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新发现的地球大小行星,以及日食 – 译学馆
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新发现的地球大小行星,以及日食

New Earth-Size Planet and a Solar Eclipse

我是Caitlin Hofmeister 欢迎来到SciShow Space News
I’m Caitlin Hofmeister. Welcome to SciShow Space News.
让我们从澄清上周的一条关于一项很重要的发现的小道消息开始
Let’s start by clearing up the gossip around an important discovery that was made last
你可能听说了开普勒宇宙望远镜找到了
week. You might have heard that the Kepler space telescope captured evidence of an Earth-like
500光年以外一颗外星类地行星的证据 好吧 开普勒在那里的确发现了一些很重要的东西
exoplanet 500 light-years away. Well, Kepler did find something really important out there,
但它是个地球大小的行星 这是一个非常重要的特征 和依旧令人激动的新闻
but it was an Earth-sized planet, which is an important distinction and still exciting
那个被命名为开普勒186f的行星半径只是地球的1.1倍
news. The planet, named Kepler-186f has a radius just 1.1 times the size of Earth’s,
那很了不起 因为目前为止我们寻找相同大小的行星的时间很艰苦
and that’s a big deal because until now we’ve had a hard time spotting exoplanets
运用一种叫做运输方法的技术 开普勒观测
of this size. Using a technique called the transit method, Kepler watched for the minute
当一颗行星路过我们和那个星之间时的黑暗时间
dimming that happens when a planet passes between us and its star, blocking out a tiny
遮挡了一点点它的光 行星越小 遮挡的光越少
bit of its light. The smaller the planet the less light it blocks and the harder the dimming
越难捕捉到阴暗时间 这是为什么我们观测到的大多数行星至少比地球大出40倍
is to catch. That’s why most of the planets we’ve seen have been at least 40 times larger
但是开普勒186f的发现是条振奋人心的消息
than Earth. But the discovery of Kepler-186f is heartening evidence that Earth-sized exoplanets
证明地球大小行星就在那里 世人将其称呼为类地行星的原因只是因为
are out there. The reason this world has been described as Earth-like is just because being
与地球大小相同意味着它可能有相似的特征
around the same size as Earth means it’s likely to have some similar characteristics.
例如因为它的大小 天文学家认为186f可能有
For example, because of its size, astronomers think 186f might have gravitation similar
与地球相同的重力 他们还认为它很有可能拥有岩石表面
to Earth’s and they also say there’s a very excellent chance that is has a rocky surface
它也可能有水 就像地球 186f处在它恒星所谓的轨道中
and it also may have water. Like Earth, 186f is in the so called habitable zone of its
意味着他正处在距恒星合适的位置中 因此那里可能存在液态水
star meaning it’s just the right distance from its star that water could exist there
但那不意味着我不知道那里有水 更别说是液态水
in a liquid state. But that’s not to say that we know there’s water there, let alone
就像我们刚才讨论的 我们自己的太阳系证明
that it’s liquid. As we’ve talked about before, our own solar system proves that the
轨道区只是存在水的不明确证据 例如金星
habitable zone is just a vague indicator about the possibility of water. Venus, for instance,
在太阳的轨道区中 但它的大气层对液态水来说太热了 而火星
is in the Sun’s habitable zone but its atmosphere is too hot for liquid water. While on Mars,
弱磁场让太阳活动赶走了大气层
a weak magnetic field has allowed solar activity to strip away the atmosphere making it too
使其对液态水来说太冷了 而且开普勒186f在一个很重要的点上与地球不同
cold for liquid water. Besides, Kepler-186f is different from Earth in one very important
——它的恒星不同 开普勒186f是一颗红矮星这意味着它
way – its star is different. Kepler-186 is a red dwarf which means it’s much older
比我们的太阳老很多 一方面 那很有可能意味着生命有更长的时间
than our sun. On one hand, that could be promising because it means life would have had a much
在那个星系发展 但另一方面 它比我们的太阳更小更冷
longer time to develop in its system. But on the other hand, it’s much smaller and
所以开普勒186f可能只能得到
cooler than our sun, so Kepler-186f probably only gets about 30% as much energy from it
我们从太阳那里得到的30%的能量
as we get from the Sun.
而说到太阳 如果你住在东澳大利亚 南非的东岸
And speaking of the Sun, if you’re in eastern Australia, off the east coast of South Africa,
或者由于某种原因住在南极洲 你可能周一能看到环形的日食
or in Antarctica for some reason, you may get to see an annular solar eclipse on Monday.
那意味着有大约半小时月球直接从
That means that for about half an hour the Moon will pass directly between the Earth
地球和太阳中间经过 而月球的直径显然小于太阳
and the Sun, and the Moon’s apparent diameter will be smaller than the Sun’s. So when perfectly
所以对齐时 月亮会挡住太阳除了一条窄外环或叫做环外的其他部分
aligned, the Moon will block out all but a thin outer ring, or annulus, of the Sun. This
从协调世界时5:48开始可以看见这条环
ring will be visible beginning at around 5:48 coordinated universal time. That’d be 3:48pm
那是墨尔本和悉尼的下午3:48 尽管最佳的日食只能在南极洲看到
in Melbourne and Sydney. Although the point of greatest eclipse will only be visible from
所以你最好去那里 下一次日环食直到2016年9月
Antarctica, so you should probably just go there. The next annular eclipse won’t occur
才能看见 所以尽可能赶上这一次 但是记住
until September 2016 so try to catch this one while you can. But remember, looking directly
直视太阳会造成眼部伤害 所以不要试着直接观看日食
at the Sun will cause eye damage, so don’t try and observe the eclipse directly.
而最后 这是你绝对不会感到惊讶的东西
And finally, here’s something you can marvel at safely – this awesome image captured by
这张被哈勃宇宙望远镜捕获到的绝佳图像 运用了大约14小时长的曝光 这张图像
the Hubble Space Telescope. Using an exposure about 14 hours long, the image allows us to
允许我们观看到裸眼无法观看到的十亿倍细节
see features about a billion times fainter than we can see with the unaided eye. And
而且它恰巧也捕获到了一个特别好的引力透镜的例子
it also happens to capture a particularly excellent example of gravitational lensing
让我们直接看到其他时候藏在大东西后面的东西
which lets us see distant things that are otherwise hidden behind massive objects. See,
我们视线中的巨大星系有足够的引力使得它们周围的光线弯曲
massive galaxies in our line of sight have enough gravity to bend light around them,
同时放大了他们后面的东西 就像一个玻璃透镜一样
in the process, magnifying objects behind them much like a glass lens does. In this
在这张图像中一群星系 在中间看起来像个小环一样
image, a cluster of galaxies that looks like a small loop in the middle is magnifying the
放大了一颗类星体的光看起来就像它跌入了黑洞 这张图像就在90亿光年开外
light of a quasar as it’s falling into a black hole. And this image is nine billion
意味着引力透镜允许我们回溯时间
light years away meaning gravitational lensing has allowed us to see back in time, through
通过了宇宙年龄的2/3 甚至我们用作透镜的星系
two-thirds the age of the universe. Even the galaxies we’re using as lenses are really
都很远 NASA说这里你看到的大部分东西都在50亿光年以外
distant. NASA says most of the objects you see here are five billion light-years away.
我希望这满足了你这个星期的好奇心 感谢观看 SciShow Space News
I hope that satisfies your curiosities for the week. Thanks for watching SciShow Space
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查看我们的subbable.com/scishow以了解怎样获得你自己的SciShow DVD
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和我提供给你们的短片的花絮 很少有人知道
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我制作SciShow和SciShow space 所以我会阅读并铭记你们所有的评论 所以请
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你总能被听到 但我可能不会化更多的妆
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再次感谢您的观看 而如果你想跟我们一起变得更聪明
you again for watching, and if you want to continue getting smarter with us and engage
加入有意义的科学讨论 去youtube.com/scishowspace 并订阅
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