Little escape pods regularly shed by cells called exosomes.
外泌体是重要的生物标志物
Exosomes are important biomarkers
为癌症的发展
that provide an early warning system
提供早期预警系统
for the development of cancer.
因为它们在每一种体液中
And because they are abundantly present
含量很多
in just about every bodily fluid,
包括血液 尿液和唾液
including blood, urine and saliva,
它们对非侵入性的液体活检非常有吸引力
they are extremely attractive for non-invasive liquid biopsies.
只有一个问题
There’s just one problem,
目前 对于这些重要生物标记
an automated system for rapidly sorting these important biomarkers
还没有一个快速分类的自动系统
is not currently available.
我们发明了一种叫Nano-DId的技术
We’ve created a technology that we call Nano-Dld,
它能够精确地做到这一点
that is capable of precisely this.
自动体外隔离
Automated exosome isolation,
来帮助快速的癌症诊断
to aid rapid cancer diagnostics.
外泌体是最新的早期预警武器 如果你可以
Exosomes are the newest early warning weapon, if you will,
在液体活检前出现
to emerge on the liquid biopsy front,
它们非常非常小
and they are really really small.
直径只有30到150纳米
They measure just 30 to 150 nanometers in diameter.
非常微小
This is so tiny,
一个红细胞
that you can fit about a million of them
可以装有一百万个外泌体
into a single red blood cell.
这大概就是高尔夫球
That’s roughly the difference between a golf ball,
和一颗细沙的区别
and a fine-grained piece of sand.
一旦被认为是多余的细胞废物小垃圾箱
Once thought to be little bins for unwanted cellular waste,
就会发现细胞实际上是通过
it has been found that cells actually communicate
产生和吸收
by producing and absorbing these exosomes
这些含有表面受体
which contain surface receptors,
蛋白质和从它们的细胞来源收集的
proteins and other genetic material
遗传物质的外泌体进行交流的
collected from their cell of origin.
当被一个相邻的细胞吸收时
Now, when absorbed by a neighboring cell,
外泌体将其所含物释放到靶细胞中
exosomes release their contents into the receiving cell,
并能在基因表达中设置运动的基本变化
and can set in motion fundamental changes in gene expression.
有一些好处 这就是癌症出现的地方
Some good, and this is where cancer comes in.
有一些坏处 因为它们被关在
Some bad, because they are closed
母体细胞的物质中
in the material of the mother cell.
并包含了一个环境样本
And contain a sample of its environment,
它们提供了细胞的健康及其来源的
they provide a genetic snapshot,
遗传映像
of that self health and its origin.
所有这些特质都能让外泌体成为宝贵的信使
All of these qualities make exosomes invaluable messengers
让医生能在细胞层面上
that potentially allow physicians to eavesdrop on your health
了解你的健康状况
at the cellular level.
然而 为了尽早发现癌症
To catch cancer early however,
你必须经常拦截这些信息
you have to frequently intercept these messages,
来确定你体内的致癌份子
to determine when cancer-causing troublemakers within your body,
何时决定开始发动一场政变
decide to start staging a coup,
这就是常规检查如此重要的原因
which is why regular screening is so critical,
也是我们正在开发技术实现这一可能的原因
and why we’re developing technologies to make this possible.
第一个基于外泌体的诊断学在今年出现在市场上
Now, while the first exosome-based diagnostics emerged on the market,
但它们还未加入主流的医疗保健选择中
just this year, they are not yet part of mainstream health care options.
除了它们最近的出现
In addition to their recent emergence,
另一个限制它们广泛采用的因素是
another factor that’s limiting their widespread adoption
目前还没有自动化的外泌体隔离系统
is that, currently, no automated exosome isolation system exists
来让常规检查在经济上行得通
to make regular screening economically accessible.
目前的外泌体隔离黄金标准
The current gold standard for exosome isolation,
包括超速离心法
includes ultra centrifugation,
需要昂贵的实验室设备
a process requiring expensive laboratory equipment,
一个成熟的的实验室技术
a trained lab tech,
以及处理一个样本
and about 30 hours of time
大概需要30小时
to process a sample.
我们已经想出了一种不同的方法
We’ve come up with a different approach
来实现自动外泌体隔离
for achieving automated exosome isolation,
例如用尿液做样本
from a sample such as urine.
我们使用一种基于芯片的
We use a chip based,
连续流分离技术
continuous flow separation technique
称为确定性横向位移
called deterministic lateral displacement.
在过去的50年里
And we have done with it,
我们已经用它在
what the semiconductor industry has done so successfully
半导体行业取得了成功
for the past 50 years.
我们将这种技术的尺寸从微米级
We shrunk the dimensions of this technology from the micronscale,
缩小到真正的纳米级
the true nanoscale.
它的原理是怎样的呢?
So how does it work?
在一个小容器里
In a nutshell,
由纳米间隙隔开的一组微柱子
a set of tiny pillars, separated by nanoscopic gaps,
被放置在系统里
are arranged in such a way that the system
系统把液体划分为流线
divides the fluid into streamlines.
更大的癌症纳米颗粒
With the larger cancer-related nanoparticles
通过重新定向
being separated through a process of redirection
与小的健康的颗粒分离
from the smaller healthier ones,
这一过程是可逆的
which can in contrast,
围绕柱子做之字形运动
move around the pillars in a zigzag type motion,
朝液体流动方向运动
in the direction of fluid flow.
最终把这两种颗粒完整地分离开来
The net result is a complete separation of these two particle populations.
你可以看看这种分离过程
You can visualize this separation process,
类似于高速公路上
similar to traffic on a highway,
两条分开的道路
that separates into two roads,
一条通往山体底下的低空隧道
with one road going into a low clearance tunnel under a mountain,
一条绕过隧道
the other road going around it.
小汽车可以穿过隧道
Here, smaller cars can go through the tunnel,
然而载有潜在危险物品的大卡车
while larger trucks, carrying potentially hazardous material,
被迫绕道
are forced to take the detour route.
交通被车辆大小和车载物有效地分隔开
Traffic is effectively separated by size and contents,
不阻碍车流
without impeding its flow.
这与我们的工作原理一样
And this is exactly how our system works,
但是我们的规模要小的多
on a much much smaller scale.
我们有个想法 筛选的分离过程
The idea here is that the separation process for screening
可以像处理尿液 血液或唾液样本一样简单
could be as simple as processing a sample of urine, blood, or saliva,
这在未来几年是可能实现的
which is a near-term possibility within the next few years,
最终它可以被用来
Ultimately, it could be used to
分离和检测与特定类型的癌症
isolate and detect target exosomes
有关的目标外泌体
associated with the particular type of cancer,
并在几分钟内感知并反馈它们
sensing and reporting their presence within minutes.
这将使快速诊断几乎无痛
This would make rapid diagnostics virtually painless.
从广义上讲
Broadly speaking,
用自动化的方法纳米精准分离
the ability to separate and enrich biomarkers
和充实生物标志物的能力
with nanoscale precision in an automated way,
可以更好地了解癌症等疾病
opens the door to better understanding diseases such as cancer,
从样本准备到诊断
with applications ranging from sample preparation,
从药物耐药性监测到治疗学的申请
to diagnostics and from drug resistance monitoring to therapeutics.
甚至在我妻子患癌症之前
Even before my wife’s bout with cancer,
我的梦想就是
it was a dream of mine
促进这一过程的自动化
to facilitate the automation of this process,
使常规检查更容易进行
to make regular screening more accessible.
与亨利•福特通过开发
Similar to the way,
装配线 让普通人
Henry Ford made the automobile accessible to the general population,
都能有汽车的方式一样
through development of the assembly line.
自动化是这一可及性的关键
Automation is the key to accessibility.
本着胡佛梦想的精神
And in the spirit of the Hoover dream,
“每个锅里都有一只鸡 每个车库都有一辆车”
“a chicken in every pot, and a car in every garage.”
我们正在开发一种技术
We’re developing a technology
最终可以在每个家庭
that could ultimately place
建立一个早期预警癌症检测系统
an early-warning cancer detection system in every home.
这将使每个男人 女人和孩子们
This would allow every man, woman, and child
在他们还健康的时候
the opportunity to be regularly tested,
有机会定期接受测试
while they’re still healthy,
当癌症第一次出现时 我们可以感知它
catching cancer when it first emerges.
我的希望和梦想是
It is my hope and dream
帮助全世界的人们
to help people around the world,
避免今天的癌症患者
avoid the high costs,
所面临的身体
physical, financial and emotional,
财务和情感上的高成本
faced by today’s cancer patients,
我对他们要面临的困难了如指掌
hardships that I’m well-acquainted with.
我很高兴告诉你们
I’m also happy to report
因为我们较早地发现了我妻子的癌症
that because we caught my wife’s cancer early,
她的治疗很成功
her treatment was successful.
谢天谢地 她现在已经完全痊愈了
And she is now, thankfully, cancer-free.
这是一个
It is an outcome
我想从每个癌症患者身上
that I would like to see for everyone
所看到的结果
with a cancer diagnosis.
我的团队已经完成了对快速
With the work that my team has already done
早期癌症诊断的
on separation of nanoscale biomarkers,
纳米生物标记分离的工作
for a rapid early stage cancer diagnostics.
我对未来10年的发展状况一直持乐观态度
I am optimistic that within the next decade,
这种技术将会出现
this type of technology will be available,
帮助我们保护我们的朋友 家人 以及后代
helping protect our friends, our family and future generations.
即使他们不幸地
Even if they are so unlucky
被诊断出得了癌症
is to be diagnosed with cancer,
早期的警报也能提供一个强大的希望灯塔
that early stage alarm will provide a strong beacon of hope.
谢谢
Thank you.

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视频概述

用来检测早期癌症的新型纳米技术

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

李门牙😄

审核员

审核团SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HfMhU6qjVVM

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